Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: blockchain

120 Utilize 5G Mobile Connection as a Node in the Proof of Authority Blockchain Used for Microtransaction

Authors: Frode van der Laak


The paper contributes to the feasibility of using a 5G mobile connection as a node for a Proof of Authority (PoA) blockchain, which is used for microtransactions at the same time. It uses the phone number identity of the users that are linked to the crypto wallet address. It also proposed a consensus protocol based on Proof-of-Authority (PoA) blockchain; PoA is a permission blockchain where consensus is achieved through a set of designated authority rather than through mining, as is the case with a Proof of Work (PoW) blockchain. This report will first explain the concept of a PoA blockchain and how it works. It will then discuss the potential benefits and challenges of using a 5G mobile connection as a node in such a blockchain, and finally, the main open problem statement and proposed solutions with the requirements.

Keywords: 5G, mobile, connection, node, PoA, blockchain, microtransaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
119 Firm's Growth Leading Dimensions of Blockchain Empowered Information Management System: An Empirical Study

Authors: Umang Varshney, Amit Karamchandani, Rohit Kapoor


Practitioners and researchers have realized that Blockchain is not limited to currency. Blockchain as a distributed ledger can ensure a transparent and traceable supply chain. Due to Blockchain-enabled IoTs, a firm’s information management system can now take inputs from other supply chain partners in real-time. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of dimensions responsible for blockchain implemented firm’s growth and highlight how sector (manufacturing or service), state's regulatory environment, and choice of blockchain network affect the blockchain's usefulness. This post-adoption study seeks to validate the findings of pre-adoption studies done on the blockchain. Data will be collected through a survey of managers working in blockchain implemented firms and analyzed through PLS-SEM.

Keywords: blockchain, information management system, PLS-SEM, firm's growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
118 Energy Unchained: An Analysis of Affordances of the Blockchain Technology in the Energy Sector

Authors: Jonas Kahlert


Blockchain technology has gained importance and momentum in the energy sector. Yet, there is no structured analysis of how specific features of the blockchain technology can create value in the energy sector. We employ a qualitative analysis on insights gained from the current literature and expert interviews. Along the four most prevalent use cases of blockchain technology in the energy sector, we discuss the potential of blockchain technology to support a transition to a more affordable, sustainable and reliable energy system. We show that in its current state, blockchain and adjacent technologies are not a necessity but a sufficiency towards this transition. We also show how current limitations of the blockchain and adjacent technologies can be even counterproductive. Finally, we discuss implications for policy makers and managers.

Keywords: blockchain technology, affordance theory, energy trilemma, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
117 Inventory Level Management in Enterprise Resource Planning Using Blockchain Tech-Nology

Authors: Mohana Priya A., Jeeval Kumari, Shobha N. S.


Blockchain technology is integrated into Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in this research paper. Organizations use ERP systems to manage and streamline operations, but they face challenges with data security, scalability, and interoperabil-ity. ERP systems can be enhanced and addressed with blockchain technology, thanks to their secure and transparent transactions. The paper will explore the benefits and challenges of using blockchain technology in ERP systems and provide examples of existing solutions. As part of the paper, blockchain technology will be examined for improving inventory tracking in real-time and enhancing data security. In order to implement blockchain technology into ERP systems, smart contracts, decentralized applications, and blockchain-based platforms will be explored. It will serve as a use-ful resource for organizations considering integrating blockchain technology into their ERP systems.

Keywords: ERP, blockchain, inventory management, supply chain

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116 The Analysis of the Blockchain Technology and Challenges Hampering Its Adoption

Authors: Sthembile Mthethwa


With the rise in the usage of internet in the past decades, this presented an opportunity for users to transact with each other over the use of internet. Cryptocurrencies have been introduced, which allows users to transact with each other without the involvement of a third party i.e. the bank. These systems are widely known as cryptocurrencies or digital currencies and the first system to be introduced was Bitcoin which has been receiving a lot of attention. Bitcoin introduced a new technology known as the blockchain technology. In the past years, blockchain has been getting attention; whereby new applications are introduced that utilize blockchain. Yet, most people are still hesitant about the adoption of blockchain and the adoption of cryptocurrencies at large. Some people still do not understand the technology. Thus, it leads to the slow adoption of this technology. In this paper, a review of the blockchain is provided, whereby the different types of blockchain are discussed in details. Details of the things that contribute to the hindrance of the process of adoption are discussed.

Keywords: bitcoin, blockchain, cryptocurrency, payment system

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115 A Modeling Approach for Blockchain-Oriented Information Systems Design

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi


The blockchain technology is regarded as the most promising technology that has the potential to trigger a technological revolution. However, besides the bitcoin industry, we have not yet seen a large-scale application of blockchain in those domains that are supposed to be impacted, such as supply chain, financial network, and intelligent manufacturing. The reasons not only lie in the difficulties of blockchain implementation, but are also root in the challenges of blockchain-oriented information systems design. As the blockchain members are self-interest actors that belong to organizations with different existing information systems. As they expect different information inputs and outputs of the blockchain application, a common language protocol is needed to facilitate communications between blockchain members. Second, considering the decentralization of blockchain organization, there is not any central authority to organize and coordinate the business processes. Thus, the information systems built on blockchain should support more adaptive business process. This paper aims to address these difficulties by providing a modeling approach for blockchain-oriented information systems design. We will investigate the information structure of distributed-ledger data with conceptual modeling techniques and ontology theories, and build an effective ontology mapping method for the inter-organization information flow and blockchain information records. Further, we will study the distributed-ledger-ontology based business process modeling to support adaptive enterprise on blockchain.

Keywords: blockchain, ontology, information systems modeling, business process

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
114 Blockchain Security in MANETs

Authors: Nada Mouchfiq, Ahmed Habbani, Chaimae Benjbara


The security aspect of the IoT occupies a place of great importance especially after the evolution that has known this field lastly because it must take into account the transformations and the new applications .Blockchain is a new technology dedicated to the data sharing. However, this does not work the same way in the different systems with different operating principles. This article will discuss network security using the Blockchain to facilitate the sending of messages and information, enabling the use of new processes and enabling autonomous coordination of devices. To do this, we will discuss proposed solutions to ensure a high level of security in these networks in the work of other researchers. Finally, our article will propose a method of security more adapted to our needs as a team working in the ad hoc networks, this method is based on the principle of the Blockchain and that we named ”MPR Blockchain”.

Keywords: Ad hocs networks, blockchain, MPR, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
113 Technology Assessment: Exploring Possibilities to Encounter Problems Faced by Intellectual Property through Blockchain

Authors: M. Ismail, E. Grifell-Tatjé, A. Paz


A significant discussion on the topic of blockchain as a solution to the issues of intellectual property highlights the relevance that this topic holds. Some experts label this technology as destructive since it holds immense potential to change course of traditional practices. The extent and areas to which this technology can be of use are still being researched. This paper provides an in-depth review on the intellectual property and blockchain technology. Further it explores what makes blockchain suitable for intellectual property, the practical solutions available and the support different governments are offering. This paper further studies the framework of universities in context of its outputs and how can they be streamlined using blockchain technology. The paper concludes by discussing some limitations and future research question.

Keywords: blockchain, decentralization, open innovation, intellectual property, patents, university-industry relationship

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112 Money Laundering and Governance in Cryptocurrencies: The Double-Edged Sword of Blockchain Technology

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi


With the growing popularity of bitcoin transactions, criminals have exploited the bitcoin like cryptocurrencies, and cybercriminals such as money laundering have thrived. Unlike traditional currencies, the Internet-based virtual currencies can be used anonymously via the blockchain technology underpinning. In this paper, we analyze the double-edged sword features of blockchain technology in the context of money laundering. In particular, the traceability feature of blockchain-based system facilitates a level of governance, while the decentralization feature of blockchain-based system may bring governing difficulties. Based on the analysis, we propose guidelines for policy makers in governing blockchain-based cryptocurrency systems.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, money laundering, blockchain, decentralization, traceability

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
111 A Framework for Blockchain Vulnerability Detection and Cybersecurity Education

Authors: Hongmei Chi


The Blockchain has become a necessity for many different societal industries and ordinary lives including cryptocurrency technology, supply chain, health care, public safety, education, etc. Therefore, training our future blockchain developers to know blockchain programming vulnerability and I.T. students' cyber security is in high demand. In this work, we propose a framework including learning modules and hands-on labs to guide future I.T. professionals towards developing secure blockchain programming habits and mitigating source code vulnerabilities at the early stages of the software development lifecycle following the concept of Secure Software Development Life Cycle (SSDLC). In this research, our goal is to make blockchain programmers and I.T. students aware of the vulnerabilities of blockchains. In summary, we develop a framework that will (1) improve students' skills and awareness of blockchain source code vulnerabilities, detection tools, and mitigation techniques (2) integrate concepts of blockchain vulnerabilities for IT students, (3) improve future IT workers’ ability to master the concepts of blockchain attacks.

Keywords: software vulnerability detection, hands-on lab, static analysis tools, vulnerabilities, blockchain, active learning

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110 Exploring the Potential of Blockchain to Improve Higher Education

Authors: Tony Cripps, Larry Kimber


This paper will begin by briefly explaining how blockchain technology works. Then, after highlighting a few of the ways it promises to heavily impact all aspects of the digital landscape, the focus will shift to Blockchain in the field of education, with specific emphasis placed on practical applications in foreign language education. Blockchain is a decentralized Internet-based software application that guarantees truth in transactions. This means whenever two parties engage in a transaction using Blockchain, it is time-stamped, added to a block of other transactions, and then permanently attached to an unalterable ‘chain’ of blocks. The potential for developing applications with Blockchain is therefore immense, since software systems that ensure the impossibility of outside tampering are invaluable. Innovative ideas in every imaginable domain are presently being entertained and Blockchain in education is no exception. For instance, records kept within and between institutions of students’ grade performance, academic achievement and verification of assignment/course completion are just a few examples of how this new technology might potentially be used to revolutionize education. It is hoped that this paper will be of use to all educators interested in the application of technology in the field of education.

Keywords: blockchain, disruption, potential, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
109 Food Traceability for Small and Medium Enterprises Using Blockchain Technology

Authors: Amit Kohli, Pooja Lekhi, Gihan Adel Amin Hafez


Blockchain is a distributor ledger technology trend that extended to different fields and proved a remarkable success. Blockchain technology is a vital proliferation technique that recuperates the food supply chain traceability process. While tracing is the core of the food supply chain; still, a complex system mitigates the exceptional risk of food contamination, foodborne, food waste, and food fraud. In addition, the upsurge of food supply chain data variance and variety in the traceability system requires complete transparency, a secure, steadfast, sustainable, and efficient approach to face the food supply chain challenges. On the other hand, blockchain technical aspects merged with a detailed implementation plan, the advantages and challenges in food traceability have not been much elucidated for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.) This paper demonstrated the advantages and challenges of applying blockchain in SMEs combined with the success stories of firms implementing blockchain to cover the gap. Moreover, blockchain architecture in SMEs and how technology, organization, and environment frameworks can guarantee the success of blockchain implementation have been revealed.

Keywords: blockchain technology, small and medium enterprises, food traceability, blockchain architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
108 An Investigation Enhancing E-Voting Application Performance

Authors: Aditya Verma


E-voting using blockchain provides us with a distributed system where data is present on each node present in the network and is reliable and secure too due to its immutability property. This work compares various blockchain consensus algorithms used for e-voting applications in the past, based on performance and node scalability, and chooses the optimal one and improves on one such previous implementation by proposing solutions for the loopholes of the optimally working blockchain consensus algorithm, in our chosen application, e-voting.

Keywords: blockchain, parallel bft, consensus algorithms, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
107 Topics of Blockchain Technology to Teach at Community College

Authors: Penn P. Wu, Jeannie Jo


Blockchain technology has rapidly gained popularity in industry. This paper attempts to assist academia to answer four questions. First, should community colleges begin offering education to nurture blockchain-literate students for the job market? Second, what are the appropriate topical areas to cover? Third, should it be an individual course? And forth, should it be a technical or management course? This paper starts with identifying the knowledge domains of blockchain technology and the topical areas each domain has, and continues with placing them in appropriate academic territories (Computer Sciences vs. Business) and subjects (programming, management, marketing, and laws), and then develops an evaluation model to determine the appropriate topical area for community colleges to teach. The evaluation is based on seven factors: maturity of technology, impacts on management, real-world applications, subject classification, knowledge prerequisites, textbook readiness, and recommended pedagogies. The evaluation results point to an interesting direction that offering an introductory course is an ideal option to guide students through the learning journey of what blockchain is and how it applies to business. Such an introductory course does not need to engage students in the discussions of mathematics and sciences that make blockchain technologies possible. While it is inevitable to brief technical topics to help students build a solid knowledge foundation of blockchain technologies, community colleges should avoid offering students a course centered on the discussion of developing blockchain applications.

Keywords: blockchain, pedagogies, blockchain technologies, blockchain course, blockchain pedagogies

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106 Blockchain Solutions for IoT Challenges: Overview

Authors: Amir Ali Fatoorchi


Regardless of the advantage of LoT devices, they have limitations like storage, compute, and security problems. In recent years, a lot of Blockchain-based research in IoT published and presented. In this paper, we present the Security issues of LoT. IoT has three levels of security issues: Low-level, Intermediate-level, and High-level. We survey and compare blockchain-based solutions for high-level security issues and show how the underlying technology of bitcoin and Ethereum could solve IoT problems.

Keywords: Blockchain, security, data security, IoT

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
105 Governance Token Distributions of Layer-One.X

Authors: P. Wongthongtham, K. Coutinho, A. MacCarthy


Layer-One.X (L1X) blockchain provides the infrastructure layer, and decentralised applications can be created on the L1X infrastructure. L1X tokenomics are important and require a proportional balance between token distribution, nurturing user activity and engagement, and financial incentives. In this paper, we present research in progress on L1X tokenomics describing key concepts and implementations, including token velocity and value, incentive scheme, and broad distribution. Particularly the economic design of the native token of the L1X blockchain, called HeartBit (HB), is presented.

Keywords: tokenisation, layer one blockchain, interoperability, token distribution, L1X blockchain

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
104 Survey on Malware Detection

Authors: Doaa Wael, Naswa Abdelbaky


Malware is malicious software that is built to cause destructive actions and damage information systems and networks. Malware infections increase rapidly, and types of malware have become more sophisticated, which makes the malware detection process more difficult. On the other side, the Internet of Things IoT technology is vulnerable to malware attacks. These IoT devices are always connected to the internet and lack security. This makes them easy for hackers to access. These malware attacks are becoming the go-to attack for hackers. Thus, in order to deal with this challenge, new malware detection techniques are needed. Currently, building a blockchain solution that allows IoT devices to download any file from the internet and to verify/approve whether it is malicious or not is the need of the hour. In recent years, blockchain technology has stood as a solution to everything due to its features like decentralization, persistence, and anonymity. Moreover, using blockchain technology overcomes some difficulties in malware detection and improves the malware detection ratio over-than the techniques that do not utilize blockchain technology. In this paper, we study malware detection models which are based on blockchain technology. Furthermore, we elaborate on the effect of blockchain technology in malware detection, especially in the android environment.

Keywords: malware analysis, blockchain, malware attacks, malware detection approaches

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103 Blockchain’s Feasibility in Military Data Networks

Authors: Brenden M. Shutt, Lubjana Beshaj, Paul L. Goethals, Ambrose Kam


Communication security is of particular interest to military data networks. A relatively novel approach to network security is blockchain, a cryptographically secured distribution ledger with a decentralized consensus mechanism for data transaction processing. Recent advances in blockchain technology have proposed new techniques for both data validation and trust management, as well as different frameworks for managing dataflow. The purpose of this work is to test the feasibility of different blockchain architectures as applied to military command and control networks. Various architectures are tested through discrete-event simulation and the feasibility is determined based upon a blockchain design’s ability to maintain long-term stable performance at industry standards of throughput, network latency, and security. This work proposes a consortium blockchain architecture with a computationally inexpensive consensus mechanism, one that leverages a Proof-of-Identity (PoI) concept and a reputation management mechanism.

Keywords: blockchain, consensus mechanism, discrete-event simulation, fog computing

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102 BlueVision: A Visual Tool for Exploring a Blockchain Network

Authors: Jett Black, Jordyn Godsey, Gaby G. Dagher, Steve Cutchin


Despite the growing interest in distributed ledger technology, many data visualizations of blockchain are limited to monotonous tabular displays or overly abstract graphical representations that fail to adequately educate individuals on blockchain components and their functionalities. To address these limitations, it is imperative to develop data visualizations that offer not only comprehensive insights into these domains but education as well. This research focuses on providing a conceptual understanding of the consensus process that underlies blockchain technology. This is accomplished through the implementation of a dynamic network visualization and an interactive educational tool called BlueVision. Further, a controlled user study is conducted to measure the effectiveness and usability of BlueVision. The findings demonstrate that the tool represents significant advancements in the field of blockchain visualization, effectively catering to the educational needs of both novice and proficient users.

Keywords: blockchain, visualization, consensus, distributed network

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101 Governance Framework for an Emerging Trust Ecosystem with a Blockchain-Based Supply Chain

Authors: Ismael Ávila, José Reynaldo F. Filho, Vasco Varanda Picchi


The ever-growing consumer awareness of food provenance in Brazil is driving the creation of a trusted ecosystem around the animal protein supply chain. The traceability and accountability requirements of such an ecosystem demand a blockchain layer to strengthen the weak links in that chain. For that, direct involvement of the companies in the blockchain transactions, including as validator nodes of the network, implies formalizing a partnership with the consortium behind the ecosystem. Yet, their compliance standards usually require that a formal governance structure is in place before they agree with any membership terms. In light of such a strategic role of blockchain governance, the paper discusses a framework for tailoring a governance model for a blockchain-based solution aimed at the meat supply chain and evaluates principles and attributes in terms of their relevance to the development of a robust trust ecosystem.

Keywords: blockchain, governance, trust ecosystem, supply chain, traceability

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100 Using Blockchain Technology to Promote Sustainable Supply Chains: A Survey of Previous Studies

Authors: Saleh Abu Hashanah, Abirami Radhakrishnan, Dessa David


Sustainable practices in the supply chain have been an area of focus that require consideration of environmental, economic, and social sustainability practices. This paper aims to examine the use of blockchain as a disruptive technology to promote sustainable supply chains. Content analysis was used to analyze the uses of blockchain technology in sustainable supply chains. The results showed that blockchain technology features such as traceability, transparency, smart contracts, accountability, trust, immutability, anti-fraud, and decentralization promote sustainable supply chains. It is found that these features have impacted organizational efficiency in operations, transportation, and production, minimizing costs and reducing carbon emissions. In addition, blockchain technology has been found to elicit customer trust in the products.

Keywords: blockchain technology, sustainability, supply chains, economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, social sustainability

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99 To Ensure Maximum Voter Privacy in E-Voting Using Blockchain, Convolutional Neural Network, and Quantum Key Distribution

Authors: Bhaumik Tyagi, Mandeep Kaur, Kanika Singla


The advancement of blockchain has facilitated scholars to remodel e-voting systems for future generations. Server-side attacks like SQL injection attacks and DOS attacks are the most common attacks nowadays, where malicious codes are injected into the system through user input fields by illicit users, which leads to data leakage in the worst scenarios. Besides, quantum attacks are also there which manipulate the transactional data. In order to deal with all the above-mentioned attacks, integration of blockchain, convolutional neural network (CNN), and Quantum Key Distribution is done in this very research. The utilization of blockchain technology in e-voting applications is not a novel concept. But privacy and security issues are still there in a public and private blockchains. To solve this, the use of a hybrid blockchain is done in this research. This research proposed cryptographic signatures and blockchain algorithms to validate the origin and integrity of the votes. The convolutional neural network (CNN), a normalized version of the multilayer perceptron, is also applied in the system to analyze visual descriptions upon registration in a direction to enhance the privacy of voters and the e-voting system. Quantum Key Distribution is being implemented in order to secure a blockchain-based e-voting system from quantum attacks using quantum algorithms. Implementation of e-voting blockchain D-app and providing a proposed solution for the privacy of voters in e-voting using Blockchain, CNN, and Quantum Key Distribution is done.

Keywords: hybrid blockchain, secure e-voting system, convolutional neural networks, quantum key distribution, one-time pad

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98 Counterfeit Product Detection Using Block Chain

Authors: Sharanya C. H., Pragathi M., Vathsala R. S., Theja K. V., Yashaswini S.


Identifying counterfeit products have become increasingly important in the product manufacturing industries in recent decades. This current ongoing product issue of counterfeiting has an impact on company sales and profits. To address the aforementioned issue, a functional blockchain technology was implemented, which effectively prevents the product from being counterfeited. By utilizing the blockchain technology, consumers are no longer required to rely on third parties to determine the authenticity of the product being purchased. Blockchain is a distributed database that stores data records known as blocks and several databases known as chains across various networks. Counterfeit products are identified using a QR code reader, and the product's QR code is linked to the blockchain management system. It compares the unique code obtained from the customer to the stored unique code to determine whether or not the product is original.

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, QR code

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97 Integrating Blockchain and Internet of Things Platforms: An Empirical Study on Immunization Cold Chain

Authors: Fawzia Abujalala, Asma Elmangoush, Majdi Ashibani


The adoption of Blockchain technology introduces the possibility to decentralize cold chain systems. This adaptation enhances them to be more efficient, accessible, verifiable, and data security. Additionally, the Internet of Things (IoT) concept is considered as an added-value to various application domains. Cargo tracking and cold chain are a few to name. However, the security of the IoT transactions and integrated devices remains one of the key challenges to the IoT application’s success. Consequently, Blockchain technology and its consensus protocols have been used to solve many information security problems. In this paper, the researchers discussed the advantages of integrating Blockchain technology into IoT platform to improve security and provide an overview of existing literature on integrating Blockchain and IoT platforms. Then, presented the immunization cold chain solution as a use-case that could apply to any critical goods based on integrating hyperledger fabric platform and IoT platform.

Keywords: blockchain, hyperledger fabric, internet of things, security, traceability

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96 A Study of Blockchain Oracles

Authors: Abdeljalil Beniiche


The limitation with smart contracts is that they cannot access external data that might be required to control the execution of business logic. Oracles can be used to provide external data to smart contracts. An oracle is an interface that delivers data from external data outside the blockchain to a smart contract to consume. Oracle can deliver different types of data depending on the industry and requirements. In this paper, we study and describe the widely used blockchain oracles. Then, we elaborate on his potential role, technical architecture, and design patterns. Finally, we discuss the human oracle and its key role in solving the truth problem by reaching a consensus about a certain inquiry and tasks.

Keywords: blockchain, oracles, oracles design, human oracles

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
95 Blockchain Technology Security Evaluation: Voting System Based on Blockchain

Authors: Omid Amini


Nowadays, technology plays the most important role in the life of human beings because people use technology to share data and to communicate with each other, but the challenge is the security of this data. For instance, as more people turn to technology in the world, more data is generated, and more hackers try to steal or infiltrate data. In addition, the data is under the control of the central authority, which can trigger the challenge of losing information and changing information; this can create widespread anxiety for different people in different communities. In this paper, we sought to investigate Blockchain technology that can guarantee information security and eliminate the challenge of central authority access to information. Now a day, people are suffering from the current voting system. This means that the lack of transparency in the voting system is a big problem for society and the government in most countries, but blockchain technology can be the best alternative to the previous voting system methods because it removes the most important challenge for voting. According to the results, this research can be a good start to getting acquainted with this new technology, especially on the security part and familiarity with how to use a voting system based on blockchain in the world. At the end of this research, it is concluded that the use of blockchain technology can solve the major security problem and lead to a secure and transparent election.

Keywords: blockchain, technology, security, information, voting system, transparency

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94 Blockchain in Saudi E-Government: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Haitham Assiri, Priyadarsi Nanda


The world is gradually entering the fourth industrial revolution. E-Government services are scaling government operations across the globe. However, as promising as an e-Government system would be, it is also susceptible to malicious attacks if not properly secured. This study found out that, in Saudi Arabia, the e-Government website, Yesser is vulnerable to external attacks. Obviously, this can lead to a breach of data integrity and privacy. In this paper, a Systematic Literature Review was conducted to explore possible ways the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can take necessary measures to strengthen its e-Government system using Blockchain. Blockchain is one of the emerging technologies shaping the world through its applications in finance, elections, healthcare, etc. It secures systems and brings more transparency. A total of 28 papers were selected for this SLR, and 19 of the papers significantly showed that blockchain could enhance the security and privacy of Saudi’s e-government system. Other papers also concluded that blockchain is effective, albeit with the integration of other technologies like IoT, AI and big data. These papers have been analysed to sieve out the findings and set the stage for future research into the subject.

Keywords: blockchain, data integrity, e-government, security threats

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93 Comparison of Blockchain Ecosystem for Identity Management

Authors: K. S. Suganya, R. Nedunchezhian


In recent years, blockchain technology has been found to be the most significant discovery in this digital era, after the discovery of the Internet and Cloud Computing. Blockchain is a simple, distributed public ledger that contains all the user’s transaction details in a block. The global copy of the block is then shared among all its peer-peer network users after validation by the Blockchain miners. Once a block is validated and accepted, it cannot be altered by any users making it a trust-free transaction. It also resolves the problem of double-spending by using traditional cryptographic methods. Since the advent of bitcoin, blockchain has been the backbone for all its transactions. But in recent years, it has found its roots and uses in many fields like Smart Contracts, Smart City management, healthcare, etc. Identity management against digital identity theft has become a major concern among financial and other organizations. To solve this digital identity theft, blockchain technology can be employed with existing identity management systems, which maintain a distributed public ledger containing details of an individual’s identity containing information such as Digital birth certificates, Citizenship number, Bank details, voter details, driving license in the form of blocks verified on the blockchain becomes time-stamped, unforgeable and publicly visible for any legitimate users. The main challenge in using blockchain technology to prevent digital identity theft is ensuring the pseudo-anonymity and privacy of the users. This survey paper will exert to study the blockchain concepts, consensus protocols, and various blockchain-based Digital Identity Management systems with their research scope. This paper also discusses the role of Blockchain in COVID-19 pandemic management by self-sovereign identity and supply chain management.

Keywords: blockchain, consensus protocols, bitcoin, identity theft, digital identity management, pandemic, COVID-19, self-sovereign identity

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92 Secure E-Voting Using Blockchain Technology

Authors: Barkha Ramteke, Sonali Ridhorkar


An election is an important event in all countries. Traditional voting has several drawbacks, including the expense of time and effort required for tallying and counting results, the cost of papers, arrangements, and everything else required to complete a voting process. Many countries are now considering online e-voting systems, but the traditional e-voting systems suffer a lack of trust. It is not known if a vote is counted correctly, tampered or not. A lack of transparency means that the voter has no assurance that his or her vote will be counted as they voted in elections. Electronic voting systems are increasingly using blockchain technology as an underlying storage mechanism to make the voting process more transparent and assure data immutability as blockchain technology grows in popularity. The transparent feature, on the other hand, may reveal critical information about applicants because all system users have the same entitlement to their data. Furthermore, because of blockchain's pseudo-anonymity, voters' privacy will be revealed, and third parties involved in the voting process, such as registration institutions, will be able to tamper with data. To overcome these difficulties, we apply Ethereum smart contracts into blockchain-based voting systems.

Keywords: blockchain, AMV chain, electronic voting, decentralized

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
91 Implementation of Proof of Work Using Ganache

Authors: Sakshi Singh, Shampa Chakraverty


One of the essential characteristics of Blockchain is the ability to validate the integrity of new transactions added to the Blockchain. Moreover, one of the essential consensus algorithms, Proof of Work, performs this job. In this work, we implemented the Proof of Work consensus method on the block formed by performing the transaction using Ganache. The primary goal of this implementation is to understand the process and record how Proof of Work works in reality on newly created blocks.

Keywords: proof of work, blockchain, ganache, smart contract

Procedia PDF Downloads 79