Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: ethereum

16 A Survey on Important Factors of the Ethereum Network Performance

Authors: Ali Mohammad Mobaser Azad, Alireza Akhlaghinia

Abstract:

Blockchain is changing our world and launching a new generation of decentralized networks. Meanwhile, Blockchain-based networks like Ethereum have been created and they will facilitate these processes using tools like smart contracts. The Ethereum has fundamental structures, each of which affects the activity of the nodes. Our purpose in this paper is to review similar research and examine various components to demonstrate the performance of the Ethereum network and to do this, and we used the data published by the Ethereum Foundation in different time spots to examine the number of changes that determine the status of network performance. This will help other researchers understand better Ethereum in different situations.

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, smart contract, decentralization consensus algorithm

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15 Formal Verification for Ethereum Smart Contract Using Coq

Authors: Xia Yang, Zheng Yang, Haiyong Sun, Yan Fang, Jingyu Liu, Jia Song

Abstract:

The smart contract in Ethereum is a unique program deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) to help manage cryptocurrency. The security of this smart contract is critical to Ethereum’s operation and highly sensitive. In this paper, we present a formal model for smart contract, using the separated term-obligation (STO) strategy to formalize and verify the smart contract. We use the IBM smart sponsor contract (SSC) as an example to elaborate the detail of the formalizing process. We also propose a formal smart sponsor contract model (FSSCM) and verify SSC’s security properties with an interactive theorem prover Coq. We found the 'Unchecked-Send' vulnerability in the SSC, using our formal model and verification method. Finally, we demonstrate how we can formalize and verify other smart contracts with this approach, and our work indicates that this formal verification can effectively verify the correctness and security of smart contracts.

Keywords: smart contract, formal verification, Ethereum, Coq

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14 Ethereum Based Smart Contracts for Trade and Finance

Authors: Rishabh Garg

Abstract:

Traditionally, business parties build trust with a centralized operating mechanism, such as payment by letter of credit. However, the increase in cyber-attacks and malicious hacking has jeopardized business operations and finance practices. Emerging markets, owing to their higher banking risks and bigger presence of digital financing, are looking forward to technology-driven solutions, financial inclusion and innovative working paradigms. Blockchain has the potential to enhance transaction transparency and supply chain traceability. It has captured a vast landscape with 200 million crypto users worldwide. Fintech and blockchain products are popping up across brokerage, digital wallets, exchanges, post-trade clearance, settlement, middleware, infrastructure, and base protocols.

Keywords: blockchain, distributed ledger technology, decentralized applications, ethereum, smart contracts, trade finance

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13 A Blockchain-Based Privacy-Preserving Physical Delivery System

Authors: Shahin Zanbaghi, Saeed Samet

Abstract:

The internet has transformed the way we shop. Previously, most of our purchases came in the form of shopping trips to a nearby store. Now, it’s as easy as clicking a mouse. But with great convenience comes great responsibility. We have to be constantly vigilant about our personal information. In this work, our proposed approach is to encrypt the information printed on the physical packages, which include personal information in plain text, using a symmetric encryption algorithm; then, we store that encrypted information into a Blockchain network rather than storing them in companies or corporations centralized databases. We present, implement and assess a blockchain-based system using Ethereum smart contracts. We present detailed algorithms that explain the details of our smart contract. We present the security, cost, and performance analysis of the proposed method. Our work indicates that the proposed solution is economically attainable and provides data integrity, security, transparency, and data traceability.

Keywords: blockchain, Ethereum, smart contract, commit-reveal scheme

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12 Interactive IoT-Blockchain System for Big Data Processing

Authors: Abdallah Al-ZoubI, Mamoun Dmour

Abstract:

The spectrum of IoT devices is becoming widely diversified, entering almost all possible fields and finding applications in industry, health, finance, logistics, education, to name a few. The IoT active endpoint sensors and devices exceeded the 12 billion mark in 2021 and are expected to reach 27 billion in 2025, with over $34 billion in total market value. This sheer rise in numbers and use of IoT devices bring with it considerable concerns regarding data storage, analysis, manipulation and protection. IoT Blockchain-based systems have recently been proposed as a decentralized solution for large-scale data storage and protection. COVID-19 has actually accelerated the desire to utilize IoT devices as it impacted both demand and supply and significantly affected several regions due to logistic reasons such as supply chain interruptions, shortage of shipping containers and port congestion. An IoT-blockchain system is proposed to handle big data generated by a distributed network of sensors and controllers in an interactive manner. The system is designed using the Ethereum platform, which utilizes smart contracts, programmed in solidity to execute and manage data generated by IoT sensors and devices. such as Raspberry Pi 4, Rasbpian, and add-on hardware security modules. The proposed system will run a number of applications hosted by a local machine used to validate transactions. It then sends data to the rest of the network through InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) and Ethereum Swarm, forming a closed IoT ecosystem run by blockchain where a number of distributed IoT devices can communicate and interact, thus forming a closed, controlled environment. A prototype has been deployed with three IoT handling units distributed over a wide geographical space in order to examine its feasibility, performance and costs. Initial results indicated that big IoT data retrieval and storage is feasible and interactivity is possible, provided that certain conditions of cost, speed and thorough put are met.

Keywords: IoT devices, blockchain, Ethereum, big data

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11 Blockchain Solutions for IoT Challenges: Overview

Authors: Amir Ali Fatoorchi

Abstract:

Regardless of the advantage of LoT devices, they have limitations like storage, compute, and security problems. In recent years, a lot of Blockchain-based research in IoT published and presented. In this paper, we present the Security issues of LoT. IoT has three levels of security issues: Low-level, Intermediate-level, and High-level. We survey and compare blockchain-based solutions for high-level security issues and show how the underlying technology of bitcoin and Ethereum could solve IoT problems.

Keywords: Blockchain, security, data security, IoT

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10 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith

Abstract:

Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

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9 Non-Fungible Token and Block Chain Platform Revenue Model

Authors: Cho Seung Wan, Shin Dong Ho

Abstract:

In this research paper throughout Block chain and NFT's revenue model. Block chain used newest system for improve that security system. Past, lots of company used server base system. So, they can solve problem faster. But today's blockchain system is usually used for other company. Blockchain is lots of block is chaining each other to one chain. So, all the server has same data and power. Blockchain can solve hard security problem. While server base is one center have all the data and power. That two system is completely different. Anyway, the blockchain's cryptocurrency is very particular then other system to be use blockchain. Cryptocurrency came out to alternate for today's currency system. Typical kind of cryptocurrency is Bitcoin and Ethereum. That two types of cryptocurrencies are using a lot of things. Investigate NFT and resulting revenue model.

Keywords: blockchain, non-fungible token, revenue model, cryptocurrency

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8 Opportunities of Diversification Strategy Investment among the Top Ten Cryptocurrencies in Crypto Industry

Authors: Surayyo Shaamirova, Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman

Abstract:

This study investigates the co-integration association between the top 10 cryptocurrencies, namely Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, EOS, Cardano, Litecoin, Stellar, IOTA, and NEO. The study applies Johansen Juselius co-integration test to examine the long-run co-integration and utilize the Engle and Granger casualty test to examine the short-run relationship. The findings of the study show that there is a strong co-integration relationship among the cryptocurrencies; however, in the short run, there is no causal relationship among the crypto currencies. These results, therefore, suggest that there are portfolio diversification opportunities in the cryptocurrencies industry when it comes to long run investment decisions, on the other hand, the cryptocurrencies industry shows the characteristics of efficiency in the short-run. This is an indication of a non-speculation investment in the cryptocurrencies industry in the short term investment.

Keywords: cryptocurrencies, Johansen-Juselius co-integration test, Engle and Granger casualty test, portfolio diversification

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7 Secure E-Voting Using Blockchain Technology

Authors: Barkha Ramteke, Sonali Ridhorkar

Abstract:

An election is an important event in all countries. Traditional voting has several drawbacks, including the expense of time and effort required for tallying and counting results, the cost of papers, arrangements, and everything else required to complete a voting process. Many countries are now considering online e-voting systems, but the traditional e-voting systems suffer a lack of trust. It is not known if a vote is counted correctly, tampered or not. A lack of transparency means that the voter has no assurance that his or her vote will be counted as they voted in elections. Electronic voting systems are increasingly using blockchain technology as an underlying storage mechanism to make the voting process more transparent and assure data immutability as blockchain technology grows in popularity. The transparent feature, on the other hand, may reveal critical information about applicants because all system users have the same entitlement to their data. Furthermore, because of blockchain's pseudo-anonymity, voters' privacy will be revealed, and third parties involved in the voting process, such as registration institutions, will be able to tamper with data. To overcome these difficulties, we apply Ethereum smart contracts into blockchain-based voting systems.

Keywords: blockchain, AMV chain, electronic voting, decentralized

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6 A Scalable Model of Fair Socioeconomic Relations Based on Blockchain and Machine Learning Algorithms-1: On Hyperinteraction and Intuition

Authors: Merey M. Sarsengeldin, Alexandr S. Kolokhmatov, Galiya Seidaliyeva, Alexandr Ozerov, Sanim T. Imatayeva

Abstract:

This series of interdisciplinary studies is an attempt to investigate and develop a scalable model of fair socioeconomic relations on the base of blockchain using positive psychology techniques and Machine Learning algorithms for data analytics. In this particular study, we use hyperinteraction approach and intuition to investigate their influence on 'wisdom of crowds' via created mobile application which was created for the purpose of this research. Along with the public blockchain and private Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) which were elaborated by us on the base of Ethereum blockchain, a model of fair financial relations of members of DAO was developed. We developed a smart contract, so-called, Fair Price Protocol and use it for implementation of model. The data obtained from mobile application was analyzed by ML algorithms. A model was tested on football matches.

Keywords: blockchain, Naïve Bayes algorithm, hyperinteraction, intuition, wisdom of crowd, decentralized autonomous organization

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5 BOFSC: A Blockchain Based Decentralized Framework to Ensure the Transparency of Organic Food Supply Chain

Authors: Mifta Ul Jannat, Raju Ahmed, Al Mamun, Jannatul Ferdaus, Ritu Costa, Milon Biswas

Abstract:

Blockchain is an internet-based invention that is coveted in the permanent, scumbled record for its capacity to openly accept, record, and distribute transactions. In a traditional supply chain, there are no trustworthy participants for an organic product. Yet blockchain engineering may provide confidence, transparency, and traceability. Blockchain varies in how companies get real, checked, and lasting information from their supply chain and lock in customers. In an arrangement of cryptographic squares, Blockchain digitizes each connection by sparing it. No one person may alter the documents, and any alteration within the agreement is clear to all. The coming to the record is tamper proof and unchanging, offering a complete history of the object’s life cycle and minimizing opening for extorting. The primary aim of this analysis is to identify the underlying problem that the customer faces. In this post, we will minimize the allocation of fraud data through the ’Smart Contract’ and include a certificate of quality assurance.

Keywords: blockchain technology, food supply chain, Ethereum, smart contract, quality assurance, trustability, security, transparency

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4 Leveraging Hyperledger Iroha for the Issuance and Verification of Higher-Education Certificates

Authors: Vasiliki Vlachou, Christos Kontzinos, Ourania Markaki, Panagiotis Kokkinakos, Vagelis Karakolis, John Psarras

Abstract:

Higher Education is resisting the pull of technology, especially as this concerns the issuance and verification of degrees and certificates. It is widely known that education certificates are largely produced in paper form making them vulnerable to damage while holders of such certificates are dependent on the universities and other issuing organisations. QualiChain is an EU Horizon 2020 (H2020) research project aiming to transform and revolutionise the domain of public education and its ties with the job market by leveraging blockchain, analytics and decision support to develop a platform for the verification and sharing of education certificates. Blockchain plays an integral part in the QualiChain solution in providing a trustworthy environment to store, share and manage such accreditations. Under the context of this paper, three prominent blockchain platforms (Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric, Hyperledger Iroha) were considered as a means of experimentation for creating a system with the basic functionalities that will be needed for trustworthy degree verification. The methodology and respective system developed and presented in this paper used Hyperledger Iroha and proved that this specific platform can be used to easily develop decentralize applications. Future papers will attempt to further experiment with other blockchain platforms and assess which has the best potential.

Keywords: blockchain, degree verification, higher education certificates, Hyperledger Iroha

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3 Cryptocurrency as a Payment Method in the Tourism Industry: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation and Portfolio Performance

Authors: Shu-Han Hsu, Jiho Yoon, Chwen Sheu

Abstract:

With the rapidly growing of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency, various industries which include tourism has added in cryptocurrency as the payment method of their transaction. More and more tourism companies accept payments in digital currency for flights, hotel reservations, transportation, and more. For travellers and tourists, using cryptocurrency as a payment method has become a way to circumvent costs and prevent risks. Understanding volatility dynamics and interdependencies between standard currency and cryptocurrency is important for appropriate financial risk management to assist policy-makers and investors in marking more informed decisions. The purpose of this paper has been to understand and explain the risk spillover effects between six major cryptocurrencies and the top ten most traded standard currencies. Using data for the daily closing price of cryptocurrencies and currency exchange rates from 7 August 2015 to 10 December 2019, with 1,133 observations. The diagonal BEKK model was used to analyze the co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency returns and exchange rate returns, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility. The empirical results show there are co-volatility spillover effects between the cryptocurrency returns and GBP/USD, CNY/USD and MXN/USD exchange rate returns. Therefore, currencies (British Pound, Chinese Yuan and Mexican Peso) and cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Tether, Litecoin and Stellar) are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes.

Keywords: blockchain, co-volatility effects, cryptocurrencies, diagonal BEKK model, exchange rates, risk spillovers

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2 Blockchain Is Facilitating Intercultural Entrepreneurship: Memoir of a Persian Non-Fungible Tokens Collection

Authors: Mohammad Afkhami, Saeid Reza Ameli Ranani

Abstract:

Since the bitcoin invention in 2008, blockchain technology surpassed so many innovations that the pioneer networks such as Ethereum are adaptable to host a decentral bunch of information containing pictures, audio, video, domains, etc., or even a metaverse versatile avatar. Transformation of tangible goods into virtual assets, known as AR-utility of luxury products, and the intermixture of reality and virtuality organized a worldwide, semi-regulated, and decentralized marketplace for digital goods. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are doing a great help to artists worldwide, sharing diverse cultural outlooks by setting up a remote cross-cultural corporation potential and, at the same time, metamorphosizing the middleman role and ceasing the necessity of having a SWIFT-connected bank account. Under critical sanctions, a group of artists in Tehran did not take for granted such an opportunity to show off their artworks undisturbed, offering an introspective attitude, exerting Iranian motifs while intermingling westernized symbols. The cryptocurrency market has already acquired allocation, and interest in the global domain, paving the way for a flourishing enthusiasm among entrepreneurs who have been preoccupied with high-tech start-ups before. In a project found by Iranian female artists, we decipher the ups and downs of the new cyberculture and the environment it provides to fairly promote the artwork and obstacles it put forward in the way of interested entrepreneurs as we get through the details of starting up an NFT collection. An in-depth interview and empirical encounters with diverse Social Network Sites (SNS) and the strategies that other successful projects deploy to sell their artworks in an international and, at the same time, an anonymous market is the main focus, which shapes the paper fieldwork perspective. In conclusion, we discuss strategies for promoting an NFT project.

Keywords: NFT, metaverse, intercultural, art, illustration, start-up, entrepreneurship

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1 A Lightweight Blockchain: Enhancing Internet of Things Driven Smart Buildings Scalability and Access Control Using Intelligent Direct Acyclic Graph Architecture and Smart Contracts

Authors: Syed Irfan Raza Naqvi, Zheng Jiangbin, Ahmad Moshin, Pervez Akhter

Abstract:

Currently, the IoT system depends on a centralized client-servant architecture that causes various scalability and privacy vulnerabilities. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) introduces a set of opportunities for the IoT, which leads to practical ideas for existing components at all levels of existing architectures. Blockchain Technology (BCT) appears to be one approach to solving several IoT problems, like Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum, which offer multiple possibilities. Besides, IoTs are resource-constrained devices with insufficient capacity and computational overhead to process blockchain consensus mechanisms; the traditional BCT existing challenge for IoTs is poor scalability, energy efficiency, and transaction fees. IOTA is a distributed ledger based on Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) that ensures M2M micro-transactions are free of charge. IOTA has the potential to address existing IoT-related difficulties such as infrastructure scalability, privacy and access control mechanisms. We proposed an architecture, SLDBI: A Scalable, lightweight DAG-based Blockchain Design for Intelligent IoT Systems, which adapts the DAG base Tangle and implements a lightweight message data model to address the IoT limitations. It enables the smooth integration of new IoT devices into a variety of apps. SLDBI enables comprehensive access control, energy efficiency, and scalability in IoT ecosystems by utilizing the Masked Authentication Message (MAM) protocol and the IOTA Smart Contract Protocol (ISCP). Furthermore, we suggest proof-of-work (PoW) computation on the full node in an energy-efficient way. Experiments have been carried out to show the capability of a tangle to achieve better scalability while maintaining energy efficiency. The findings show user access control management at granularity levels and ensure scale up to massive networks with thousands of IoT nodes, such as Smart Connected Buildings (SCBDs).

Keywords: blockchain, IOT, direct acyclic graphy, scalability, access control, architecture, smart contract, smart connected buildings

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