Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: priming

53 The Role of Thermo Priming on Improving Seedling Production Technology (ISPT) in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Seed's

Authors: Behzad Sani, Vida Jodaeian


In order to determine the impact of thermo priming on germination of soybean seeds, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors of studied included different time thermo priming (control, 5 and 10 minutes) through the placing seeds were exposed to oven. The results showed that the effect of thermo priming was significant on germination percentage, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour in P ≤ 0.05. Mean comparison showed that the highest germination percentage (77 %), seedling dry weight (1.39 g) and seedling vigour (107.03) were achieved by 10 minutes thermo priming.

Keywords: thermo priming, seedling, seedling production, seedling growth, soybean

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52 The Audio-Visual and Syntactic Priming Effect on Specific Language Impairment and Gender in Modern Standard Arabic

Authors: Mohammad Al-Dawoody


This study aims at exploring if priming is affected by gender in Modern Standard Arabic and if it is restricted solely to subjects with no specific language impairment (SLI). The sample in this study consists of 74 subjects, between the ages of 11;1 and 11;10, distributed into (a) 2 SLI experimental groups of 38 subjects divided into two gender groups of 18 females and 20 males and (b) 2 non-SLI control groups of 36 subjects divided into two gender groups of 17 females and 19 males. Employing a mixed research design, the researcher conducted this study within the framework of the relevance theory (RT) whose main assumption is that human beings are endowed with a biological ability to magnify the relevance of the incoming stimuli. Each of the four groups was given two different priming stimuli: audio-visual priming (T1) and syntactic priming (T2). The results showed that the priming effect was sheer distinct among SLI participants especially when retrieving typical responses (TR) in T1 and T2 with slight superiority of males over females. The results also revealed that non-SLI females showed stronger original response (OR) priming in T1 than males and that non-SLI males in T2 excelled in OR priming than females. Furthermore, the results suggested that the audio-visual priming has a stronger effect on SLI females than non-SLI females and that syntactic priming seems to have the same effect on the two groups (non-SLI and SLI females). The conclusion is that the priming effect varies according to gender and is not confined merely to non-SLI subjects.

Keywords: specific language impairment, relevance theory, audio-visual priming, syntactic priming, modern standard Arabic

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51 The Priming Effect of Morphology, Phonology, Semantics, and Orthography in Mandarin Chinese: A Prime Paradigm Study

Authors: Bingqing Xu, Wenxing Shuai


This study investigates the priming effects of different Chinese compound words by native Mandarin speakers. There are lots of homonym, polysemy, and synonym in Chinese. However, it is unclear which kind of words have the biggest priming effect. Native Mandarin speakers were tested in a visual-word lexical decision experiment. The stimuli, which are all two-character compound words, consisted of two parts: primes and targets. Five types of relationships were used in all stimuli: morphologically related condition, in which the prime and the target contain the same morpheme; orthographically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same form; phonologically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same phonology; semantically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with similar meanings; totally unrelated condition. The time since participants saw the target to respond was recorded. Analyses on reaction time showed that the average reaction time of morphologically related targets was much shorter than others, suggesting the morphological priming effect is the biggest. However, the reaction time of the phonologically related conditions was the longest, even longer than unrelated conditions. According to scatter plots analyses, 86.7% of participants had priming effects in morphologically related conditions, only 20% of participants had priming effects in phonologically related conditions. These results suggested that morphologically related conditions had the biggest priming effect. The orthographically and semantically related conditions also had priming effects, whereas the phonologically related conditions had few priming effects.

Keywords: priming effect, morphology, phonology, semantics, orthography

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50 An Event-Related Potential Study of Individual Differences in Word Recognition: The Evidence from Morphological Knowledge of Sino-Korean Prefixes

Authors: Jinwon Kang, Seonghak Jo, Joohee Ahn, Junghye Choi, Sun-Young Lee


A morphological priming has proved its importance by showing that segmentation occurs in morphemes when visual words are recognized within a noticeably short time. Regarding Sino-Korean prefixes, this study conducted an experiment on visual masked priming tasks with 57 ms stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) to see how individual differences in the amount of morphological knowledge affect morphological priming. The relationship between the prime and target words were classified as morphological (e.g., 미개척 migaecheog [unexplored] – 미해결 mihaegyel [unresolved]), semantical (e.g., 친환경 chinhwangyeong [eco-friendly]) – 무공해 mugonghae [no-pollution]), and orthographical (e.g., 미용실 miyongsil [beauty shop] – 미확보 mihwagbo [uncertainty]) conditions. We then compared the priming by configuring irrelevant paired stimuli for each condition’s control group. As a result, in the behavioral data, we observed facilitatory priming from a group with high morphological knowledge only under the morphological condition. In contrast, a group with low morphological knowledge showed the priming only under the orthographic condition. In the event-related potential (ERP) data, the group with high morphological knowledge presented the N250 only under the morphological condition. The findings of this study imply that individual differences in morphological knowledge in Korean may have a significant influence on the segmental processing of Korean word recognition.

Keywords: ERP, individual differences, morphological priming, sino-Korean prefixes

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49 Effect of Hormones Priming on Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Seed under Accelerated Aging

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Fariborz Shekari, Seyed Bahman Mousavi


Seed aging during storage is a complex biochemical and physiological processes that can lead to reduce seed germination. This phenomenon associated with increasing of total antioxidant activity during aging. To study the effects of hormones on seed aging, aged wheat seeds (control, 90 and 80% viabilities) were treated with GA3, Salicylic Acid, and paclobutrazol and antioxidant system were investigated as molecular biomarkers for seed vigor. The results showed that, seed priming treatment significantly affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, H2O2, MDA, CAT, APX, and GPX activates. Maximum germination percentage achieve in GA3 priming in control treatment. Germination percentage and normal seedling percentage increased in other GA3 priming treatment compared with other hormones. Also aging increased MDA, H2O2 content. MDA is considered sensitive marker commonly used for assessing membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2result in toxicity to cellular membrane system and damages to plant cells. Amount of H2O2 and MDA declined in GA3 treatment. CAT, GPX and APX activities were reduced by increasing the aging time and at different levels of priming. The highest APX activity was observed in Salicylic Acid control treatment and the highest GPX and CAT activity was obtained in GA3 control treatment. The lowest MDA and H2O2 showed in GA3 control treatment, too. Hormone priming increased Antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased amount of reactive oxygen space and malondialdehyde (MDA) under aging treatment. Also, GA3 priming treatments have a significant effect on germination percentage and number of normal seedling. Generally aging seed, increase ROS and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant enzymes activity of aged seeds increased after hormone priming.

Keywords: hormones priming, wheat, aging seed, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

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48 The Impact of Syntactic Priming on Language Learners’ Perception of Relative Clauses

Authors: Kaine Gulozer


Listening comprehension in a foreign language context has been a constant challenge for Turkish speakers of English. Syntactic priming (SP) of relative clauses might affect the perception of subsequent sentences of identical structure and this could have an impact on the listening comprehension of second or foreign language learners. There has been little attempt to investigate the syntactic priming of English subject relative clauses and object relative clauses in relation to perception for the learners of English in Turkish context. This study investigates SP effects on low-proficiency EFL learners’ production of English relative clauses. Both qualitative and quantitative method along with a pre-test and post-test tasks were adopted, recruiting 62 EFL learners to receive a six-week listening instruction on relative clauses. Testing instruments for language production included the two tasks: (1) the visual- cued presentation and recall and (2) the auditory-cued presentation and recall. Students’ listening comprehension in task 1 and 2 were recorded and transcribed. Fifteen of the participants were also interviewed. The results of the dependent samples t-test analyses revealed that SP had a significant effect on the overall perception of relative clauses.

Keywords: listening comprehension, relative clauses, structural priming, syntactic persistance, syntactic priming

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47 Choral Singers' Preference for Expressive Priming Techniques

Authors: Shawn Michael Condon


Current research on teaching expressivity mainly involves instrumentalists. This study focuses on choral singers’ preference of priming techniques based on four methods for teaching expressivity. 112 choral singers answered the survey about their preferred methods for priming expressivity (vocal modelling, using metaphor, tapping into felt emotions, and drawing on past experiences) in three conditions (active, passive, and instructor). Analysis revealed higher preference for drawing on past experience among more experienced singers. The most preferred technique in the passive and instructor roles was vocal modelling, with metaphors and tapping into felt emotions favoured in an active role. Priming techniques are often used in combination with other methods to enhance singing technique or expressivity and are dependent upon the situation, repertoire, and the preferences of the instructor and performer.

Keywords: emotion, expressivity, performance, singing, teaching

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46 Role of Phenylalanine and Glycine in Plant Signaling to Improve Drought Tolerance Potential in Wheat

Authors: Abida Kausar, Shagufta Parveen


The priming of seeds was carried out by two amino acids (phenylalanine and glycine) to improve the drought tolerance potential of two wheat varieties. As wheat is a staple food of more than half of the population of the world, including Pakistan. However, its productivity is mainly adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The current research plan was to investigate the effect of hydropriming and priming by amino acids on wheat varieties under drought stress (50% field capacity). Therefore morphological, biochemical, physiological, and yield attributes were recorded. It was revealed that drought stress significantly decreased the biochemical, morpho-physiological, and growth attributes of the wheat crop. However, the priming treatments have shown a positive correlation with all the studied attributes. It was concluded that priming might involve plant signaling to produce the drought tolerance metabolites under stress conditions which, as a consequence, enhanced the drought tolerance potential of crops.

Keywords: plant biomass, biochemical parameters, chlorophyll contents, yield

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45 Priming through Open Book MCQ Test: A Tool for Enhancing Learning in Medical Undergraduates

Authors: Bharti Bhandari, Bharati Mehta, Sabyasachi Sircar


Medical education is advancing in India, with its advancement newer innovations are being incorporated in teaching and assessment methodology. Our study focusses on a teaching innovation that is more student-centric than teacher-centric and is the need of the day. The teaching innovation was carried out in 1st year MBBS students of our institute. Students were assigned control and test groups. Priming was done for the students in the test group with an open-book MCQ based test in a particular topic before delivering formal didactic lecture on that topic. The control group was not assigned any such exercise. This was followed by formal didactic lecture on the same topic. Thereafter, both groups were assessed on the same topic. The marks were compiled and analysed using appropriate statistical tests. Students were also given questionnaire to elicit their views on the benefits of “self-priming”. The mean marks scored in theory assessment by the test group were statistically higher than the marks scored by the controls. According to students’ feedback, the ‘self-priming “process was interesting, helped in better orientation during class-room lectures and better understanding of the topic. They want it to be repeated for other topics with moderate difficulty level. Better performance of the students in the primed group validates the combination of student-centric priming model and didactic lecture as superior to the conventional, teacher-centric methods alone. If this system is successfully followed, the present teacher-centric pedagogy should increasingly give way to student-centric activities where the teacher is only a facilitator.

Keywords: medical education, open-book test, pedagogy, priming

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44 The Effects of Future Priming on Resource Concern

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Mindy Engle-Friedman


Climate changes, including rising sea levels and increases in global temperature, can have major effects on resource availability, leading to increased competition for resources and rising food prices. The abstract nature and often delayed consequences of many ecological problems cause people focus on immediate, specific, and personal events and circumstances that compel immediate and emotional involvement. This finding may be explained by the challenges humans have in imagining themselves in the future, a shortcoming that interferes with decision-making involving far-off rewards, and leads people to indicate a lower concern toward the future than to present circumstances. The present study sought to assess whether priming people to think of themselves in the future might strengthen the connection to their future selves and stimulate environmentally-protective behavior. We hypothesize that priming participants to think about themselves in the future would increase concern for the future environment. 45 control participants were primed to think about themselves in the present, and 42 participants were primed to think about themselves in the futures. After priming, the participants rated their concern over access to clean water, food, and energy on a scale of 1 to 10. They also rated their predicted care levels for the environment at age points 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 on a scale of 1(not at all) to 10 (very much). Predicted care levels at age 90 for the experimental group was significantly higher than for the control group. Overall the experimental group rated their concern for resources higher than the control. In comparison to the control group (M=7.60, SD=2.104) participants in the experimental group had greater concern for clean water (M=8.56, SD=1.534). In comparison to the control group (M=7.49, SD=2.041) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about food resources (M=8.41, SD=1.830). In comparison to the control group (M=7.22, SD=1.999) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about energy resources (M=8.07, SD=1.967). This study assessed whether a priming strategy could be used to encourage pro-environmental practices that protect limited resources. Future-self priming helped participants see past short term issues and focus on concern for the future environment.

Keywords: climate change, future, priming, global warming

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43 Carbon Dioxide Removal from Off Gases in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Amit Verma, B. C. Meikap


Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is the most abundant waste produced by human activities. It is estimated to be one of the major contributors of greenhouse effect and also considered as a major air pollutant formed by burning of fossil fuels. The main sources of emissions are flue gas from thermal power plants and process industries. It is also a contributor of acid rain. Its exposure through inhalation can lead to health risks. Therefore, control of CO₂ emission in the environment is very necessary. The main focus of this study is on the removal of carbon dioxide from off gases using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using sodium hydroxide as the scrubbing liquid. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber is an efficient device to remove gaseous pollutants. In submerged condition, venturi scrubber remains submerged in the liquid tank and the liquid enters at the throat section of venturi scrubber due to the pressure difference which includes the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The inlet polluted air stream enters through converging section which moves at very high velocity in the throat section and atomizes the liquid droplets. This leads to absorption of CO₂ from the off gases in scrubbing liquid which resulted in removal of CO₂ gas from the off gases. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of carbon dioxide has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, liquid levels in outer cylinder and CO₂ inlet concentrations to study the carbon dioxide removal efficiency. Experimental results give more than 95% removal efficiency of CO₂ in the self priming venturi scrubber which can meet the environmental emission limit of CO₂ to save the human life.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, scrubbing, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

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42 Seed Priming Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Germination and Emergence

Authors: Pakize Ozlem Kurt Polat, Gizem Metin, Koksal Yagdi


In order to evaluate the effect of the different sources of salt on germination and early growth of five wheat cultivars (Katea, Bezostaja, Koksal-2000, Golia, Pehlivan) an experiment was conducted at the seed laboratory of the Uludag University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Field Crops in Bursa/Turkey. Seeds were applied in five different resources media (KCl % 2, KCl %4, KNO₃ %0,5, KH₂PO₄ %0,5, PEG %10) and distilled water as the control). The seed was fully immersed in priming media at a temperature of 24ᵒC for durations of 12 and 24hours. Six different agronomic characters (seed germination, stem length, stem weight, radicle length, fresh weight, dry weight) were measured in 7th days and 14th days. Maximum seed germination percentage of seven days are Pehlivan was observed when the seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ and Katea by distilled water as a control. The most stem length and stem weight were obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 with Katea and Bezostja immersed in priming media at 12h intervals beginning 7d after planting. Seeds were applied KH₂PO₄ %0,5 media produced maximum radicle length by Koksal and dry weight by Katea. The freshest weight obtains in Katea by KNO₃ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h. The most germination percent, dry weight, stem length of fourteen days was observed in Katea which subjected to KH₂PO₄ %0,5 solution. The most radicle length was observed Katea and Koksal in media of KH₂PO₄ %0,5. The most stem length was obtained for seeds were applied by KH₂PO₄ %0,5 and KNO₃ with Katea and Bezostaja. When the applied chemicals and all days examined KH₂PO₄ %0,5 treatment in fourteen days and immersed for the duration of 24 hours had better effects than other medias, seven days treatments and 12hours immersed. As a result of this research, the best response of media for the wheat germination can be said that the KH₂PO₄ %0,5 immersed in priming media at 24h intervals beginning 14 days after planting.

Keywords: germination, priming, seedling growth, wheat

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41 The Facilitatory Effect of Phonological Priming on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic as a Function of Lexicality and Overlap Positions

Authors: Ali Al Moussaoui


An experiment was designed to assess the performance of 24 Lebanese adults (mean age 29:5 years) in a lexical decision making (LDM) task to find out how the facilitatory effect of phonological priming (PP) affects the speed of visual word recognition in Arabic as lexicality (wordhood) and phonological overlap positions (POP) vary. The experiment falls in line with previous research on phonological priming in the light of the cohort theory and in relation to visual word recognition. The experiment also departs from the research on the Arabic language in which the importance of the consonantal root as a distinct morphological unit is confirmed. Based on previous research, it is hypothesized that (1) PP has a facilitating effect in LDM with words but not with nonwords and (2) final phonological overlap between the prime and the target is more facilitatory than initial overlap. An LDM task was programmed on PsychoPy application. Participants had to decide if a target (e.g., bayn ‘between’) preceded by a prime (e.g., bayt ‘house’) is a word or not. There were 4 conditions: no PP (NP), nonwords priming nonwords (NN), nonwords priming words (NW), and words priming words (WW). The conditions were simultaneously controlled for word length, wordhood, and POP. The interstimulus interval was 700 ms. Within the PP conditions, POP was controlled for in which there were 3 overlap positions between the primes and the targets: initial (e.g., asad ‘lion’ and asaf ‘sorrow’), final (e.g., kattab ‘cause to write’ 2sg-mas and rattab ‘organize’ 2sg-mas), or two-segmented (e.g., namle ‘ant’ and naħle ‘bee’). There were 96 trials, 24 in each condition, using a within-subject design. The results show that concerning (1), the highest average reaction time (RT) is that in NN, followed firstly by NW and finally by WW. There is statistical significance only between the pairs NN-NW and NN-WW. Regarding (2), the shortest RT is that in the two-segmented overlap condition, followed by the final POP in the first place and the initial POP in the last place. The difference between the two-segmented and the initial overlap is significant, while other pairwise comparisons are not. Based on these results, PP emerges as a facilitatory phenomenon that is highly sensitive to lexicality and POP. While PP can have a facilitating effect under lexicality, it shows no facilitation in its absence, which intersects with several previous findings. Participants are found to be more sensitive to the final phonological overlap than the initial overlap, which also coincides with a body of earlier literature. The results contradict the cohort theory’s stress on the onset overlap position and, instead, give more weight to final overlap, and even heavier weight to the two-segmented one. In conclusion, this study confirms the facilitating effect of PP with words but not when stimuli (at least the primes and at most both the primes and targets) are nonwords. It also shows that the two-segmented priming is the most influential in LDM in Arabic.

Keywords: lexicality, phonological overlap positions, phonological priming, visual word recognition

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40 The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Joel Hernandez, Mindy Engle-Friedman


This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.

Keywords: environmental psychology, future priming, climate change, global warming

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39 The Efficacy of Salicylic Acid and Puccinia Triticina Isolates Priming Wheat Plant to Diuraphis Noxia Damage

Authors: Huzaifa Bilal


Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov) is considered an economically important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pest worldwide and in South Africa. The RWA damages wheat plants and reduces annual yields by more than 10%. Even though pest management by pesticides and resistance breeding is an attractive option, chemicals can cause harm to the environment. Furthermore, the evolution of resistance-breaking aphid biotypes has out-paced the release of resistant cultivars. An alternative strategy to reduce the impact of aphid damage on plants, such as priming, which sensitizes plants to respond effectively to subsequent attacks, is necessary. In this study, wheat plants at the seedling and flag leaf stages were primed by salicylic acid and isolate representative of two races of the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Pt), before RWA (South African RWA biotypes 1 and 4) infestation. Randomized complete block design experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to study plant-pest interaction in primed and non-primed plants. Analysis of induced aphid damage indicated salicylic acid differentially primed wheat cultivars for increased resistance to the RWASA biotypes. At the seedling stage, all cultivars were primed for enhanced resistance to RWASA1, while at the flag leaf stage, only PAN 3111, SST 356 and Makalote were primed for increased resistance. The Puccinia triticina efficaciously primed wheat cultivars for excellent resistance to RWASA1 at the seedling and flag leaf stages. However, Pt failed to enhance the four Lesotho cultivars' resistance to RWASA4 at the seedling stage and PAN 3118 at the flag leaf stage. The induced responses at the seedling and flag leaf stages were positively correlated in all the treatments. Primed plants induced high activity of antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. High antioxidant activity indicates activation of resistant responses in primed plants (primed by salicylic acid and Puccina triticina). Isolates of avirulent Pt races can be a worthy priming agent for improved resistance to RWA infestation. Further confirmation of the priming effects needs to be evaluated at the field trials to investigate its application efficiency.

Keywords: Russian wheat aphis, salicylic acid, puccina triticina, priming

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38 Removal of Gaseous Pollutant from the Flue Gas in a Submerged Self-Priming Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, B. C. Meikap


Hydrogen chloride is the most common acid gas emitted by the industries. HCl gas is listed as Title III hazardous air pollutant. It causes severe threat to the human health as well as environment. So, removal of HCl from flue gases is very imperative. In the present study, submerged self-priming venturi scrubber is chosen to remove the HCl gas with water as a scrubbing liquid. Venturi scrubber is the most popular device for the removal of gaseous pollutants. Main mechanism behind the venturi scrubber is the polluted gas stream enters at converging section which accelerated to maximum velocity at throat section. A very interesting thing in case of submerged condition, venturi scrubber is submerged inside the liquid tank and liquid is entered at throat section because of suction created due to large pressure drop generated at the throat section. Maximized throat gas velocity atomizes the entered liquid into number of tiny droplets. Gaseous pollutant HCl is absorbed from gas to liquid droplets inside the venturi scrubber due to interaction between the gas and water. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocity, water level and inlet concentration of HCl to enhance the HCl removal efficiency. The effect of throat gas velocity, inlet concentration of HCl, and water level on removal efficiency of venturi scrubber has been evaluated. Present system yielded very high removal efficiency for the scrubbing of HCl gas which is more than 90%. It is also concluded that the removal efficiency of HCl increases with increasing throat gas velocity, inlet HCl concentration, and water level height.

Keywords: air pollution, HCl scrubbing, mass transfer, self-priming venturi scrubber

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37 Dust Particle Removal from Air in a Self-Priming Submerged Venturi Scrubber

Authors: Manisha Bal, Remya Chinnamma Jose, B.C. Meikap


Dust particles suspended in air are a major source of air pollution. A self-priming submerged venturi scrubber proven very effective in cases of handling nuclear power plant accidents is an efficient device to remove dust particles from the air and thus aids in pollution control. Venturi scrubbers are compact, have a simple mode of operation, no moving parts, easy to install and maintain when compared to other pollution control devices and can handle high temperatures and corrosive and flammable gases and dust particles. In the present paper, fly ash particles recognized as a high air pollutant substance emitted mostly from thermal power plants is considered as the dust particle. Its exposure through skin contact, inhalation and indigestion can lead to health risks and in severe cases can even root to lung cancer. The main focus of this study is on the removal of fly ash particles from polluted air using a self-priming venturi scrubber in submerged conditions using water as the scrubbing liquid. The venturi scrubber comprising of three sections: converging section, throat and diverging section is submerged inside a water tank. The liquid enters the throat due to the pressure difference composed of the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid and static pressure of the gas. The high velocity dust particles atomize the liquid droplets at the throat and this interaction leads to its absorption into water and thus removal of fly ash from the air. Detailed investigation on the scrubbing of fly ash has been done in this literature. Experiments were conducted at different throat gas velocities, water levels and fly ash inlet concentrations to study the fly ash removal efficiency. From the experimental results, the highest fly ash removal efficiency of 99.78% is achieved at the throat gas velocity of 58 m/s, water level of height 0.77m with fly ash inlet concentration of 0.3 x10⁻³ kg/Nm³ in the submerged condition. The effect of throat gas velocity, water level and fly ash inlet concentration on the removal efficiency has also been evaluated. Furthermore, experimental results of removal efficiency are validated with the developed empirical model.

Keywords: dust particles, fly ash, pollution control, self-priming venturi scrubber

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36 Language Switching Errors of Bilinguals: Role of Top down and Bottom up Process

Authors: Numra Qayyum, Samina Sarwat, Noor ul Ain


Bilingual speakers generally can speak both languages with the same competency without mixing them intentionally and making mistakes, but sometimes errors occur in language selection. This quantitative study particularly deals with the language errors made by Urdu-English bilinguals. In this research, researchers have given special attention to the part played by bottom-up priming and top-down cognitive control in these errors. Unstable Urdu-English bilingual participants termed pictures and were prompted to shift from one language to another under the pressure of time. Different situations were given to manipulate the participants. The long and short runs trials of the same language were also given before switching to another language. The study is concluded with the findings that bilinguals made more errors when switching to the first language from their second language, and these errors are large in number, especially when a speaker is switching from L2 (second language) to L1 (first language) after a long run. When the switching is reversed, i.e., from L2 to LI, it had no effect at all. These results gave the clear responsibility of all these errors to top-down cognitive control.

Keywords: bottom up priming, language error, language switching, top down cognitive control

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35 An Experimental Exploration of the Interaction between Consumer Ethics Perceptions, Legality Evaluations, and Mind-Sets

Authors: Daphne Sobolev, Niklas Voege


During the last three decades, consumer ethics perceptions have attracted the attention of a large number of researchers. Nevertheless, little is known about the effect of the cognitive and situational contexts of the decision on ethics judgments. In this paper, the interrelationship between consumers’ ethics perceptions, legality evaluations and mind-sets are explored. Legality evaluations represent the cognitive context of the ethical judgments, whereas mind-sets represent their situational context. Drawing on moral development theories and priming theories, it is hypothesized that both factors are significantly related to consumer ethics perceptions. To test this hypothesis, 289 participants were allocated to three mind-set experimental conditions and a control group. Participants in the mind-set conditions were primed for aggressiveness, politeness or awareness to the negative legal consequences of breaking the law. Mind-sets were induced using a sentence-unscrambling task, in which target words were included. Ethics and legality judgments were assessed using consumer ethics and internet ethics questionnaires. All participants were asked to rate the ethicality and legality of consumer actions described in the questionnaires. The results showed that consumer ethics and legality perceptions were significantly correlated. Moreover, including legality evaluations as a variable in ethics judgment models increased the predictive power of the models. In addition, inducing aggressiveness in participants reduced their sensitivity to ethical issues; priming awareness to negative legal consequences increased their sensitivity to ethics when uncertainty about the legality of the judged scenario was high. Furthermore, the correlation between ethics and legality judgments was significant overall mind-set conditions. However, the results revealed conflicts between ethics and legality perceptions: consumers considered 10%-14% of the presented behaviors unethical and legal, or ethical and illegal. In 10-23% of the questions, participants indicated that they did not know whether the described action was legal or not. In addition, an asymmetry between the effects of aggressiveness and politeness priming was found. The results show that the legality judgments and mind-sets interact with consumer ethics perceptions. Thus, they portray consumer ethical judgments as dynamical processes which are inseparable from other cognitive processes and situational variables. They highlight that legal and ethical education, as well as adequate situational cues at the service place, could have a positive effect on consumer ethics perceptions. Theoretical contribution is discussed.

Keywords: consumer ethics, legality judgments, mind-set, priming, aggressiveness

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34 Optimization of Effecting Parameters for the Removal of H₂S Gas in Self Priming Venturi Scrubber Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Manisha Bal, B. C. Meikap


Highly toxic and corrosive gas H₂S is recognized as one of the hazardous air pollutants which has significant effect on the human health. Abatement of H₂S gas from the air is very necessary. H₂S gas is mainly released from the industries like paper and leather industry as well as during the production of crude oil, during wastewater treatment, etc. But the emission of H₂S gas in high concentration may cause immediate death while at lower concentrations can cause various respiratory problems. In the present study, self priming venturi scrubber is used to remove the H₂S gas from the air. Response surface methodology with central composite design has been chosen to observe the effect of process parameters on the removal efficiency of H₂S. Experiments were conducted by varying the throat gas velocity, liquid level in outer cylinder, and inlet H₂S concentration. ANOVA test confirmed the significant effect of parameters on the removal efficiency. A quadratic equation has been obtained which predicts the removal efficiency very well. The suitability of the developed model has been judged by the higher R² square value which obtained from the regression analysis. From the investigation, it was found that the throat gas velocity has most significant effect and inlet concentration of H₂S has less effect on H₂S removal efficiency.

Keywords: desulfurization, pollution control, response surface methodology, venturi scrubber

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33 Influence of Salicylic Acid Seed Priming on Catalase and Peroxidase in Zea mays L. Plant (Var- Sc.704) under Water Stress Condition and Different Irrigation Regimes

Authors: Arash Azarpanah, Masoud Zadehbagheri, Shorangiz Javanmardi


Abiotic stresses are the principle threat to plant growth and crop productivity all over the world. In order to improve the germination of corn seeds in drought stress conditions, effect of seed priming by various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) (0.8 and 0.2 mM) on activities of catalase and peroxidase in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) was evaluated at Agriculture Research Center located in Arsenjan city in Iran, during summer 2013. A farm research was done in RCBD as factorial with three replications. We considered four irrigation was carried out once the cumulative evaporation from Pan Class A come to 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm. Results illustrated that drought stress significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase and also treatment with salicylic acid significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase. In addition, treatment with salicylic acid enhances drought tolerance in Zea mays L. plant (Var-Sc.704) with increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: catalase, corn, salicylic acid, water deficits stress, cumulative evaporation, Pan Class A

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32 Influence of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Some Physiological Parameters in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Authors: Farid Shekari


Salicylic Acid (SA) is a plant hormone that improves some physiological responses of plants under stress conditions. Seeds of two desi type chickpea cultivars, viz., Kaka and Pirooz, primed with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μM of SA and a group of seeds without any treating (as control) were evaluated under rain fed conditions. Seed priming in both cultivars led to higher efficiency compare to non-primed treatments. In general, seed priming with 500 and 750 μM of SA had appropriate effects; however the cultivars responses were different in this regard. Kaka showed better performance both in primed and non-primed seed than Pirooz. Results of this study revealed that not only yield quantity but also yield quality, as seed protein amounts, could positively affect by SA treatments. It seems that SA by enhancing of soluble sugars and proline amounts enhanced total water potential (ψ) and RWC. The increment in RWC led to rose of chlorophyll content of plants chlorophyll stability. In general, SA increased water use efficiency, both in biologic and seed yield base, and drought tolerance of chickpea plants. HI was a little decreased in SA treatments and it shows that SA more effective in biomass production than seed yield.

Keywords: chlorophyll, harvest index, proline, seed protein, soluble sugar, water use efficiency, yield component

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31 The Structural Pattern: An Event-Related Potential Study on Tang Poetry

Authors: ShuHui Yang, ChingChing Lu


Measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) has been fundamental to our understanding of how people process language. One specific ERP component, a P600, has been hypothesized to be associated with syntactic reanalysis processes. We, however, propose that the P600 is not restricted to reanalysis processes, but is the index of the structural pattern processing. To investigate the structural pattern processing, we utilized the effects of stimulus degradation in structural priming. To put it another way, there was no P600 effect if the structure of the prime was the same with the structure of the target. Otherwise, there would be a P600 effect if the structure were different between the prime and the target. In the experiment, twenty-two participants were presented with four sentences of Tang poetry. All of the first two sentences, being prime, were conducted with SVO+VP. The last two sentences, being the target, were divided into three types. Type one of the targets was SVO+VP. Type two of the targets was SVO+VPVP. Type three of the targets was VP+VP. The result showed that both of the targets, SVO+VPVP and VP+VP, elicited positive-going brainwave, a P600 effect, at 600~900ms time window. Furthermore, the P600 component was lager for the target’ VP+VP’ than the target’ SVO+VPVP’. That meant the more dissimilar the structure was, the lager the P600 effect we got. These results indicate that P600 was the index of the structure processing, and it would affect the P600 effect intensity with the degrees of structural heterogeneity.

Keywords: ERPs, P600, structural pattern, structural priming, Tang poetry

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30 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Renu Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar


In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: chickpea, combinatorial stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, priming, RT-PCR

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29 Cultural Disposition and Implicit Dehumanization of Sexualized Females by Women

Authors: Hong Im Shin


Previous research demonstrated that self-objectification (women view themselves as objects for use) is related to system-justification. Three studies investigated whether cultural disposition as its system-justifying function could have an impact on self-objectification and dehumanization of sexualized women and men. Study 1 (N = 91) employed a survey methodology to examine the relationship between cultural disposition (collectivism vs. individualism), trait of system-justification, and self-objectification. The results showed that the higher tendency of collectivism was related to stronger system-justification and self-objectification. Study 2 (N = 60 females) introduced a single category implicit association task (SC-IAT) to assess the extent to which sexually objectified women were associated with uniquely human attributes (i.e., culture) compared to animal-related attributes (i.e., nature). According to results, female participants associated sexually objectified female targets less with human attributes compared to animal-related attributes. Study 3 (N = 46) investigated whether priming to individualism or collectivism was associated to system justification and sexual objectification of men and women with the use of a recognition task involving upright and inverted pictures of sexualized women and men. The results indicated that the female participants primed to individualism showed an inversion effect for sexualized women and men (person-like recognition), whereas there was no inversion effect for sexualized women in the priming condition of collectivism (object-like recognition). This implies that cultural disposition plays a mediating role for rationalizing the gender status, implicit dehumanization of sexualized females and self-objectification. Future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: cultural disposition, dehumanization, implicit test, self-objectification

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28 Learned Helplessness and Agricultural Investment among Poor Farmers: An Experimental Study in Rural Uganda

Authors: Floris Burgers, Arjan Verschoor


Poor farmers in developing countries typically do not have the resources or access to institutions to protect themselves against all kinds of income shocks, which makes their farm income highly sensitive to weather and crop price fluctuations, and various other intervening forces. Consequently, the relationship between farming effort and farming outcomes can be noisy, potentially resulting in a situation in which farmers perceive little personal control over the outcomes of their farming efforts. This perceived lack of control can result in learned helplessness in some farmers, who would then be less motivated to invest in their farm. This paper presents the results of a household survey and controlled field experiment conducted in ten villages in a farming area in eastern Uganda with a view to examining the link between learned helplessness and agricultural investment. The results show that (I) farmers with a more pessimistic attributional style for negative life events invest less in their farm, (II) an experience of uncontrollability over income in a priming task increases investment in the farm in a subsequent task if losses in the priming task are small, and decreases investment in the subsequent task if losses are moderate or big, and (III) the relationship between the number of income shocks experienced in the past two years and investment in the farm is more negative among farmers with a more pessimistic attributional style. These results are in line with the reformulated learned helplessness theory underlying this research, which leads this paper to conclude that learned helplessness can cause agricultural underinvestment in a developing country context, potentially contributing to a poverty trap.

Keywords: agricultural investment, attributional style, farmers, learned helplessness, poverty, income shocks

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27 Defense Priming from Egg to Larvae in Litopenaeus vannamei with Non-Pathogenic and Pathogenic Bacteria Strains

Authors: Angelica Alvarez-Lee, Sergio Martinez-Diaz, Jose Luis Garcia-Corona, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza


World aquaculture is always looking for improvements to achieve productions with high yields avoiding the infection by pathogenic agents. The best way to achieve this is to know the biological model to create alternative treatments that could be applied in the hatcheries, which results in greater economic gains and improvements in human public health. In the last decade, immunomodulation in shrimp culture with probiotics, organic acids and different carbon sources has gained great interest, mainly in larval and juvenile stages. Immune priming is associated with a strong protective effect against a later pathogen challenge. This work provides another perspective about immunostimulation from spawning until hatching. The stimulation happens during development embryos and generates resistance to infection by pathogenic bacteria. Massive spawnings of white shrimp L. vannamei were obtained and placed in experimental units with 700 mL of sterile seawater at 30 °C, salinity of 28 ppm and continuous aeration at a density of 8 embryos.mL⁻¹. The immunostimulating effect of three death strains of non-pathogenic bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and a pathogenic strain for white shrimp (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) was evaluated. The strains killed by heat were adjusted to O.D. 0.5, at A 600 nm, and directly added to the seawater of each unit at a ratio of 1/100 (v/v). A control group of embryos without inoculum of dead bacteria was kept under the same physicochemical conditions as the rest of the treatments throughout the experiment and used as reference. The duration of the stimulus was 12 hours, then, the larvae that hatched were collected, counted and transferred to a new experimental unit (same physicochemical conditions but at a salinity of 28 ppm) to carry out a challenge of infection against the pathogen V. parahaemolyticus, adding directly to seawater an amount 1/100 (v/v) of the live strain adjusted to an OD 0.5; at A 600 nm. Subsequently, 24 hrs after infection, nauplii survival was evaluated. The results of this work shows that, after 24 hrs, the hatching rates of immunostimulated shrimp embryos with the dead strains of B. subtillis and V. parahaemolyticus are significantly higher compared to the rest of the treatments and the control. Furthermore, survival of L. vanammei after a challenge of infection of 24 hrs against the live strain of V. parahaemolyticus is greater (P < 0.05) in the larvae immunostimulated during the embryonic development with the dead strains B. subtillis and V. parahaemolyticus, followed by those that were treated with E. coli. In summary superficial antigens can stimulate the development cells to promote hatching and can have normal development in agreeing with the optical observations, plus exist a differential response effect between each treatment post-infection. This research provides evidence of the immunostimulant effect of death pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains in the rate of hatching and oversight of shrimp L. vannamei during embryonic and larval development. This research continues evaluating the effect of these death strains on the expression of genes related to the defense priming in larvae of L. vannamei that come from massive spawning in hatcheries before and after the infection challenge against V. parahaemolyticus.

Keywords: immunostimulation, L. vannamei, hatching, survival

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26 Deployment of Armed Soldiers in European Cities as a Source of Insecurity among Czech Population

Authors: Blanka Havlickova


In the last ten years, there are growing numbers of troops with machine guns serving on streets of European cities. We can see them around government buildings, major transport hubs, synagogues, galleries and main tourist landmarks. As the main purpose of armed soldier’s presence in European cities authorities declare the prevention of terrorist attacks and psychological support for tourists and domestic population. The main objective of the following study is to find out whether the deployment of armed soldiers in European cities has a calming and reassuring effect on Czech citizens (if the presence at armed soldiers make the Czech population feel more secure) or rather becomes a stress factor (the presence of soldiers standing guard in full military fatigues recalls serious criminality and terrorist attacks which are reflected in the fears and insecurity of Czech population). The initial hypothesis of this study is connected with the priming theory, the idea that when we are exposed to an image (armed soldier), it makes us unconsciously focus on a topic connected with this image (terrorism). This paper is based on a quantitative public survey, which was carried out in the form of electronic questioning among the citizens of the Czech Republic. Respondents answered 14 questions about two European cities – London and Paris. Besides general questions investigating the respondents' awareness of these cities, some of the questions focused on the fear that the respondents had when picturing themselves leaving next Monday for the given city (London or Paris). The questions asking about respondent´s travel fears and concerns were accompanied by different photos. When answering the question about fear some respondents have been presented with a photo of Westminster Palace and the Eiffel with ordinary citizens while other respondents have been presented with a picture of the Westminster Palace, the and Eiffel's tower not only with ordinary citizens, but also with one soldier holding a machine gun. The main goal of this paper is to analyse and compare data about concerns for these two groups of respondents (presented with different pictures) and find out if and how an armed soldier with a machine gun in front of the Westminster Palace or the Eiffel Tower affects the public's concerns about visiting the site. In other words, the aim of this paper is to confirm or rebut the hypothesis that the look at a soldier with a machine gun in front of the Eiffel Tower or the Westminster Palace automatically triggers the association with a terrorist attack leading to an increase in fear and insecurity among Czech population.

Keywords: terrorism, security measures, priming, risk perception

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25 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee


This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy

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24 N400 Investigation of Semantic Priming Effect to Symbolic Pictures in Text

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout


The purpose of this study was to investigate if incorporating meaningful pictures of gestures and facial expressions in short sentences of text could supplement the text with enough semantic information to produce and N400 effect when probe words incongruent to the picture were subsequently presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a 14-channel commercial grade EEG headset while subjects performed congruent/incongruent reaction time discrimination tasks. Since pictures of meaningful gestures have been shown to be semantically processed in the brain in a similar manner as words are, it is believed that pictures will add supplementary information to text just as the inclusion of their equivalent synonymous word would. The hypothesis is that when subjects read the text/picture mixed sentences, they will process the images and words just like in face-to-face communication and therefore probe words incongruent to the image will produce an N400.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, N400, semantics, congruency, facilitation, Emotiv

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