Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 888

Search results for: ideas

888 The Emoji Method: An Approach for Identifying and Formulating Problem Ideas

Authors: Thorsten Herrmann, Alexander Laukemann, Hansgeorg Binz, Daniel Roth

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For the analysis of already identified and existing problems, the pertinent literature provides a comprehensive collection of approaches as well as methods in order to analyze the problems in detail. But coming up with problems, which are assets worth pursuing further, is often challenging. However, the importance of well-formulated problem ideas and their influence of subsequent creative processes are incontestable and proven. In order to meet the covered challenges, the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design (IKTD) developed the Emoji Method. This paper presents the Emoji Method, which support designers to generate problem ideas in a structured way. Considering research findings from knowledge management and innovation management, research into emojis and emoticons reveal insights by means of identifying and formulating problem ideas within the early design phase. The simple application and the huge supporting potential of the Emoji Method within the early design phase are only few of the many successful results of the conducted evaluation. The Emoji Method encourages designers to identify problem ideas and describe them in a structured way in order to start focused with generating solution ideas for the revealed problem ideas.

Keywords: emojis, problem ideas, innovation management, knowledge management

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887 Innovative Ideas through Collaboration with Potential Users

Authors: Martin Hewing, Katharina Hölzle

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Organizations increasingly use environmental stimuli and ideas from users within participatory innovation processes in order to tap new sources of knowledge. The research presented in this article focuses on users who shape the distant edges of markets and currently are not using products and services from a domain– so called potential users. Those users at the peripheries are perceived to contribute more novel information, by which they better reflect shifts in needs and behavior than current users in the core market. Their contributions in collaborative and creative problem-solving processes and how they generate ideas for discontinuous innovations are of particular interest. With an experimental design, we compare ideas from potential and current users and analyze the effects of cognitive distance in collaboration and the utilization of explicit and tacit knowledge. We find potential users to generate more original ideas, particularly when they collaborate with someone experienced within the domain. Their ideas are most obviously characterized by an increased level of surprise and unusualness compared to dominant designs, which is rooted in contexts and does not require technological leaps. Collaboration with potential users can therefore result in new ways to leverage technological competences. Furthermore, the cross-fertilization arising from cognitive distance between a potential and a current user is asymmetric due to differences in the nature of their utilized knowledge and personal objectives. This paper discusses implications for innovation research and the management of early innovation processes.

Keywords: user collaboration, co-creation, discontinuous innovation, innovation research

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886 From Creativity to Innovation: Tracking Rejected Ideas

Authors: Lisete Barlach, Guilherme Ary Plonski

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Innovative ideas are not always synonymous with business opportunities. Any idea can be creative and not recognized as a potential project in which money and time will be invested, among other resources. Even in firms that promote and enhance innovation, there are two 'check-points', the first corresponding to the acknowledgment of the idea as creative and the second, its consideration as a business opportunity. Both the recognition of new business opportunities or new ideas involve cognitive and psychological frameworks which provide individuals with a basis for noticing connections between seemingly independent events or trends as if they were 'connecting the dots'. It also involves prototypes-representing the most typical member of a certain category–functioning as 'templates' for this recognition. There is a general assumption that these kinds of evaluation processes develop through experience, explaining why expertise plays a central role in this process: the more experienced a professional, the easier for him (her) to identify new opportunities in business. But, paradoxically, an increase in expertise can lead to the inflexibility of thought due to automation of procedures. And, besides this, other cognitive biases can also be present, because new ideas or business opportunities generally depend on heuristics, rather than on established algorithms. The paper presents a literature review about the Einstellung effect by tracking famous cases of rejected ideas, extracted from historical records. It also presents the results of empirical research, with data upon rejected ideas gathered from two different environments: projects rejected during first semester of 2017 at a large incubator center in Sao Paulo and ideas proposed by employees that were rejected by a well-known business company, at its Brazilian headquarter. There is an implicit assumption that Einstellung effect tends to be more and more present in contemporaneity, due to time pressure upon decision-making and idea generation process. The analysis discusses desirability, viability, and feasibility as elements that affect decision-making.

Keywords: cognitive biases, Einstellung effect, recognition of business opportunities, rejected ideas

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885 Learning Styles Difference in Difficulties of Generating Idea

Authors: M. H. Yee, J. Md Yunos, W. Othman, R. Hassan, T. K. Tee, M. M. Mohamad

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The generation of an idea that goes through several phases is affected by individual factors, interests, preferences and motivation. The purpose of this research was to analyze the difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to individual learning styles. A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples. The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and a set of developed questionnaires were used in this research. The results showed that the most dominant learning style is among technical students is Doer. A total of 319 (85.1%) technical students faced difficulties in solving individual assignments. Most of the problem faced by technical students is the difficulty of generating ideas for solving individual assignments. There was no significant difference in difficulties of generating ideas according to students’ learning styles. Therefore, students need to learn higher order thinking skills enabling students to generate ideas and consequently complete assignments.

Keywords: difference, difficulties, generating idea, learning styles, Kolb Learning Styles Inventory

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884 Using Convergent and Divergent Thinking in Creative Problem Solving in Mathematics

Authors: Keng Keh Lim, Zaleha Ismail, Yudariah Mohammad Yusof

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This paper aims to find out how students using convergent and divergent thinking in creative problem solving to solve mathematical problems creatively. Eight engineering undergraduates in a local university took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. They solved the mathematical problems with the use of creative problem solving skills. Their solutions were collected and analyzed to reveal all the processes of problem solving, namely: problem definition, ideas generation, ideas evaluation, ideas judgment, and solution implementation. The result showed that the students were able to solve the mathematical problem with the use of creative problem solving skills.

Keywords: convergent thinking, divergent thinking, creative problem solving, creativity

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883 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith

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Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

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882 Improving Creative Problem Solving for Teams through a Web-Based Peer Review System

Authors: JungYeon Park, Jooyong Park

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Brainstorming and discussion are widely used around the world as formal techniques of collaborative creative problem solving. This study investigated whether a web-based peer review system would improve collaborative creative problem solving. In order to assess the efficiency of using web-based peer review system before brainstorming and discussion, we conducted a between-group design study for two conditions (a web-based peer review system vs. face-to-face brainstorming only) using two different scenarios. One hundred and twenty participants were divided into teams of four and randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants were given problems for them to solve. The participants in the experimental group first generated ideas independently for 20 minutes and wrote down their ideas. Afterwards, they reviewed the list of ideas of their peers and gave and received feedback for 10 minutes. These activities were performed on-line. The last activity was face-to-face brain-storming and discussion for 30 minutes. In contrast, the control group participated in brainstorming and discussion for 60 minutes. The quantity and the quality of ideas were measured as dependent variables of creative problem solving. Two evaluators rated the quantity and quality of the proposed ideas. Inter-rater agreement rate was good or strong. The results showed that both the average number of unique ideas and the average quality of ideas generated for the experimental condition were significantly higher than those for the control condition in both scenarios. The results of this study support the hypothesis that collaborative creative problem solving is enhanced when individuals write their thoughts individually and review ideas written by peers before face-to-face brainstorming and discussion. The present study provides preliminary evidence that a web-based peer review system can be instrumental in improving creative problem solving for teams. This system also offers an effective means to quantify the contribution of each member in collaborative team activity. We are planning to replicate these results in real-life situations.

Keywords: brainstorming, creative problem solving, peer-review, team efficiency

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881 Uncovering Geometrical Ideas in Weaving: An Ethnomathematical Approaches to School Pedagogy

Authors: Jaya Bishnu Pradhan

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Weaving mat is one of the common activities performed in different community generally in the rural part of Nepal. Mat weavers’ practice mathematical ideas and concepts implicitly in order to perform their job. This study is intended to uncover the mathematical ideas embedded in mat weaving that can help teachers and students for the teaching and learning of school geometry. The ethnographic methodology was used to uncover and describe the beliefs, values, understanding, perceptions, and attitudes of the mat weavers towards mathematical ideas and concepts in the process of mat weaving. A total of 4 mat weavers, two mathematics teachers and 12 students from grade level 6-8, who are used to participate in weaving, were selected for the study. The whole process of the mat weaving was observed in a natural setting. The classroom observation and in-depth interview were taken with the participants with the help of interview guidelines and observation checklist. The data obtained from the field were categorized according to the themes regarding mathematical ideas embedded in the weaving activities, and its possibilities in teaching learning of school geometry. In this study, the mathematical activities in different sectors of their lives, their ways of understanding the natural phenomena, and their ethnomathematical knowledge were analyzed with the notions of pluralism. From the field data, it was found that the mat weaver exhibited sophisticated geometrical ideas in the process of construction of frame of mat. They used x-test method for confirming if the mat is rectangular. Mat also provides a good opportunity to understand the space geometry. A rectangular form of mat may be rolled up when it is not in use and can be converted to a cylindrical form, which usually can be used as larder so as to reserve food grains. From the observation of the situations, this cultural experience enables students to calculate volume, curved surface area and total surface area of the cylinder. The possibilities of incorporation of these cultural activities and its pedagogical use were observed in mathematics classroom. It is argued that it is possible to use mat weaving activities in the teaching and learning of school geometry.

Keywords: ethnography, ethnomathematics, geometry, mat weaving, school pedagogy

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880 The Introduction of the Revolution Einstein’s Relative Energy Equations in Even 2n and Odd 3n Light Dimension Energy States Systems

Authors: Jiradeach Kalayaruan, Tosawat Seetawan

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This paper studied the energy of the nature systems by looking at the overall image throughout the universe. The energy of the nature systems was developed from the Einstein’s energy equation. The researcher used the new ideas called even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, which were developed from Einstein’s relativity energy theory equation. In this study, the major methodology the researchers used was the basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, or Tao in order to get new discoveries. The basic beliefs of each religion - Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao respectively, were great influential ideas on the researchers to use them greatly in the study to form new ideas from philosophy. Since the philosophy of each religion was alive with deep insight of the physical nature relative energy, it connected the basic beliefs to light dimension energy states systems. Unfortunately, Einstein’s original relative energy equation showed only even 2n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). But in advance ideas, the researchers multiplied light dimension energy by Einstein’s original relative energy equation and get new idea of theoritical physics in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). Because from basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions philosophy of each religion, you had to add the media light dimension energy into Einstein’s original relative energy equation. Consequently, the simple meaning picture in deep insight showed that you could touch light dimension energy of Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao by light dimension energy. Since light dimension energy was transferred by Nivara, God, Ether, Atman and Tao, the researchers got the new equation of odd 3n light dimension energy states systems. Moreover, the researchers expected to be able to solve overview problems of all light dimension energy in all nature relative energy, which are developed from Eistein’s relative energy equation.The finding of the study was called 'super nature relative energy' ( in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞)). From the new ideas above you could do the summation of even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems in all of nature light dimension energy states systems. In the future time, the researchers will expect the new idea to be used in insight theoretical physics, which is very useful to the development of quantum mechanics, all engineering, medical profession, transportation, communication, scientific inventions, and technology, etc.

Keywords: 2n light dimension energy states systems effect, Ether, even 2n light dimension energy states systems, nature relativity, Nivara, odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, perturbation points energy, relax point energy states systems, stress perturbation energy states systems effect, super relative energy

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879 Rural Landscape Design-Method Researching Based on the Population Diversification

Authors: Zhou Ziyi, Chen Qiuxiao, Wu Shuang

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Population diversification is very common in villages located in the developed coastal areas of China. Based on the analyses of the characteristics of the traditional rural society and its landscape, also in consideration of the diversified landscape demand due to the population diversification of the village, with the dual ideas of heritage and innovation, the ideas and methods of rural landscape design were explored by taking Duxuao Village in Zhejiang Province of China as an example.

Keywords: rural landscape, population diversification, landscape design, architecture

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878 Analysis of Subordination: The Reproductive Sphere

Authors: Aneesa Shafi

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Reproduction is a complex term in a setting where it is continuously being shaped by epistemological shifts in knowledge. It denotes not just fertility, birth and childcare related practices but also the ideas that shape those practices. These ideas and practices figure into understandings of social and cultural renewal. Patriarchy continues to be a dominating force in the formation of these ideas and practices. Contemporary times are characterized by the resurgence of the whims of patriarchal politics in delineating the margins of women’s health care. This has further emboldened the struggle for reproductive rights on the global stage. The paper examines the subordination of the right to bodily autonomy of women within the ambit of their reproductive rights. Reproductive rights are recognized human rights and women’s rights. Why these rights of women face stiff opposition is established, as is the structure that creates hurdles to their enjoyment. The negotiation of this structure in the everyday life through women’s agency is also established. The reproductive sphere includes not just the process of reproduction but also social reproduction- domestic work, spheres of production and reproduction, population and birth (control) issues.

Keywords: patriarchy, women, reproduction, gender

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877 Architecture and the Scientific World View, a Study of the Influence of the Vienna Circle on the Bauhaus and Neue Sachlichkeit Architecture

Authors: Sean Griffiths

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The paper is a critical discussion of early twentieth century attempts to integrate a ‘scientific world view’ into modern architecture through an engagement with ideas promoted by the Vienna Circle of logical positivists at the Bauhaus in the 1920’s. In addressing some of the limitations inherent in the attempt to do this and speculating on alternative possibilities, the paper also seeks to critically investigate the opportunities and pitfalls of the tendency of architecture to transform philosophical ideas into architectural form.

Keywords: Bauhaus, logical positivism, Neue Sachlichkeit, rationalism, Vienna circle

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876 Using Focused Free-Writing to Help English to Speakers of Other Languages Students Generate Ideas for Critical, Academic Writing

Authors: Ratnawati Mohd Asraf, Sabreena Ahmed

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This paper describes how the method of focused freewriting can be used to help teachers to foster critical thinking through writing. In this study, we used focused freewriting during the pre-writing stage of our writing course to help our English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students to generate ideas and to think critically about the issues they were to write on. In each of the four classes where we applied this technique, we used pictures or videos to stimulate their thinking during the prewriting stage of writing and then asked them to write non-stop for ten minutes about whatever that came to their minds as a result of being presented with these prompts. We then asked them to focus on the themes that emerged from their brief writing. Using observations, in-depth interviews, and an analysis of their brief essays, our study found that focused freewriting helped our students to generate ideas and think critically about the issues they were writing on. We postulate that by using focused freewriting and discussions during the prewriting stage of writing, instructors can help their students to think critically about various issues and facilitate their efforts at organising their arguments for critical, academic essays.

Keywords: academic writing, critical writing, critical thinking, focused free-writing, pre-writing

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875 Design Thinking Activities: A Tool in Overcoming Student Reticence

Authors: Marinel Dayawon

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Student participation in classroom activities is vital in the teaching- learning the process as it develops self-confidence, social relationships and good academic performance of students. It is the teacher’s empathetic manner and creativity to create solutions that encourage teamwork and mutual support while dropping the academic competition within the class that hinder every shy student to walk with courage and talk with conviction because they consider their ideas, weak, as compared to the bright students. This study aimed to explore the different design thinking strategies that will change the mindset of shy students in classroom activities, maximizing their participation in all given tasks while sharing their views through ideation and providing them a wider world through compromise agreement within the members of the group, sensitivity to one’s idea, thus, arriving at a collective decision in the development of a prototype that indicates improvement in their classroom involvement. The study used the qualitative type of research. Triangulation is done through participant observation, focus group discussion and interview, documented through photos and videos. The respondents were the second- year Bachelor of Secondary Education students of the Institute of Teacher Education at Isabela State University- Cauayan City Campus. The result of the study revealed that reticent students when involved in game activities through a slap and tap method, writing their clustered ideas, using sticky notes is excited in sharing ideas as it doesn’t use oral communication. It is also observed after three weeks of using the design thinking strategies; shy students volunteer as secretary, rapporteur or group leader in the team- building activities as it represents the ideas of the heterogeneous group, removing the individual identity of the ideas. Superior students learned to listen to the ideas of the reticent students and involved them in the prototyping process of designing a remediation program for high school students showing reticence in the classroom, making their experience as a benchmark. The strategies made a 360- degrees transformation of the shy students, producing their journal log, in their journey to being open. Thus, faculty members are now adopting the design thinking approach.

Keywords: design thinking activities, qualitative, reticent students, Isabela, Philippines

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874 Reflections of Young Language Learners’ and Teacher Candidates’ for ‘Easy English’ Project

Authors: F. Özlem Saka

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There should be connections between universities and state schools in order to improve the quality of instruction. ELT department of Akdeniz University carries out a project named ‘Easy English’ with a state primary school in Antalya for 2 years. According to the Project requirements, junior students at university teach English to 3rd grade primary school students during the term. They are supposed to teach the topics planned before, preparing different activities for the students. This study reflects the ideas of both students at university and at state school related to the language programme carried out. Their ideas have been collected with a questionnaire consisting of similar structured questions. The result shows that both groups like the programme and evaluate it from their own perspectives. It is believed the efficient results of this project will lead to planning similar programmes for different levels. From this study, curriculum planners and teachers can get ideas to improve language teaching at primary level as both university students, being the teachers in the project and students at state primary school have positive feelings and thoughts about it.

Keywords: foreign language teacher training, games in English teaching, songs in English teaching, teaching English to young learners

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873 Organizational Innovations of the 20th Century as High Tech of the 21st: Evidence from Patent Data

Authors: Valery Yakubovich, Shuping wu

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Organization theorists have long claimed that organizational innovations are nontechnological, in part because they are unpatentable. The claim rests on the assumption that organizational innovations are abstract ideas embodied in persons and contexts rather than in context-free practical tools. However, over the last three decades, organizational knowledge has been increasingly embodied in digital tools which, in principle, can be patented. To provide the first empirical evidence regarding the patentability of organizational innovations, we trained two machine learning algorithms to identify a population of 205,434 patent applications for organizational technologies (OrgTech) and, among them, 141,285 applications that use organizational innovations accumulated over the 20th century. Our event history analysis of the probability of patenting an OrgTech invention shows that ideas from organizational innovations decrease the probability of patent allowance unless they describe a practical tool. We conclude that the present-day digital transformation places organizational innovations in the realm of high tech and turns the debate about organizational technologies into the challenge of designing practical organizational tools that embody big ideas about organizing. We outline an agenda for patent-based research on OrgTech as an emerging phenomenon.

Keywords: organizational innovation, organizational technology, high tech, patents, machine learning

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872 Difference and Haeccities: On the Religious Foundations of Deleuze’s Philosophy of Difference

Authors: Tony See

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Although much has been devoted to Deleuze’s ethics of difference, relatively little has been focused on how his political perspective is informed by his appropriation of religious ideas and theological concepts. The bulk of the scholarly works have examined his political views with the assumption that they have little or nothing to do with his ideas of religions at all. This is in spite of the fact that Deleuze has drawn heavily from religious and theological thinkers such as Duns Scotus, Spinoza and Nietzsche. This dimension can also be traced in Deleuze’s later works, when he collaborated with Felix Guattari in creating an anti-Oedipal philosophy of difference after May 68. This paper seeks to reverse the tendency in contemporary scholarship ignore Deleuze’s ‘religious’ framework in his understanding of the ethical and the political. Towards this aim, we will refer to key texts in Deleuze’s corpus such as Expressionism in Philosophy, A Thousand Plateaus and others.

Keywords: difference, haeccities, identity, religion, theology

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871 Child-Friendly Cities: A Child's Participation in the Local Government to Improve the Status of Rights of the Child

Authors: Asma Khalid

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Children’s drawings are unique as children are. Children manifest their happiness, sadness, future dreams, likes, dislikes through drawings. Research with children aged 8-12 was conducted in 2017 in which it was asked to them ‘what they think about child-friendly cities?’ The focus was to get ideas from children about the cities in which they live and what they want in their cities. The research was conducted in different private schools. Children were accessed through teachers and principals of the schools (the gatekeepers). Consent forms were developed for children which contained information about the research project and their consent was taken on paper. It was ensured that children are not forced to take part in the research and they can leave the research whenever they want, without informing anyone. The qualitative participatory approach was taken where children were given papers and colors to draw their ideas. During the research, it was found that children are interested in showing their emotions and liking through drawing as this medium seems easy and comfortable to them as compared to have the individual face to face interviews or participate in surveys. However, the clarity of the ideas presented in the drawings was discussed at length with children in their school’s premises. Results of the research show that children like to live in clean, green places which are also safe for them. Furthermore, they want to live with their families and want to have recreational activities including parks in their nearby vicinity.

Keywords: qualitative participative research clean, children, drawing, clean, green and protected place, family

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870 Generating Ideas to Improve Road Intersections Using Design with Intent Approach

Authors: Omar Faruqe Hamim, M. Shamsul Hoque, Rich C. McIlroy, Katherine L. Plant, Neville A. Stanton

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Road safety has become an alarming issue, especially in low-middle income developing countries. The traditional approaches lack the out of the box thinking, making engineers confined to applying usual techniques in making roads safer. A socio-technical approach has recently been introduced in improving road intersections through designing with intent. This Design With Intent (DWI) approach aims to give practitioners a more nuanced approach to design and behavior, working with people, people’s understanding, and the complexities of everyday human experience. It's a collection of design patterns —and a design and research approach— for exploring the interactions between design and people’s behavior across products, services, and environments, both digital and physical. Through this approach, it can be seen that how designing with people in behavior change can be applied to social and environmental problems, as well as commercially. It has a total of 101 cards across eight different lenses, such as architectural, error-proofing, interaction, ludic, perceptual, cognitive, Machiavellian, and security lens each having its own distinct characteristics of extracting ideas from the participant of this approach. For this research purpose, a three-legged accident blackspot intersection of a national highway has been chosen to perform the DWI workshop. Participants from varying fields such as civil engineering, naval architecture and marine engineering, urban and regional planning, and sociology actively participated for a day long workshop. While going through the workshops, the participants were given a preamble of the accident scenario and a brief overview of DWI approach. Design cards of varying lenses were distributed among 10 participants and given an hour and a half for brainstorming and generating ideas to improve the safety of the selected intersection. After the brainstorming session, the participants spontaneously went through roundtable discussions regarding the ideas they have come up with. According to consensus of the forum, ideas were accepted or rejected. These generated ideas were then synthesized and agglomerated to bring about an improvement scheme for the intersection selected in our study. To summarize the improvement ideas from DWI approach, color coding of traffic lanes for separate vehicles, channelizing the existing bare intersection, providing advance warning traffic signs, cautionary signs and educational signs motivating road users to drive safe, using textured surfaces at approach with rumble strips before the approach of intersection were the most significant one. The motive of this approach is to bring about new ideas from the road users and not just depend on traditional schemes to increase the efficiency, safety of roads as well and to ensure the compliance of road users since these features are being generated from the minds of users themselves.

Keywords: design with intent, road safety, human experience, behavior

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869 An Analysis of Turn-Taking in ESL Classrooms

Authors: Nursuhaila Ibrahim, Noor Hanim Rahmat, Nurul Ain Hasni, Nursyuhada Zakaria

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Past studies have shown that class discussions in the ESL classrooms not only helped students exchange ideas with their peers. Students also learn turn taking skills throughout the discussion. Through interacting with their peers, learners learn to use turn-taking strategies. They learn to wait for their turn, to listen to the ideas of others, to disagree, or to agree, and to add on more points in the conversation. This quantitative research explores students’ perception on class discussions and how the discussions influence their choice of turn-taking strategies. Findings of this research will have interesting implications towards the use of class discussions in the ESL classrooms.

Keywords: ESL, class discussions, turn-taking skills, peers

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868 A Methodology for Developing New Technology Ideas to Avoid Patent Infringement: F-Term Based Patent Analysis

Authors: Kisik Song, Sungjoo Lee

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With the growing importance of intangible assets recently, the impact of patent infringement on the business of a company has become more evident. Accordingly, it is essential for firms to estimate the risk of patent infringement risk before developing a technology and create new technology ideas to avoid the risk. Recognizing the needs, several attempts have been made to help develop new technology opportunities and most of them have focused on identifying emerging vacant technologies from patent analysis. In these studies, the IPC (International Patent Classification) system or keywords from text-mining application to patent documents was generally used to define vacant technologies. Unlike those studies, this study adopted F-term, which classifies patent documents according to the technical features of the inventions described in them. Since the technical features are analyzed by various perspectives by F-term, F-term provides more detailed information about technologies compared to IPC while more systematic information compared to keywords. Therefore, if well utilized, it can be a useful guideline to create a new technology idea. Recognizing the potential of F-term, this paper aims to suggest a novel approach to developing new technology ideas to avoid patent infringement based on F-term. For this purpose, we firstly collected data about F-term and then applied text-mining to the descriptions about classification criteria and attributes. From the text-mining results, we could identify other technologies with similar technical features of the existing one, the patented technology. Finally, we compare the technologies and extract the technical features that are commonly used in other technologies but have not been used in the existing one. These features are presented in terms of “purpose”, “function”, “structure”, “material”, “method”, “processing and operation procedure” and “control means” and so are useful for creating new technology ideas that help avoid infringing patent rights of other companies. Theoretically, this is one of the earliest attempts to adopt F-term to patent analysis; the proposed methodology can show how to best take advantage of F-term with the wealth of technical information. In practice, the proposed methodology can be valuable in the ideation process for successful product and service innovation without infringing the patents of other companies.

Keywords: patent infringement, new technology ideas, patent analysis, F-term

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867 Creative Culture to Innovative Culture: Transformal Operation

Authors: Peer M. Sathikh

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Creativity and innovation have become an important phenomenon today, whose potential is being realized through the success of Apple, Google/Android, Nike, Virgin, Dyson and other multinationals that are a household name today. Creativity and Innovation are, many times, used interchangeably, causing confusion as to what each represents and are capable of. Attempts to understand creativity and innovation clearly point to the difference, and at the same time, inter-dependency of one on the other. The assumption that having more creative personnel in a team will translate into innovation sooner or later seems generally counterproductive. What helps define the role of creativity and innovation in an organization and how can one build an innovative team? This paper points to the importance of understanding creative culture and innovation culture in order to bring about the desired innovation outcome and proposes a means to transform one to another as ideas move from mere ideas to useful innovation.

Keywords: creativity, innovation, creative culture, innovation culture, transformal operators

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866 Generation of Research Ideas Through a Matrix in the Field of International Comparative Education

Authors: Saleh Alzahrani

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The studies in the field of International Comparative Education in the Arabic world and the middle east are scarcity. However, some International Comparative Education Researchers and post graduates face a challenge concerning of a selection of a distinguished study to improve their national education system. It requires a considerable effort. According to that, the matrix of scientific research in comparative and international education is designed to help specialists, researchers and graduate students in generating a variety of research ideas in a short time in this field. The matrix is built by using content analysis method of comparative education research published in the Arab journals from 1980 to 2017. Then, qualitative input with the in-depth focus analysis tool is utilized according to the root theory. The matrix consists of two axes; vertical (X) and horizontal (Y). The number of fields in the vertical axis are 6 domains, including 105 variables. The horizontal axis is two fields which are pre-university education that incorporate educational stages and contemporary formulations including (23) variables. The second field is the university education in its public universities and contemporary formulas including (15) variables. The researcher can access topics, ideas and research points through the matrix of scientific research in comparative and international education by selecting of any subject on the vertical axis (X) from (1) to (105) and selecting of any subject on the horizontal axis (Y) from (B) to (U). The cell where the axes intersect with the chosen fields can generate an idea or a research point conveniently and easily through the words that have been monitored by the user. These steps can be repeated to generate new ideas and research points. Many graduate researchers have been trained on using of this matrix which gave them more potential to generate an appropriate study serving the national education.

Keywords: content analysis method, comparative education, international education, matrix, root theory

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865 Coherence and Cohesion in IELTS Academic Writing: Helping Students to Improve

Authors: Rory Patrick O'Kane

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More universities and third level institutions now require at least an IELTS Band 6 for entry into courses of study for non-native speakers of English. This presentation focuses on IELTS Academic Writing Tasks 1 and 2 and in particular on the marking criterion of Coherence and Cohesion. A requirement for candidates aiming at Band 6 and above is that they produce answers which show a clear, overall progression of information and ideas and which use cohesive devices effectively. With this in mind, the presenter will examine what exactly is meant by coherence and cohesion and various strategies which can be used to assist students in improving their scores in this area. A number of classroom teaching ideas will be introduced, and participants will have the opportunity to compare and discuss sample answers written by candidates for this examination with a specific focus on coherence and cohesion. Intended audience: Teachers of IELTS Academic Writing.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, IELTS, strategies

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864 New Innovation and Sustainability in a Developing Country: The Case of Cameroon

Authors: Lema Catherine Forje

Abstract:

Innovation activates the system of an economy to a new level. Innovation follows a process. The first step in innovation is the idea-generation process. There is widespread appreciation that people go to great lengths, incur expenses: energy and materials to generate innovative ideas. People get inspired, create, and connect. The inspiration also enables the building of a culture of innovation. Data collection was done through a face-to-face interview with the producer of the first Cameroon beer that came out in the early 1960s, a rice producing company, a cement producing company, and 100 women following a type of dressing commonly worn by Cameroonian women (wrappa). There were a total number of one hundred and three interviewees. The implication of this study is for everybody. It sheds light on the factors that are likely to sustain an innovation. Conclusion emphasises continuous research to keep giving the innovation a face lift.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, ideas, innovation, sustainability

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863 The Humanistic Buddhist Ideas of Venerable Master Hsing Yun: A Case Study of the Eighteen Arhats at the Buddha Museum

Authors: You Lu Shi

Abstract:

The Sixteen Arhats evolved around the third and fourth centuries based on a discourse expounded by the great Arhat Nandimitra, the text of which was translated into Chinese by Xuanzang in the mid-seventh century. The iconographical form emerged soon after, in the ninth century. Subsequently, two more Arhats were introduced, which gave rise to the Eighteen Arhats. Today, the Eighteen Arhats at the Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum is not simply a recollection of the traditionally listed Eighteen Arhats; the roster includes three female Arhats as well. This paper aims to study the ideas that Venerable Master Hsing Yun envisioned when referring to these Eighteen Arhats, and what they represent in the modern world, in the context of Humanistic Buddhism. The differences between the traditional Eighteen Arhats and the new line-up erected at the Buddha Museum will be carefully examined.

Keywords: eighteen Arhats, humanistic Buddhism, Hsing Yun, Buddha Museum

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862 Negation of Insinuation Rule on the Ideas of Imam Khomeini (RA)

Authors: Seyed Jafar Hosseini, Rahim Vakilzadeh, Hassan Movassagi

Abstract:

‘Negation of insinuation’ or ‘negation of dominance’ Rule is considered as one of the most important principles governing the policies and external relations of Islamic and religious countries. The stable and influential role which this rule puts on the behavior and policies of the Islamic religion and foreign policies of Islamic countries shows the importance of the presented topic. Among Islamic scholars, Imam Khomeini (RA) has been paid most attention to this rule on governing issues. In the present study, we are going to investigate the nature and dimensions of Negation of insinuation rule in Imam Khomeini's ideas with an analytical and descriptive method. The obtained results show that Negation of insinuation rule is an effective and main guidance in Imam's thoughts and behavior.

Keywords: negation of insinuation Rule, Imam Khomeini (RA), cultural domination, political domination, economic domination

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861 The Influence of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's Thoughts and Ideas on Post-Modern Architecture

Authors: A. Nabi, S. Panahi

Abstract:

In the recent years, due to the countless changes in the world and various sciences, architecture has faced a new approach and different concepts more than any other times. The direct influence of philosophy on architecture is one of the features of contemporary architecture. Linking these two learnings directly together needs deep reflection. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari are among the people who greatly influenced the thinking of future architects and artists by bringing up new concepts. If we focus on the works of these architects and artists whose works resemble anti-Platonism and who subvert the western philosophy, we can extract concepts which we can see their influence on art and architecture. Using content analysis, this study has come to this conclusion that the ideas of Deleuze and Guattari could influence the contemporary architecture.

Keywords: Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, anti-platonism, post-modern architecture, folding

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860 Leader Personality Traits and Constructive Voice Behavior: Mediating Roles of Empowering Leadership and Leader-Member Exchange

Authors: Umamaheswara Rao Jada, Susmita Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Employee voice behavior has emerged as an important topic in relation to understanding the paybacks within the organizations. Organizations are expecting employees to contribute in the form of suggestions and ideas that not only help an organization to grow but also survive the turbulent times. Leadership in the organization enables and arouses an individual to offer constructive ideas. The significant impact of leadership is undeniable in a context of creating an environment that promotes a free flow of thoughts and ideas in the organization which in turn is significantly influenced by the personality of the leader. Therefore our study aims at examining the underlying factors which influence employee constructive voice behavior in connection with leader’s personality, empowering form of leadership and leader-member exchange in the organization sequentially. A standardized survey questionnaire was used to collect sample of 272 service executives in India. Smart PLS 2.0 was used to test hypothesis and explore the mediation effect. The result shows that the leader personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively related to empowering leadership, whereas neuroticism was unrelated to empowering leadership. Empowering leadership influenced followers’ constructive voice behavior significantly. Furthermore, the relationship was partially mediated by leader member exchange relationship. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings, as well as directions for the future line of research, have been presented in the study.

Keywords: constructive voice, empowering leadership, leader member exchange (LMX), leader personality traits

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859 The Thoughts and Feelings of 60-72 Month Old Children about School and Teacher

Authors: Ayse Ozturk Samur, Gozde Inal Kiziltepe

Abstract:

No matter what level of education it is, starting a school is an exciting process as it includes new experiences. In this process, child steps into a different environment and institution except from the family institution which he was born into and feels secure. That new environment is different from home; it is a social environment which has its own rules, and involves duties and responsibilities that should be fulfilled and new vital experiences. The children who have a positive attitude towards school and like school are more enthusiastic and eager to participate in classroom activities. Moreover, a close relationship with the teacher enables the child to have positive emotions and ideas about the teacher and school and helps children adapt to school easily. In this study, it is aimed to identify children’s perceptions of academic competence, attitudes towards school and ideas about their teachers. In accordance with the aim a mixed method that includes both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods are used. The study is supported with qualitative data after collecting quantitative data. The study group of the research consists of randomly chosen 250 children who are 60-72 month old and attending a preschool institution in a city center located West Anatolian region of Turkey. Quantitative data was collected using Feelings about School scale. The scale consists of 12 items and 4 dimensions; school, teacher, mathematic, and literacy. Reliability and validity study for the scale used in the study was conducted by the researchers with 318 children who were 60-72 months old. For content validity experts’ ideas were asked, for construct validity confirmatory factor analysis was utilized. Reliability of the scale was examined by calculating internal consistency coefficient (Cronbach alpha). At the end of the analyses it was found that FAS is a valid and reliable instrument to identify 60-72 month old children’ perception of their academic competency, attitude toward school and ideas about their teachers. For the qualitative dimension of the study, semi-structured interviews were done with 30 children aged 60-72 month. At the end of the study, it was identified that children’s’ perceptions of their academic competencies and attitudes towards school was medium-level and their ideas about their teachers were high. Based on the semi structured interviews done with children, it is identified that they have a positive perception of school and teacher. That means quantitatively gathered data is supported by qualitatively collected data.

Keywords: feelings, preschool education, school, teacher, thoughts

Procedia PDF Downloads 159