Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4675

Search results for: public sphere

4675 Self in Networks: Public Sphere in the Era of Globalisation

Authors: Sanghamitra Sadhu

Abstract:

A paradigm shift from capitalism to information technology is discerned in the era globalisation. The idea of public sphere, which was theorized in terms of its decline in the wake of the rise of commercial mass media has now emerged as a transnational or global sphere with the discourse being dominated by the ‘network society’. In other words, the dynamic of globalisation has brought about ‘a spatial turn’ in the social and political sciences which is also manifested in the public sphere, Especially the global public sphere. The paper revisits the Habermasian concept of the public sphere and focuses on the various social networking sites with their plausibility to create a virtual global public sphere. Situating Habermas’s notion of the bourgeois public sphere in the present context of global public sphere, it considers the changing dimensions of the public sphere across time and examines the concept of the ‘public’ with its shifting transformation from the concrete collective to the fluid ‘imagined’ category. The paper addresses the problematic of multimodal self-portraiture in the social networking sites as well as various online diaries/journals with an attempt to explore the nuances of the networked self.

Keywords: globalisation, network society, public sphere, self-fashioning, identity, autonomy

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4674 Media Regulation and Public Sphere in the Digital Age: An Analysis in the Light of Constructive Democracy

Authors: Carlos Marden Cabral Coutinho, Jose Luis Bolzan de Morais

Abstract:

The article proposed intends to analyze the possibility (and conditions) of a media regulation law in a democratic rule of law in the twenty-first century. To do so, will be presented initially the idea of the public sphere (by Jürgen Habermas), showing how it is presented as an interface between the citizen and the state (or the private and public) and how important is it in a deliberative democracy. Based on this paradigm, the traditional perception of the role of public information (such as system functional element) and on the possibility of media regulation will be exposed, due to the public nature of their activity. A critical argument will then be displayed from two different perspectives: a) the formal function of the current media information, considering that the digital age has fragmented the information access; b) the concept of a constructive democracy, which reduces the need for representation, changing the strategic importance of the public sphere. The question to be addressed (based on the comparative law) is if the regulation is justified in a polycentric democracy, especially when it operates under the digital age (with immediate and virtual communication). The proposal is to be presented in the sense that even in a twenty-first century the media in a democratic rule of law still has an extremely important role and may be subject to regulation, but this should be on terms very different (and narrower) from those usually defended.

Keywords: constructive democracy, media, digital age, public sphere

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4673 Muslims in Diaspora Negotiating Islam through Muslim Public Sphere and the Role of Media

Authors: Sabah Khan

Abstract:

The idea of universal Islam tends to exaggerate the extent of homogeneity in Islamic beliefs and practices across Muslim communities. In the age of migration, various Muslim communities are in diaspora. The immediate implication of this is what happens to Islam in diaspora? How Islam gets represented in new forms? Such pertinent questions need to be dealt with. This paper shall draw on the idea of religious transnationalism, primarily transnational Islam. There are multiple ways to conceptualize transnational phenomenon with reference to Islam in terms of flow of people, transnational organizations and networks; Ummah oriented solidarity and the new Muslim public sphere. This paper specifically deals with the new Muslim public sphere. It primarily refers to the space and networks enabled by new media and communication technologies, whereby Muslim identity and Islamic normativity are rehearsed, debated by people in different locales. A new sense of public is emerging across Muslim communities, which needs to be contextualized. This paper uses both primary and secondary data. Primary data elicited through content analysis of audio-visuals on social media and secondary sources of information ranging from books, articles, journals, etc. The basic aim of the paper is to focus on the emerging Muslim public sphere and the role of media in expanding public spheres of Islam. It also explores how Muslims in diaspora negotiate Islam and Islamic practices through media and the new Muslim public sphere. This paper cogently weaves in discussions firstly, of re-intellectualization of Islamic discourse in the public sphere. In other words, how Muslims have come to reimagine their collective identity and critically look at fundamental principles and authoritative tradition. Secondly, the emerging alternative forms of Islam by young Muslims in diaspora. In other words, how young Muslims search for unorthodox ways and media for religious articulation, including music, clothing and TV. This includes transmission and distribution of Islam in diaspora in terms of emerging ‘media Islam’ or ‘soundbite Islam’. The new Muslim public sphere has offered an arena to a large number of participants to critically engage with Islam, which leads not only to a critical engagement with traditional forms of Islamic authority but also emerging alternative forms of Islam and Islamic practices.

Keywords: Islam, media, Muslims, public sphere

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4672 Manipulation of the Public Sphere to Win Cultural Hegemony: The Process by Which Islamic State Uses the Principles of the Overton Window to Engineer Extremism

Authors: A. Brigitte Coles

Abstract:

In order to be successful in a campaign against terror and maintain a favorable world order, we must recognize the effects of priming, framing, and agenda setting on the public sphere, and address how terrorist organizations are able to manipulate language and symbols to shift public opinion and increase recruitment success. Because of their unprecedented activity in the region and foreign recruitment success, this study specifically addresses how the Islamic State (IS/ISIS/ISIL) manipulates the public sphere to amplify support and increase western recruitment. By following a grounded theory methodology and coding triangulated data from IS propaganda, a model for the process of terrorist recruitment has emerged, concerning both environments and personalities susceptible to recruitment, and the steps by which an extremist can be created. This has resulted in the ability to reverse engineer a method by which counter recruitment operations can be facilitated in an effort to lessen the vulnerability of areas and individuals, as well as create dissent among current extremists.

Keywords: countering violent extremism, counter-terrorism, recruitment, overton window

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4671 Public and Private Spaces Producing Social Connectedness in Traditional Environment: A Study on Old Medina District of Casablanca

Authors: Asmaa Sokrat, Aykut Karaman

Abstract:

Public and private spaces are major components of the morphology of the city. This research aims to study the interactions between public and private domains in terms of urban space in Casablanca. The research focuses on a general vision of a socio-spatial issue. It plans to identify the public, private, and transition (semi-public, semi-private) spaces as the constituent of the urban space. Moreover, the study investigates the link between public and private spaces with the social dimensions. Additionally, the research argues that the public space is a place of social interaction; as a reflection, this interaction is the intersection between urban space and social connectedness. Besides, social interaction can be the key to distinguishing between the public and private spheres. The methodological approach of the research is based on the literature review and field study. The article is targeting a case study on the old Medina of Casablanca, from daily use of the public and private spaces, the urban tissue, and the urban space types. In conclusion, the research exhibits that a public space could influence the privacy of the residents of a local urban area; thus, this privacy is inverted on the social interaction. This social interaction is the link between the urban space and social connectedness. Hence, this equation affects the typology of the private space.

Keywords: public sphere, private sphere, social connectedness, old Medina of Casablanca

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4670 Ethical Challenges for Journalists in Times of Fake News and Hate Speech: A Survey with German Journalists

Authors: Laura C. Solzbacher, Caja Thimm

Abstract:

Journalists worldwide have been confronted with a variety of ethical challenges over the last years. Because of massive changes in media technology and the public sphere, especially online journalism has trouble to uphold the fundamental values of journalism. In particular, the increasing amount of fake news and hate speech puts journalists under more and more pressure. In order to understand better how journalists judge this development and how they adapt in their daily work, a survey with journalists in Germany was carried out. 303 professional journalists participated in an online questionnaire. Results show that 65% underline that economic pressure grows and nearly the same number describe a change in the role of journalists in society. Furthermore, 61% agree that they put more time into research to secure their work against accusations of fabricating fake news. Interestingly, over 60% see a change in the role of journalists in society. The majority (85%) confirms that print journalism has to give way for online platforms and that the influence of social media for journalism grows (75%). Half of the surveyed advocate for more personalized public activism on part of journalists, such as appearance in talk shows and public talks. The results of the study will be discussed in light of the ongoing debate on ethical standards as a condition for a sustainable and trustworthy digital public sphere.

Keywords: ethics, fake news, journalism, public sphere

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4669 Hijabs, Burqas and Burqinis: Freedom of Religious Expression In The French Public Sphere

Authors: John Tate

Abstract:

In 2004, the French Parliament banned the “hijab” in public schools, and in 2010 it prohibited the “burqa” and “niqab” in “public places.” The result was a “secular” outcome involving the removal of these garments, often identified with Islamic religious and cultural practice, from the French public sphere. Yet in 2016, the French local council bans on the “burqini” were overruled by France’s highest administrative court, the Conseil d’État, allowing for their retention in the public sphere. Unlike the burqa and hijab bans, the burqini bans produced significant divisions at the highest echelons of the French political class, with the Prime Minister, Manuel Valls, and the President, François Hollande, finding themselves at odds on the issue. This article seeks to achieve four aims. It seeks to (a) explain the contrary outcomes between key French state institutions, such as the Conseil d’État and the French Parliament, concerning the hijab and burqa bans, and the Conseil d’État and French local councils, concerning the burqini bans; (b) to do so by identifying two qualitatively distinct, and at times incompatible, conceptions of laïcité, present within official French public discourse, and applied by these French state institutions to underwrite these respective outcomes; (c) explain why, given these contrary conceptions of laïcité, and these contrary outcomes, the widespread identification of laïcité with “secularism” is both misleading and inaccurate; and (d) provide an explanation why senior members of the French political class were divided on the burqini bans when they were not divided on the nation-wide prohibitions of the hijab in public schools and the burqa in public places. In regard to this last question, the article seeks to ask why the Burqini was “different”?

Keywords: liberalism, republicanism, laïcité, citizenship

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4668 Retrospective Insight on the Changing Status of the Romanian Language Spoken in the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Gina Aurora Necula

Abstract:

From its transformation into a taboo and its hiding under the so-called “Moldovan language” or under the euphemistic expression “state language” to its regained status recognition as an official language, the Romanian language spoken in the Republic of Moldova has undergone impressive reforms in the last 60 years. Meant to erase the awareness of citizens’ ethnic identity and turn a majority language into a minority one, all the laws and regulations issued on the field succeeded into setting numerous barriers for speakers of Romanian. Either manifested as social constraints or materialized into assumed rejection of mother tongue usage, all these laws have demonstrated their usefulness and major impact on the Romanian-speaking population. This article is the result of our research carried out over 10 years with the support of students, and Moldovan citizens, from the master's degree program "Romanian language - identity and cultural awareness." We present here a retrospective insight of the reforms, laws, and regulations that contributed to the shifted status of the Romanian language from the official language, seen as the language of common use both in the public and private spheres, in the minority language that surrendered its privileged place to the Russian language, firstly in the public sphere, and then, slowly but surely, in the private sphere. Our main goal here is to identify and make speakers understand what the barriers to learning Romanian language are nowadays when the social pressure on using Russian no longer exists.

Keywords: linguistic barriers, lingua franca, private sphere, public sphere, reformation

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4667 A Geometrical Method for the Smoluchowski Equation on the Sphere

Authors: Adriano Valdes-Gomez, Francisco Javier Sevilla

Abstract:

We devise a numerical algorithm to simulate the diffusion of a Brownian particle restricted to the surface of a three-dimensional sphere when the particle is under the effects of an external potential that is coupled linearly. It is obtained using elementary geometry, yet, it converges, in the weak sense, to the solutions to the Smoluchowski equation. Rotations on the sphere, which are the analogs of linear displacements in euclidean spaces, are calculated using algebraic operations and then by a proper scaling, which makes the algorithm efficient and quite simple, especially to what may be the short-time propagator approach. Our findings prove that the global effects of curvature are taken into account in both dynamic and stationary processes, and it is not restricted to work in configuration space, neither restricted to the overdamped limit. We have generalized it successfully to simulate the Kramers or the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, where it is necessary to work directly in phase space, and it may be adapted to other two dimensional surfaces with non-constant curvature.

Keywords: diffusion on the sphere, Fokker-Planck equation on the sphere, non equilibrium processes on the sphere, numerical methods for diffusion on the sphere

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4666 Green and Facile Fabrication and Characterization of Fe/ZnO Hollow Spheres and Photodegradation of Azo Dyes

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Bahjat Afshari Razani

Abstract:

In this work, Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures with high surface area using the template glucose was prepared by the hydrothermal method using an ultrasonic bath at room temperature was produced and were identified by FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM and BET. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized spherical Fe/ZnO hollow sphere were studied in the destruction of Congo Red and Methylene Blue as Azo dyes. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Fe/ZnO hollow spherical structures is improved compared with ZnO hollow sphere and other morphologys.

Keywords: azo dyes, Fe/ZnO hollow sphere, hollow sphere nanostructures, photocatalyst

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4665 New Media and Deliberative Democracy in Malaysia

Authors: Rosyidah Muhamad

Abstract:

This article seeks to access the democratic implication of new media in Malaysia through three important key points of deliberative democracy; information access, rational critical deliberation and mechanism of vertical accountability. The article suggests that the Internet is expanding political opportunity in which contributed to a more diverse discourse. It is depending on how users used it; for democratic or non-democratic outcome. The Internet has been a key instrument in exposing human rights abuse, corruption, organizing protests and mobilizing voters during election campaigns. It therefore pushes for transparency and accountability and thus increasing the rise of deliberative democracy in Malaysia. While there are some elements of an emerging deliberative politics, it is also clear that the Malaysian online political discourse is acting as moderate forms of discourse as the sphere increasingly exist in a chaotic and diversified online discourse. Yet, the online sphere still allows citizens to discuss public affairs. When the public opinion is strong enough, it can influence public policies to ensure that they reflect the public interest. It is suggesting an increased space of negotiation and contestation among the previously muzzled offline situation. This is a big step in the progress democracy in Malaysia.

Keywords: Keywords: New Media, democratization, deliberative democracy, Malaysian politics

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4664 Audience Engagement in UNHCR Social Media Stories of Displaced People: Emotion and Reason in a Global Public Debate

Authors: Soraya Tharani

Abstract:

Social media has changed how public opinion is shaped by enabling more diversified and inclusive participation of audiences. New online forums provide spaces in which governments, NGOs and other organizations can create content and receive feedback. These forums are sites where debate can constitute public opinion. Studies of audience engagement can give an understanding of how different voices from the civil society participate in debates and how discussions can reinforce or bring into question established societal beliefs. The UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR, produces audio-visual stories about displaced people for global audiences on social media platforms. The availability of many views in these forums can give insight into how dialogues regarding transnational issues are formed. The public sphere, as defined by Habermas, is a discursive arena where reasoned debate can take place. Habermas’ concept is combined with theories on celebrity advocacy, and discussions about the role and effect celebrities have in raising public awareness for humanitarian issues. The personal and public lives of celebrities often create emotional engagement from their fans and other audiences. In this study, quantitative and qualitative methods have been used on YouTube comments for uncovering how emotion and reason are constituted in a global public debate on celebrity endorsed UNHCR stories of displaced people. The study shows that engagement intensity is not equally distributed between comment threads; comments presented as facts or emotional claims are often supported by recourse to intertextuality, and specific linguistic strategies are used to put forward emotional and reasoned claims regarding individual and group identities. The findings from this research aim to contribute to an understanding of audience engagement on issues of human survival and solidarity in a global social media public sphere.

Keywords: emotions, engagement, global public sphere, linguistic strategies, reason, refugees, social media, UNHCR

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4663 Social Media's Roles in the Change of Vietnamese Society: Emerging Public Sphere for Citizens

Authors: Ly Thi Hai Yen

Abstract:

The Internet in Vietnam has developed significantly over the last 20 years and made impressive advances, permeating into every part of daily life, changing people's habits as well as the way people's communication. Under this situation, social media have become useful tools for the citizen to get and share information. About 10 years ago, most Vietnamese people got the information through state media, but thanks to the development of the Internet, nowadays, social media have been giving them rich sources of information at any area of society. By using case study research methods, documentary research method and in-depth interviews conducted with social media users, NGO activists, and Vietnamese scholars in 2017, the paper found that social media has been bringing a cyber public sphere to whom wish to discuss social and political issues. And, more importantly, it gives them a chance to connect with the government and policy makers quickly and effectively. Moreover, people use social media to supervise activities in society to prevent social evils and corruption in Vietnam. However, besides these positive points, people also have to cope with the rising situation of fake news which causing consequences for the society, such as pulling off crimes or cheating money and others. The paper concluded that social media plays important roles in the change of Vietnamese society, giving citizens a cyber public sphere unrestrictedly to discuss social and political issues but also bringing many bad risks to citizens.

Keywords: Vietnamese, social media, politics-society

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4662 Television and Virtual Public Sphere: A Study on Malayali Tribes in Salem District, Tamil Nadu

Authors: P. Viduthalai, A. K. Divakar, V. Natarajan

Abstract:

Media is one of the powerful tools that manipulate the world in numerous aspects especially in the form of a communication process. For instance, the concept of the public sphere, which was earlier represented by landlords and elites has now transformed into a virtual public sphere, which is also represented by marginalized people. Unfortunately, this acquisition is still paradoxical. Though the media proliferation and its effects are humongous, still it has not been the same throughout the world. Inequality in access to media has created a technological divide among people. Finally, globalization and approach by the government towards using media for development communication has significantly changed the way in which the media reaches every nook and corner. Monarchy, oligarchy, republic and democracy together form the basis of most governments of the world. Of which, democracy is the one with the highest involvement and participation of the people. Ideally, the participation of the people is what, that keeps the democracy running. A healthy democracy is possible only when people are able to access information that makes citizens responsible and serves to check the functioning of their elected representatives. On one side the media consumption of people plays a crucial role in the formation of the public sphere, and on the other side, big media conglomerates are a serious threat to community participation, which is a goal that the media should strive for in a country like India. How different people consume these different media, differs greatly from length and breadth of the country. Another aspect of this media consumption is that it isn’t passive. People usage and consumption of media are related with the gratification that they derive from the particular media. This aspect varies from person to person and from society to society according to both internal and external factors. This article sets out from the most underlying belief that Malayali Tribes have adopted television and becomes a part of daily life and a day never passes without it especially after the introduction of Free Television Scheme by the past state government. Though they are living in hilly and socially isolated places, they too have started accessing media for understanding about the people of the plains and their culture, dictated by their interest. Many of these interests appear to have a social and psychological origin. The present research attempts to study how gratification of these needs lead Malayali Tribes to form such a virtual public sphere where they could communicate with people of the plains. Data was collected through survey method, from 300 respondents on “Exposure towards Television and their perception”. Conventional anthropological methods like unstructured interviews were also used to supplement the data collection efforts in the three taluks namely Yercaud, Pethanayankkanpalayam and Panamaraththuppatty in Salem district of TamilNadu. The results highlight the role of Television in gratifying needs of the Malayali Tribes.

Keywords: democracy, gratification, Malayali Tribes and television, virtual public sphere

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4661 Mining News Deserts: Impact of Local Newspaper's Closure on Political Participation and Engagement in Rural Australian Town of Lightning Ridge

Authors: Marco Magasic

Abstract:

This article examines how a local newspaper’s closure impacts the way everyday people in a rural Australian town are informed about and engage with political affairs. It draws on a two-month focused ethnographic study in the outback town of Lighting Ridge, New South Wales and explores people’s media-related practices following the closure of the towns’ only newspaper, The Ridge News, in 2015. While social media is considered to have partly filled the news void, there is an increasingly fragmented and less vibrant local public sphere that has led to growing complacency among individuals about political affairs. Local residents highlight a dearth of reliable, credible information and lament the loss of the newspaper and its role in community advocacy and fostering people’s engagement with political institutions, especially local government.

Keywords: public sphere, political participation, local news, democratic deficit

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4660 Gendered Self-Expression and Muslim Medieval Women's Participation in the Creation and Production of Islam's Literary Heritage

Authors: Safa Moussoud

Abstract:

Contrary to modern misconceptions, women in the Muslim Middle Ages enjoyed a generous degree of liberty both in the public and private sphere. Poetry was a significant component of public life throughout the Muslim Civilization as its vitality and multi-generic nature acted as a way for medieval Muslims to communicate with each other. As such, a continuity of poetic literary heritage was preserved through multiple centuries and dynasties. This paper will argue that Muslim women were active participants in medieval Muslim society’s social and public sphere and therefore, can be seen as vital contributors to the intellectual and literary creation of the Muslim Civilization. This paper will examine poetry written by Safiyya al-Baghddadiya and Salma bint al-Qaratisi from the Abbasid period, as well as Wallada bint al-Mustakfi from the Andalusian period and focus particularly at the poetesses’ modes of self-expression regarding beauty and sexuality to argue that Medieval Muslim women enjoyed creative and literary liberty thus allowing them to proclaim their subjectivity publicly through poetry. By emphasizing women’s involvement in the social aspects of Medieval Muslim societies, this paper will ultimately urge for a more thorough investigation of Muslim women’s role and function in the making of the Muslim Civilization.

Keywords: Arabo-Islamic society, medieval Muslims, Muslim poetesses, self-expression

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4659 Transpersonal Model of an Individual's Creative Experiencef

Authors: Anatoliy Kharkhurin

Abstract:

Modifications that the prefix ‘trans-‘ refers to start within a person. This presentation focuses on the transpersonal that goes beyond the individual (trans-personal) to encompass wider aspects of humanities, specifically peak experience as a culminating stage of the creative act. It proposes a model according to which the peak experience results from a harmonious vibration of four spheres, which transcend an individual’s capacities and bring one to a qualitatively different level of experience. Each sphere represents an aspect of creative activity: superconscious, intellectual, emotive and active. Each sphere corresponds to one of four creative functions: authenticity, novelty, aesthetics, and utility, respectively. The creative act starts in the superconscious sphere: the supreme pleasure of Creation is reflected in creative pleasure, which is realized in creative will. These three instances serve as a source of force axes, which penetrate other spheres, and in place of infiltration establish restrictive, expansive, and integrative principles, respectively; the latter balances the other two and ensures a harmonious vibration within a sphere. This Hegelian-like triad is realized within each sphere in the form of creative capacities. The intellectual sphere nurtures capacities to invent and to elaborate, which are integrated by capacity to conceptualize. The emotive sphere nurtures satiation and restrictive capacities integrated by capacity to balance. The active sphere nurtures goal orientation and stabilization capacities integrated by capacity for self-expression. All four spheres vibrate within each other – the superconscious sphere being in the core of the structure followed by intellectual, emotive, and active spheres, respectively – thereby reflecting the path of creative production. If the spheres vibrate in-phase, their amplitudes amplify the creative energy; if in antiphase – the amplitudes reduce the creative energy. Thus, creative act is perceived as continuum with perfectly harmonious vibration within and between the spheres on one side and perfectly disharmonious vibration on the other.

Keywords: creativity, model, transpersonal, peak experience

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4658 Prevention of Corruption in Public Purchases

Authors: Anatoly Krivinsh

Abstract:

The results of dissertation research "Preventing and combating corruption in public procurement" are presented in this publication. The study was conducted 2011 till 2013 in a Member State of the European Union, in the Republic of Latvia. Goal of the thesis is to explore corruption prevention and combating issues in public procurement sphere, to identify the prevalence rates, determinants and contributing factors and prevention opportunities in Latvia. In the first chapter the author analyses theoretical aspects of understanding corruption in public procurement, with particular emphasis on corruption definition problem, its nature, causes and consequences. A separate section is dedicated to the public procurement concept, mechanism and legal framework. In the first part of this work the author presents cognitive methodology of corruption in public procurement field, based on which the author has carried out an analysis of corruption situation in public procurement in Republic of Latvia. In the second chapter of the thesis, the author analyzes the problem of corruption in public procurement, including its historical aspects, typology and classification of corruption subjects involved, corruption risk elements in public procurement and their identification. During the development of the second chapter author's practical experience in public procurements was widely used. The third and fourth chapter deals with issues related to the prevention and combating corruption in public procurement, namely the operation of the concept, principles, methods and techniques, subjects in Republic of Latvia, as well as an analysis of foreign experience in preventing and combating corruption. The fifth chapter is devoted to the corruption prevention and combating perspectives and their assessment. In this chapter the author has made the evaluation of corruption prevention and combating measures efficiency in Republic of Latvia, assessment of anti-corruption legislation development stage in public procurement field in Latvia.

Keywords: prevention of corruption, public purchases, good governance, human rights

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4657 Analysis of the Scattered Fields by Dielectric Sphere Inside Different Dielectric Mediums: The Case of the Source and Observation Point Is Reciprocal

Authors: Emi̇ne Avşar Aydin, Nezahat Günenç Tuncel, A. Hami̇t Serbest

Abstract:

The electromagnetic scattering from a canonical structure is an important issue in electromagnetic theory. In this study, the electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric sphere with oblique incidence is investigated. The incident field is considered as a plane wave with H polarized. The scattered and transmitted field expressions with unknown coefficients are written. The unknown coefficients are obtained by using exact boundary conditions. Then, the sphere is considered as having frequency dependent dielectric permittivity. The frequency dependence is shown by Cole-Cole model. The far scattered field expressions are found respect to different incidence angles in the 1-8 GHz frequency range. The observation point is the angular distance of pi from an incident wave. While an incident wave comes with a certain angle, observation point turns from 0 to 360 degrees. According to this, scattered field amplitude is maximum at the location of the incident wave, scattered field amplitude is minimum at the across incident wave. Also, the scattered fields are plotted versus frequency to show frequency-dependence explicitly. Graphics are shown for some incident angles compared with the Harrington's solution. Thus, the results are obtained faster and more reliable with reciprocal rotation. It is expected that when there is another sphere with different properties in the outer sphere, the presence and location of the sphere will be detected faster. In addition, this study leads to use for biomedical applications in the future.

Keywords: scattering, dielectric sphere, oblique incidence, reciprocal rotation

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4656 The Landscape of Multilingualism in the Urban Community of Limassol

Authors: Antigoni Parmaxi, Anna Nicolaou, Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous, Dimitrios Boglou

Abstract:

This study provides an overview of the socio linguistic situation of an under-researched city, Limassol, Cyprus, with regard to multilingualism and plurilingualism. More specifically, it explores issues pertaining to multilingualism and plurilingualism in education, the public sphere, economic life, the private sphere, and urban spaces. Through an examination of Limassol’s history of language diversity, as well as through an analysis of the city from a contemporary point of view, the study attempts to portray the multilingual Limassol of yesterday and of today. Findings demonstrate several aspects of multilingualism, such as how communication is achieved among the citizens, how the city encourages multilingualism, as well as what policies and practices are implemented in the various spheres in order to promote intercultural dialogue and mutual understanding. As a result of the findings, suggestions for best practices, introduction or improvement of policies and visions of the city are put forward.

Keywords: language diversity, social inclusion, multilingualism, language visibility, language policy

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4655 Some Aspects of Improving Service Sphere Management in Georgia

Authors: Gechbaia Badri

Abstract:

In the article, it is studied and realized the perfection issues of service sphere management in Georgia’s reality. As stated above, to transfer the country's economy onto marketing relationships, to form competitive dynamic market is dictated by the time and represents objective necessity. In the last period, the abruptly increasing of changes on science and education caused servicing sphere and producing skills, consumptions based on fields of places and changing role in a structure of the national economy. The main recourse in the new system of the economy became the intellectual capital. The economical progress is significantly determined by developing informational technologies. In the article, it is investigated the service problems of different fields of national economy and are given sentences to settle these problems.

Keywords: service management, service, paradigm, business and management engineering

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4654 Numerical Simulation on Two Components Particles Flow in Fluidized Bed

Authors: Wang Heng, Zhong Zhaoping, Guo Feihong, Wang Jia, Wang Xiaoyi

Abstract:

Flow of gas and particles in fluidized beds is complex and chaotic, which is difficult to measure and analyze by experiments. Some bed materials with bad fluidized performance always fluidize with fluidized medium. The material and the fluidized medium are different in many properties such as density, size and shape. These factors make the dynamic process more complex and the experiment research more limited. Numerical simulation is an efficient way to describe the process of gas-solid flow in fluidized bed. One of the most popular numerical simulation methods is CFD-DEM, i.e., computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method. The shapes of particles are always simplified as sphere in most researches. Although sphere-shaped particles make the calculation of particle uncomplicated, the effects of different shapes are disregarded. However, in practical applications, the two-component systems in fluidized bed also contain sphere particles and non-sphere particles. Therefore, it is needed to study the two component flow of sphere particles and non-sphere particles. In this paper, the flows of mixing were simulated as the flow of molding biomass particles and quartz in fluidized bad. The integrated model was built on an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach which was improved to suit the non-sphere particles. The constructed methods of cylinder-shaped particles were different when it came to different numerical methods. Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed as an agglomerate of fictitious small particles in CFD part, which means the small fictitious particles gathered but not combined with each other. The diameter of a fictitious particle d_fic and its solid volume fraction inside a cylinder-shaped particle α_fic, which is called the fictitious volume fraction, are introduced to modify the drag coefficient β by introducing the volume fraction of the cylinder-shaped particles α_cld and sphere-shaped particles α_sph. In a computational cell, the void ε, can be expressed as ε=1-〖α_cld α〗_fic-α_sph. The Ergun equation and the Wen and Yu equation were used to calculate β. While in DEM method, cylinder-shaped particles were built by multi-sphere method, in which small sphere element merged with each other. Soft sphere model was using to get the connect force between particles. The total connect force of cylinder-shaped particle was calculated as the sum of the small sphere particles’ forces. The model (size=1×0.15×0.032 mm3) contained 420000 sphere-shaped particles (diameter=0.8 mm, density=1350 kg/m3) and 60 cylinder-shaped particles (diameter=10 mm, length=10 mm, density=2650 kg/m3). Each cylinder-shaped particle was constructed by 2072 small sphere-shaped particles (d=0.8 mm) in CFD mesh and 768 sphere-shaped particles (d=3 mm) in DEM mesh. The length of CFD and DEM cells are 1 mm and 2 mm. Superficial gas velocity was changed in different models as 1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s, 2.0m/s. The results of simulation were compared with the experimental results. The movements of particles were regularly as fountain. The effect of superficial gas velocity on cylinder-shaped particles was stronger than that of sphere-shaped particles. The result proved this present work provided a effective approach to simulation the flow of two component particles.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, discrete element method, fluidized bed, multiphase flow

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4653 Instability by Weak Precession of the Flow in a Rapidly Rotating Sphere

Authors: S. Kida

Abstract:

We consider the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a precessing sphere whose spin and precession axes are orthogonal to each other. The flow is characterized by two non-dimensional parameters, the Reynolds number Re and the Poincare number Po. For which values of (Re, Po) will the flow approach a steady state from an arbitrary initial condition? To answer it we are searching the instability boundary of the steady states in the whole (Re, Po) plane. Here, we focus the rapidly rotating and weakly precessing limit, i.e., Re >> 1 and Po << 1. The steady flow was obtained by the asymptotic expansion for small ε=Po Re¹/² << 1. The flow exhibits nearly a solid-body rotation in the whole sphere except for a thin boundary layer which develops over the sphere surface. The thickness of this boundary layer is of O(δ), where δ=Re⁻¹/², except where two circular critical bands of thickness of O(δ⁴/⁵) and of width of O(δ²/⁵) which are located away from the spin axis by about 60°. We perform the linear stability analysis of the steady flow. We assume that the disturbances are localized in the critical bands and make an expansion analysis in terms of ε to derive the eigenvalue problem for the growth rate of the disturbance, which is solved numerically. As the solution, we obtain an asymptote of the stability boundary as Po=28.36Re⁻⁰.⁸. This agrees excellently with the corresponding laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. One of the most popular instability mechanisms so far is the parametric instability, which turns out, however, not to give the correct stability boundary. The present instability is different from the parametric instability.

Keywords: boundary layer, critical band, instability, precessing sphere

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4652 The Impact of Misogyny on Women's Leadership in the Local Sphere of Government: The Case of Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality

Authors: Josephine Eghonghon Ahiante, Barry Hanyane

Abstract:

To give effect to the constitutional rights of gender equality, the South African government instituted various legislative policy frameworks and legislations to equalise the public service. Nonetheless, gender inequality in senior management positions remains a rift in government institutions, particularly the local sphere of government. The methodology for gathering and analysing data for this study was based on both primary and secondary data sources, namely literature review, qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, triangulation, and inductive and deductive thematic analysis. The study found that misogynist tendencies which are manifest in organisational culture suffocate the good intentions of government in ensuring social justices, leadership diversity, and women equality. It also demonstrates that traditional gender role expectation still informs the ground in which senior management positions are allocated, men perceive women as non-leadership fit and discriminate against them during recruitment, selection, and promotion into high positions. The analyses from the study portray that, while government legislation and framework has been instrumental in the leadership acceleration of women, much more has to be done to deconstruct internalised leadership stereotypes on women's gender roles and leadership requirements. The study recommends that gender bias training intervention is needed to teach public employees on management excellence.

Keywords: gender, leadership, misogyny, orgnisational cultural, patriachy

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4651 Synthesis and Characterization of the Carbon Spheres Built Up from Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: Takahiro Saida, Takahiro Kogiso, Takahiro Maruyama

Abstract:

The ordered structural carbon (OSC) material is expected to apply to the electrode of secondary batteries, the catalyst supports, and the biomaterials because it shows the low substance-diffusion resistance by its uniform pore size. In general, the OSC material is synthesized using the template material. Changing size and shape of this template provides the pore size of OSC material according to the purpose. Depositing the oxide nanosheets on the polymer sphere template by the layer by layer (LbL) method was reported as one of the preparation methods of OSC material. The LbL method can provide the controlling thickness of structural wall without the surface modification. When the preparation of the uniform carbon sphere prepared by the LbL method which composed of the graphene oxide wall and the polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) core, the reduction treatment will be the important object. Since the graphene oxide has poor electron conductivity due to forming a lot of functional groups on the surface, it could be hard to apply to the electrode of secondary batteries and the catalyst support of fuel cells. In this study, the graphene oxide wall of carbon sphere was reduced by the thermal treatment under the vacuum conditions, and its crystalline structure and electronic state were characterized. Scanning electron microscope images of the carbon sphere after the heat treatment at 300ºC showed maintaining sphere shape, but its shape was collapsed with increasing the heating temperature. In this time, the dissolution rate of PMMA core and the reduction rate of graphene oxide were proportionate to heating temperature. In contrast, extending the heating time was conducive to the conservation of the sphere shape. From results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, its electronic state of the surface was indicated mainly sp² carbon. From the above results, we succeeded in the synthesis of the sphere structure composed by the reduction graphene oxide.

Keywords: carbon sphere, graphene oxide, reduction, layer by layer

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4650 Deliberative Democracy: As an Approach for Analyzing Gezi Movement Public Forums

Authors: Çisem Gündüz Arabacı

Abstract:

Deliberation has been seen one of the most important components of democratic ideals especially since liberal democratic attributions have been under fire. Deliberative democracy advocates that people should participate in collective decision-making processes by other mechanisms rather than conventional ones in order to reach legitimate decisions. Deliberative democratic theory makes emphasis on deliberative communication between people and encourages them not to merely express their political opinions (through surveys and referendum) but to form those opinions through public debates. This paper focuses on deliberative democratic visions of Gezi Park Public Forums by taking deliberative democracy as theoretical basis and examining Gezi Park Public Forums in the light of core elements of deliberative democracy. Gezi Movement started on 28 May 2013 in İstanbul as a reaction to local government's revision plans for Taksim Gezi Park, spread throughout the country and created new zones in public sphere which are called Public Park Forums. During the summer of 2013, especially in İstanbul but also in other cities, people gathered in public parks, discussed and took collective decisions concerning actions which they will take. It is worth to mention that since 3 and half years some Public Park Forums are still continuing their meetings regularly in city of İzmir. This paper analyzes four 'Public Park Forums' in İzmir which are called Bornova Public Forum; Karşıyaka Public Forum, Foça Public Forum and Güzelyalı Public Forum. These Forums are under investigation in terms of their understanding of democracy and the values that support that understanding. Participant observation and in-depth interview methods are being used as research methods. Core element of deliberative democracy are being collected under three main category: common interest versus private interest, membership, rational argument and these values are being questioning within one of each Forum in order to draw an overall picture and also make comparison between them. Discourse analysis is being used in order to examine empirical data and paper aims to reveal how participants of public forums perceive deliberative democratic values and whether they give weight to these values.

Keywords: deliberative democracy, Gezi Park movement, public forums, social movement

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4649 Ethnographic Approach for Street Performers as Cultural Entrepreneurs

Authors: Marta Polec

Abstract:

The paper outlines the problem of street performances in Poland in context of humanistic management studies. The Author perceives activity of street performers of various art and entertainment actions as a phenomenon of informal organizing, self-management and cultural entrepreneurship in urban sphere. What has to be highlighted, performative street art is not currently being an interest of scientific research as often as visual street art. That is why the Author indicates the need of including new approaches of humanistic and social disciplines, especially different management paradigms, in examining various aspects of the activity of street performers. The paper shows the results of ethnographic study based on anthropological interviews, participant observation non-participant observation, shadowing, field notes, audiovisual documentation and text analysis. The fieldwork was performed since 2014 in the old towns and major areas of several the most popular touristic Polish cities, mainly in Gdansk, Cracow, Lublin, Warsaw, and Wroclaw. The research group included street artists of various kinds of performative arts. The investigation was prepared within the ‘Ethnography of the informal organization of street artists in Poland’ project, as a part of Diamond Grant programme (the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland). The first conclusion of the study is that street shows form a way of artistic self-realization and unusual promotion of creative activity in public space. As street performance helps to make some extra money and even earning a living in general, it seems to constitute a new profession. Street performers as a specific environment usually know each other and in many ways cooperate informally to carry on their shows successfully. Secondly, this activity brings plenty benefits for the local communities. Street shows attract inhabitants and tourists quite often by appealing to intangible cultural heritage and memorializing it. They also pose a space for discussing current social issues. Moreover, they disseminate relatively inexpensive public access to culture, but also state an example of social courage of choosing unconventional occupation. Finally, currently being used terms of street performers/street artists/buskers in different languages, as instance as in Polish, are still fluent and undefined. As a consequence, it brings implications for existing common knowledge about street performers, for example in establishing and implementing public policies. It impedes solving many ethical and social dilemmas concerning the question of performances in public sphere, which in some cases seem to be related to, as: children’s work, beggars’ practices or question of harmony of public space. The main aim of this study was to expose street performances as yet undefined profession, including different possibilities of interacting with the audience, based on providing impressions, experiences and memories. Although the issue seems to be current and common, in indicated context there is a lack of equal and unified approach of managing urban sphere, which in practice differs both in informal rules and official policies concerning street performances not only in cities in Poland, but also generally in Europe.

Keywords: informal, organizing, street performance, urban sphere

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4648 Elastoplastic and Ductile Damage Model Calibration of Steels for Bolt-Sphere Joints Used in China’s Space Structure Construction

Authors: Huijuan Liu, Fukun Li, Hao Yuan

Abstract:

The bolted spherical node is a common type of joint in space steel structures. The bolt-sphere joint portion almost always controls the bearing capacity of the bolted spherical node. The investigation of the bearing performance and progressive failure in service often requires high-fidelity numerical models. This paper focuses on the constitutive models of bolt steel and sphere steel used in China’s space structure construction. The elastoplastic model is determined by a standard tensile test and calibrated Voce saturated hardening rule. The ductile damage is found dominant based on the fractography analysis. Then Rice-Tracey ductile fracture rule is selected and the model parameters are calibrated based on tensile tests of notched specimens. These calibrated material models can benefit research or engineering work in similar fields.

Keywords: bolt-sphere joint, steel, constitutive model, ductile damage, model calibration

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4647 Modernity and Domestic Space in the Feminist Utopias of Herland and Sultana’s Dream

Authors: Nudrat Kamal

Abstract:

Scholarship exploring the development of the literary tradition of feminist utopias, especially in the sociopolitical context of Europe and North America, has been important and meaningful, but it is, in large part, still restricted to Euro-American texts. This paper will explore Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s feminist utopia Herland (1915) with another feminist utopia written just a decade before, but in a widely different sociopolitical context: Bengali feminist writer Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain’s English short story Sultana’s Dream (1905). The paper will argue that both texts, despite being written in such different cultural and historical contexts, utilize and subvert the public versus private/domestic sphere dichotomy and the restricted gender roles associated with each sphere in order to conceive of specific formulations of feminist modernities that reflect the sociopolitical contexts and feminist movements both writers were writing within. By bringing Gilman’s Herland into conversation with Hossain’s Sultana’s Dream, the paper hopes to illuminate the new meanings that might emerge if the scholarship on Western feminist utopias was to open itself up to the feminist utopias written elsewhere.

Keywords: comparative literature, feminist utopias, modernity, South Asian literature, utopias

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4646 Status and Image of the Nurse as Perceived by the Public

Authors: Salam Hadid, Mohammad Khatib

Abstract:

The International Council of Nurses-ICN defined nursing as a sphere integrating autonomous and collaborative care intended for the individual, family and community within and outside of the care setting. Nursing as a care profession has developed broadly over recent decades in terms of its essentials, expertise and primarily academically. Despite the impressive growth of the profession, there is still extreme diversity in the public’s perceptions and opinions of the profession and its professionals and in the knowledge on the fundamentals of its true function and spheres of engagement. The current study examines the existing knowledge among the general population regarding the nursing profession. The population consisted of 498 respondents, 236 women and 262 men, age 18-81. The respondents noted that nursing focuses on the technical, and the emotional aspects and promotion of health for the patient are not the nurse’s responsibility. Most of the respondents saw nurses working mainly in hospital and community-based clinic settings. They considered nursing to be a high prestige profession in general, but less prestigious among respondents exposed to healthcare provision. Most of the respondents considered nursing to be a humane profession but without independence and with no need for academic studies. The findings are incompatible with the definition of nursing and its spheres of action as defined in the ICN Code of Ethics. Two suggestions are to work through nursing schools addressing the student nurses, as ambassadors for the profession. The second is using the healthcare encounter between the nursing staff and the public to improve the image of nurses.

Keywords: ethics, nurse image, public, nursing

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