Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 427

Search results for: funding

427 Social Aspects and Successfully Funding a Crowd-Funding Project: The Impact of Social Information

Authors: Peggy S. C. van Teunenbroek

Abstract:

Recently, philanthropic crowd-funding -the raising of external funding from a large audience via social networks or social media- emerged as a new funding instrument for the Dutch cultural sector. However, such philanthropic crowdfunding in the US and the Netherlands is less successful than any other form of crowdfunding. We argue that social aspects are an important stimulus in philanthropic crowd-funding since previous research has shown that crowdfunding is stimulated by something beyond financial merits. Put simply, crowd-funding seems to be a socially motivated activity. In this paper we focus on the effect of social information, described as information about the donation behavior of previous donors. Using a classroom experiment we demonstrated a positive effect of social information on the donation behavior in crowdfunding campaigns. Our study extends previous research by showing who is affected by social information and why, and highlights how social information can be used to stimulate individuals to donate more to crowdfunding projects.

Keywords: online donation behavior, philanthropic crowdfunding, social information, social influence, social motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
426 Bibliometric Analysis of the Impact of Funding on Scientific Development of Researchers

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

Every year, a considerable amount of money is being invested on research, mainly in the form of funding allocated to universities and research institutes. To better distribute the available funds and to set the most proper R&D investment strategies for the future, evaluation of the productivity of the funded researchers and the impact of such funding is crucial. In this paper, using the data on 15 years of journal publications of the NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of Canada) funded researchers and by means of bibliometric analysis, the scientific development of the funded researchers and their scientific collaboration patterns will be investigated in the period of 1996-2010. According to the results it seems that there is a positive relation between the average level of funding and quantity and quality of the scientific output. In addition, whenever funding allocated to the researchers has increased, the number of co-authors per paper has also augmented. Hence, the increase in the level of funding may enable researchers to get involved in larger projects and/or scientific teams and increase their scientific output respectively.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
425 Correlation between Funding and Publications: A Pre-Step towards Future Research Prediction

Authors: Ning Kang, Marius Doornenbal

Abstract:

Funding is a very important – if not crucial – resource for research projects. Usually, funding organizations will publish a description of the funded research to describe the scope of the funding award. Logically, we would expect research outcomes to align with this funding award. For that reason, we might be able to predict future research topics based on present funding award data. That said, it remains to be shown if and how future research topics can be predicted by using the funding information. In this paper, we extract funding project information and their generated paper abstracts from the Gateway to Research database as a group, and use the papers from the same domains and publication years in the Scopus database as a baseline comparison group. We annotate both the project awards and the papers resulting from the funded projects with linguistic features (noun phrases), and then calculate tf-idf and cosine similarity between these two set of features. We show that the cosine similarity between the project-generated papers group is bigger than the project-baseline group, and also that these two groups of similarities are significantly different. Based on this result, we conclude that the funding information actually correlates with the content of future research output for the funded project on the topical level. How funding really changes the course of science or of scientific careers remains an elusive question.

Keywords: natural language processing, noun phrase, tf-idf, cosine similarity

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
424 Together - A Decentralized Application Connects Ideas and Investors

Authors: Chandragiri Nagadeep, M. V. V. S. Durga, Sadu Mahikshith

Abstract:

Future generation is depended on new ideas and innovations that develops the country economical growth and technology standards so, Startups plays an important role in satisfying above goals. Startups includes support which is given by investing into it by investors but, single digit investors can’t keep supporting one startup and lot of security problems occurs while transferring large funds to startup’s bank account. Targeting security and most supportive funding, TogEther solves these issues by providing a platform where “Crowd Funding” is available in a decentralized way such that funding is done with digital currency called cryptocurrency where transactions are done in a secured way using “Block Chain Technology”. Not only Funding but also Ideas along with their documents can be presented and hosted with help of IPFS (Inter Planetary File System).

Keywords: blockchain, ethereum, web3, reactjs, interplanetary file system, funding

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
423 Crowdfunding in Funding Lithuanian Movies

Authors: Irena Alperyte

Abstract:

Since the regaining of the Independence, the Lithuanian state has been confronting an increasingly dramatic challenge because of the lack of funding sources dedicated to the film industries. During the Soviet times, Lithuanian film was under a total supervision of the Soviet functioners. This means that the responsibility of the state to make movies was of a monopolist character. The filmmakers’ community of the newly independent state needed to learn how to develop their fundraising skills, co-production and marketing techniques. Currently, Lithuanian film is experiencing a new phase concerning its funding: it is exploring the possibilities of motivating the public to invest in entertainment via crowd funding and crowd sourcing techniques and making these activities an alternative way of funding films. The paper aims at the exploration of the existing film financing practices in Lithuania and abroad and provides recommendations on how to improve the alternative Lithuanian film financing strategy via employing new possibilities, such as crowd funding and other alternative marketing tools. Objectives: 1) To examine the theories on creative industries and possibilities for their application. 2) To analyze the current situation in the film industry Lithuania. 3) To analyze the statistical data on movie theater visitors in Lithuania. 4) To discuss alternative options for film financing system. 5) To look through the alternative funding strategies tailored for Lithuanian film industry. 6) To propose recommendations for alternative funding strategies in Lithuanian film fundraising.

Keywords: creative industries, film, funding, fun theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
422 Consequences of Inadequate Funding in Nigerian Educational System

Authors: Sylvia Nkiru Ogbuoji

Abstract:

This paper discussed the consequences of inadequate funding in Nigerian education system. It briefly explained the meaning of education in relation to the context and identified various ways education in Nigeria can be funded. It highlighted some of the consequences of inadequate funding education system to include: Inadequate facilitates for teaching and learning, western brain drain, unemployment, crises of poverty, low staff morale it. Finally, some recommendations were put forward, the government should improve the annual budget allocation to education, in order to achieve educational objective, also government should monitor the utilization of allocated funds to minimize embezzlement.

Keywords: consequences, corruption, education, funding

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
421 Strategies Considered Effective for Funding Public Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Jacinta Ifeoma Obidile

Abstract:

The study sought to ascertain from the opinions of the business educators, effective strategies for funding public tertiary institutions in Anambra State Nigeria, for effective functioning and delivery. Funding of tertiary institutions has become so important following the dilapidated state of most of the public tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Tertiary institutions are known for the production of competitive and competent workforce in the nation. Considering the state of public tertiary institutions currently, one wonders if their objectives are achieved. Many scholars have identified funding as one of the major barriers to effective functioning of tertiary institutions. Although federal and state governments have been supporting the tertiary institutions, but their support seems not to be adequate. This study therefore ascertained from the perspective of business educators, other strategies for funding public tertiary institutions in Anambra State Nigeria, for effective functioning and delivery. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 104 business educators from the public tertiary institutions in the State constituted the population. There was no sampling, hence the whole population was used. Structured questionnaire validated by three experts with a reliability coefficient of 0.82 was the instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Findings from the study revealed that public-private partnership and external aids were among the strategies considered effective for funding public tertiary institutions. It was therefore recommended among others that associations like alumni should be strongly instituted in each of the public tertiary institutions so as to assist in the funding of tertiary institutions for effective functioning and delivery.

Keywords: strategies, funding, tertiary institutions, business educators

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
420 Strategic Fit between Higher Education Funding and the National Development Goals in Kazakhstan

Authors: Ali Ait Si Mhamed, Rita Kasa, Hans Vossensteyn

Abstract:

Kazakhstan is the eight largest country on the globe, in terms of the territory, it is rich in natural resources and is developing dynamically. Kazakhstan strives to become one of the top 30 global economies by 2050. This goal preconditions intensive reforms in all sectors of economy, including higher education. This paper focuses on the higher education funding reforms that take place in Kazakhstan and their alignment with the strategic goals of national development. Currently, the government funds higher education costs for only a limited number of students while the majority of students pay full cost covering tuition fees. Only students with high examination scores at the end of the secondary education are eligible to be admitted to publically funded study places in higher education. While this merit-based higher education funding model is overall well-received in the country, there is also a discourse calling to change the existing approach of higher education funding. This paper draws on interviews with national policy makers and leadership at institutions of higher education in Kazakhstan collected during 2016. It seeks to answer a question about how well the current higher education funding mechanism is aligned with the strategic development goals in higher education. The paper discusses how stakeholders see the fit between the current higher education funding mechanism and the ability of higher education institutions to achieve the aims of national strategic development.

Keywords: higher education reform, higher education funding, higher education policy, Kazakhstan

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
419 Gender Differences in Research Output, Funding and Collaboration

Authors: Ashkan Ebadi, Andrea Schiffauerova

Abstract:

In spite of the global efforts toward gender equality, female researchers are still underrepresented in professional scientific activities. The gender gap is more seen in engineering and math-intensive technological scientific fields thus calling for a specific attention. This paper focuses on the Canadian funded researchers who are active in natural sciences and engineering, and analyses the gender aspects of researchers’ performance, their scientific collaboration patterns as well as their share of the federal funding within the period of 2000 to 2010. Our results confirm the existence of gender disparity among the examined Canadian researchers. Although it was observed that male researchers have been performing better in terms of number of publications, the impact of the research was almost the same for both genders. In addition, it was observed that research funding is more biased towards male researchers and they have more control over their scientific community as well.

Keywords: bibliometrics, collaboration, funding, gender differences, research output

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
418 Factors Responsible for Delays in the Execution of Adequately Funded Construction Projects

Authors: Edoghogho Ogbeifun, Charles Mbohwa, J. H. C. Pretorius

Abstract:

Several research report on the factors responsible for the delays in the completion of construction projects has identified the issue of funding as a critical factor; insufficient funding, low cash-flow or lack of funds. Indeed, adequate funding plays pivotal role in the effective execution of construction projects. In the last twenty years (or so), there has been increase in the funds available for infrastructure development in tertiary institution in Nigeria, especially, through the Tertiary Education Trust Fund. This funding body ensures that there is enough fund for each approved project, which is released in three stages during the life of the construction project. However, a random tour of many of the institutions reveals striking evidence of projects not delivered on schedule, to quality and sometime out rightly abandoned. This suggests, therefore, that there are other latent factors, responsible for project delays, that should be investigated. Thus, this research, a pilot scheme, is aimed at unearthing the possible reasons for the delays being experienced in the execution of construction projects for infrastructure upgrade in public tertiary institutions in Nigeria, funded by Tertiary Education Trust Fund. The multiple site case study of qualitative research was adopted. The respondents were the Directors of Physical Planning and the Directors of Works of four Nigerian Public Universities. The findings reveal that delays can be situated within three entities, namely, the funding body, the institutions and others. Therefore, the emerging factors have been classified as external factors (haven to do with the funding body), internal factors (these concern the operations within the institutions) and general factors. The outcome of this pilot exercise provides useful information to guide the Directors as they interact with the funding body as well as challenges themselves to address the loopholes in their internal operations.

Keywords: delays, external factors, funding, general factors, Internal factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
417 Alternative Funding Strategies for Tertiary Education in Nigeria: Quest for Improved Quality of Teaching and Learning

Authors: Temitayo Olaitan

Abstract:

There is a growing concern about the quality of Nigerian tertiary education. This paper maintains that quality in tertiary education relates to the development of intellectual independence, which sharpens the minds of the individual and helps transform the society economically, socially and politically. However, the paper underscores underfunding as a critical challenge to the quality of teaching and learning in tertiary education. To this end, this paper emphasizes the role of internally generated revenue (IGR) and other alternative funding strategies (public-private partnership) as inevitable for quality tertiary education. This paper hinges on stakeholders approach as a means of ensuring quality teaching and learning in tertiary education. This paper recommends that school managers should seek professional and more efficient ways of developing their revenue generating systems. It also recommends that institutions should restructure to accommodate an alternative funding strategy such as private/corporate sponsorship to ensure that sustainable initiatives are created. The paper concludes that Nigerian government should come up with a policy on how private sectors should support in improving the quality of tertiary education through active participation in funding and physical facilities development in Nigerian higher institutions of learning.

Keywords: alternative funding, budgetary allocation, quality education, tertiary education

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
416 Effect of Financing Sources on Firm Performance: A Study of Indian Private Limited Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Denila Jinny Arulraj, Thillai Rajan Annamalai

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the relationship between funding sources and firm performance of Indian private limited SMEs using cross-sectional data obtained from a nation-wide census. A unique feature of the study is that it analyses firms that use only one form of external funding. Employing Propensity Score Matching, we find that obtaining any form of external finance has a negative influence on equivalents of profit margin and return on assets and a negative influence on asset turnover of small firms. But, the impact of institutional sources of funding on small enterprises is found to be lesser than that of non-institutional sources of funding. External/institutional sources of funding have a less negative impact on the profit margin for medium enterprises and have no significant influence on other measures of performance. The contribution of this research is the discovery of institutional sources wielding a lesser influence on performance measures considered. It is also found that institutional sources can benefit small enterprises more than medium enterprises.

Keywords: external finance, institutional finance, non-institutional finance, performance, India, SME

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
415 Game of Funds: Efficiency and Policy Implications of the United Kingdom Research Excellence Framework

Authors: Boon Lee

Abstract:

Research publication is an essential output of universities because it not only promotes university recognition, it also receives government funding. The history of university research culture has been one of ‘publish or perish’ and universities have consistently encouraged their academics and researchers to produce research articles in reputable journals in order to maintain a level of competitiveness. In turn, the United Kingdom (UK) government funding is determined by the number and quality of research publications. This paper aims to investigate on whether more government funding leads to more quality papers. To that end, the paper employs a Network DEA model to evaluate the UK higher education performance over a period. Sources of efficiency are also determined via second stage regression analysis.

Keywords: efficiency, higher education, network data envelopment analysis, universities

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
414 Alternative Sources of Funding Tertiary Institution in Nigeria

Authors: Mark Omu

Abstract:

Education has remained the greatest fulcrum on which the developmental aspirations of societies and the world over is Anchored. This has been the case from the antiquity. As a result of recognition of this fact, education occupies a crucial and centripetal position at different epochs of societal formation and transformation. This paper recognized the all-embracing role of education to society and it utilized the literary research and review of literature to espouse on the role of alternative sources of financing education. This position was borne out of the dwindling resources available to education. Especially to finance teaching, learning, research and retraining of staffers. This paper found among other things that alternative funding of education is possible and it can be achieved through selling of its research products like entrepreneurial skills, collaborative ventures in public private partnership, philanthropic of endowments, etc. These are capable of bridging the financial gap currently bedevilling the educational sectors.

Keywords: alternative sources, funding, tertiary, education, society, partnership, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
413 School Funding Methods and Egalitarianism

Authors: Mathew Hoyes

Abstract:

This paper is a collation of data, studies and anecdotes on the way education is funded in New Zealand, the ideals which have lead to this method, as well as the issues it has created when combined with other factors and government policy on education over the last two decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical perspective of this situation and to contribute to the global discussion of how to fund schools in an equitable manner, given that the world has become increasingly more globalised and the perception of widening gaps between the rich and the poor in the western world.

Keywords: education funding equity, egalitarianism, socio-economic, New Zealand colonialism

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
412 Research Engagement in Africa: Cost and Challenges

Authors: Teboho Moja, Frans Swanepoel, Okunade Samuel Kehinde

Abstract:

Knowledge production is key to development worldwide. However, some countries are producers of knowledge used globally, whilst others are mainly consumers of that knowledge. There is a correlation between knowledge production and funding levels for research. Countries in Africa recognize the need to provide research funding at levels that would enhance knowledge production but struggle in balancing many competing needs. African countries have committed to funding research at the level of 1% of their GDP on research and development (R&D), which is the recommended percentage to be earmarked for education; however, many countries have not been able to fulfill this. In 2015-2016 Science Granting Councils in 15 out of 54 African states came together to form a Science Granting Council Initiative to strengthen the research capacity in their countries and to support research and evidence-based policies that will contribute to the continent’s economic and social development. The members of the SGCI work collaboratively; however, there is a challenge in addressing research problems that cut across national boundaries as many governments are more interested in prioritizing national issues given their limited resources. This article focuses on the governance structures of those science granting councils to understand and explore reasons for the continuing underfunding of research, the impact of research, and the perceived direct benefit of research outcomes in informing policy and in benefitting the broader society.

Keywords: research, Science Granting Council, funding, European Research Council, African Research Council

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
411 The Political Economy of Police Corruption in Nigeria

Authors: Tosin Osasona

Abstract:

The Nigeria Police Force bears the constitutional mandate as the primary policing agency for the protection of life and property within Nigeria; however, the police have an historical ill-reputation for corruption, ineptitude and impunity. Using the institutional theory of police as the framework of analysis, the paper argues that the performance of the police in Nigeria mirrors the dominant political, social and economic institutions and the structural environment of the Nigerian state. The article puts in perspective the deliberate political decision to underfund the police, leaving officers of the force the extra task of foraging for funds to undertake the duty that the Nigeria state primarily exists for; the article further explores the nexus between corruption in the police in Nigeria and the issue of funding. The article finds that the Nigerian state, by deliberately under-funding the police, while expecting the agency to perform its duties, has indirectly sanctioned the corruption of the force and approved the cooption of the institution of police and policing for private use in Nigeria.

Keywords: Police Corruption, Funding , Informal Taxation, POlice Checkpoint

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
410 Evaluating the Rate of Return to Peach and Nectarine Research in South Africa: 1971-2012

Authors: Chiedza Z. Tsvakirai, Precious M. Tshabalala, Frikkie Liebenberg, Johann F. Kirsten

Abstract:

Agricultural research conducted by the Agricultural Research Council has played an important role in increasing the productivity and profitability of the South African peach and nectarine industry. However, the importance of this research remains unclear to the industry stakeholders because a rate of return for this research has never been done. As a result, funding for the research at Agricultural Research Council has been waning because it is not clear how much value has been created and how much the industry stands to gain with continued research investment. Therefore, this study seeks to calculate the benefit of research investments in a bid to motivate for an increase in funding. The study utilized the supply response function to do this. The rate of return calculation revealed that agricultural research had a marginal internal rate of return of 55.9%. This means that every R1 invested yields a 56 c increase in value in the industry. Being this high, it can be concluded that investment in agricultural research is worthwhile. Thus justifies for an increase in research funding.

Keywords: Benefits of research investment, productivity.

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
409 Nutrition Budgets in Uganda: Research to Inform Implementation

Authors: Alexis D'Agostino, Amanda Pomeroy

Abstract:

Background: Resource availability is essential to effective implementation of national nutrition policies. To this end, the SPRING Project has collected and analyzed budget data from government ministries in Uganda, international donors, and other nutrition implementers to provide data for the first time on what funding is actually allocated to implement nutrition activities named in the national nutrition plan. Methodology: USAID’s SPRING Project used the Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP) as the starting point for budget analysis. Thorough desk reviews of public budgets from government, donors, and NGOs were mapped to activities named in the UNAP and validated by key informants (KIs) across the stakeholder groups. By relying on nationally-recognized and locally-created documents, SPRING provided a familiar basis for discussions to increase credibility and local ownership of findings. Among other things, the KIs validated the amount, source, and type (specific or sensitive) of funding. When only high-level budget data were available, KIs provided rough estimates of the percentage of allocations that were actually nutrition-relevant, allowing creation of confidence intervals around some funding estimates. Results: After validating data and narrowing in on estimates of funding to nutrition-relevant programming, researchers applied a formula to estimate overall nutrition allocations. In line with guidance by the SUN Movement and its three-step process, nutrition-specific funding was counted at 100% of its allocation amount, while nutrition sensitive funding was counted at 25%. The vast majority of nutrition funding in Uganda is off-budget, with over 90 percent of all nutrition funding is provided outside of the government system. Overall allocations are split nearly evenly between nutrition-specific and –sensitive activities. In FY 2013/14, the two-year study’s baseline year, on- and off-budget funding for nutrition was estimated to be around 60 million USD. While the 60 million USD allocations compare favorably to the 66 million USD estimate of the cost of the UNAP, not all activities are sufficiently funded. Those activities with a focus on behavior change were the most underfunded. In addition, accompanying qualitative research suggested that donor funding for nutrition activities may shift government funding into other areas of work, making it difficult to estimate the sustainability of current nutrition investments.Conclusions: Beyond providing figures, these estimates can be used together with the qualitative results of the study to explain how and why these amounts were allocated for particular activities and not others, examine the negotiation process that occurred, and suggest options for improving the flow of finances to UNAP activities for the remainder of the policy tenure. By the end of the PBN study, several years of nutrition budget estimates will be available to compare changes in funding over time. Halfway through SPRING’s work, there is evidence that country stakeholders have begun to feel ownership over the ultimate findings and some ministries are requesting increased technical assistance in nutrition budgeting. Ultimately, these data can be used within organization to advocate for more and improved nutrition funding and to improve targeting of nutrition allocations.

Keywords: budget, nutrition, financing, scale-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
408 Higher Education for Sustainable Development and proposed Performance-based Funding model for Universities in Ontario: Tensions and Coherence between Provincial and Federal Policies

Authors: Atiqa Marium

Abstract:

In 2015, all 193 UN Member countries adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which is an ambitious 15- year plan to address some of the most pressing issues the world faces. Goal 4 is about Quality Education which highlights the importance of inclusive and quality education for sustainable development. Sustainable Development Goal 10 focuses on reducing inequalities within and among countries. In June 2019, Federal Government in Canada released “Towards Canada’s 2030 Agenda National Strategy”, which was an important step to move the 2030 Agenda forward. In April 2019, the Ontario government announced the performance-based funding model for publically assisted colleges and universities in Ontario, which is now part of the universities’ budget 2024-2025. The literature review has shown that the funding model has been implemented by different governments to achieve objectives. However, this model has also resulted in conflicting consequences like reducing university autonomy, education quality/ academic standards, and increased equity concerns. The primary focus of this paper will be to analyze the tensions and coherence between the proposed funding model for education for sustainable development goals and targets set by Canada’s 2030 Agenda National Strategy. Considering that the literature review has provided evidence that the performance-based funding model has resulted in reducing quality of education and increased equity issues in other countries, it will be interesting to see how this proposed funding will align with the SDGs of “Quality Education” and “Reduced Inequalities”. This paper will be well-suited for Volume 4, with the theme of re-visioning institutional impact and sustainability. This paper will underscore the importance of policy coherence between federal and provincial policies for higher education institutions in Ontario for better institutional impact and helping universities in the attainment of goals set in 2030 Agenda towards education for sustainable development.

Keywords: performance-based funding model, education for sustainable development, policy coherence, sustainable development gaols

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
407 Policy Imperatives for Privatisation of Higher Education in India

Authors: Roli Pradhan

Abstract:

All over the globe, the resources of the government are declining, and the funding requirements in education are on a constant rise. The governments are desperately increasing the budgetary allocation for higher education, the economic plans have been labeling investment in higher education to be immensely vital for development of the nation. Still the fact is that the government of the developing nations like India lacks the potential to fund the rising demands of this sector. In the face of declining government funding for higher education, there are the growing needs and justifiable pressure for direct beneficiaries to bear a reasonable part of the cost of higher education. The supply-demand gap in higher education in India is on the increase. This paper evaluates the Indian National Education Policy over the past three decades, furnishes the need of financing of education by private players. The paper also covers the aspects of incorporating the different forms of financing in education and also focuses on the regulations pertaining to quality maintenance in the education system. The paper also targets to suggest policy imperatives for the future education policy for India.

Keywords: national education policy, privatisation, private financing, government funding

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
406 Good Practices for Model Structure Development and Managing Structural Uncertainty in Decision Making

Authors: Hossein Afzali

Abstract:

Increasingly, decision analytic models are used to inform decisions about whether or not to publicly fund new health technologies. It is well noted that the accuracy of model predictions is strongly influenced by the appropriateness of model structuring. However, there is relatively inadequate methodological guidance surrounding this issue in guidelines developed by national funding bodies such as the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) and The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK. This presentation aims to discuss issues around model structuring within decision making with a focus on (1) the need for a transparent and evidence-based model structuring process to inform the most appropriate set of structural aspects as the base case analysis; (2) the need to characterise structural uncertainty (If there exist alternative plausible structural assumptions (or judgements), there is a need to appropriately characterise the related structural uncertainty). The presentation will provide an opportunity to share ideas and experiences on how the guidelines developed by national funding bodies address the above issues and identify areas for further improvements. First, a review and analysis of the literature and guidelines developed by PBAC and NICE will be provided. Then, it will be discussed how the issues around model structuring (including structural uncertainty) are not handled and justified in a systematic way within the decision-making process, its potential impact on the quality of public funding decisions, and how it should be presented in submissions to national funding bodies. This presentation represents a contribution to the good modelling practice within the decision-making process. Although the presentation focuses on the PBAC and NICE guidelines, the discussion can be applied more widely to many other national funding bodies that use economic evaluation to inform funding decisions but do not transparently address model structuring issues e.g. the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) in Australia or the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Keywords: decision-making process, economic evaluation, good modelling practice, structural uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
405 Sports Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bakari Mohammed

Abstract:

Sports performance and achievements have been the avenue through which great nations of the world exhibit their supremacy over others through sports development strategy. Effective sports development, therefore, requires variables like sports policy, sports funding, sports programme, sports facilities and sponsorship. The extent to what these variables are met shall no doubt affects the effectiveness of any sports development. Two distinguishing features of the Nigerian sports system are its central organization and its employment for specific socio-political objectives, it is against this backdrop that this paper will x-ray the politicization of sports which parallels sports development in the enhanced role of sports and in contrast with developed nations system and management.

Keywords: sport development, sport policy, personnel, program, facilities, funding, sponsorship

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
404 The Impact of Financial Literacy to the Retirement Planning on Malaysian Household

Authors: Stanley Yap, Patrick Kee Peng Kong, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei

Abstract:

Purpose: This study examines the comprehensive household retirement planning based on the level of financial literacy in Malaysia. Sufficient financial literacy is essential to make financial decision on Malaysian household retirement planning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Numerous measurements consist of present value of total retirement fund needed, future value of the expenses and inflation-adjusted interest rate are used in this paper. Therefore, we are able to identify the retirement gap that needs to be considered immediately. Findings: Our results show, firstly, adequate financial literacy is vital to achieve long term household retirement planning. Secondly, there is no retirement gap where the future value of the existing financial assets is greater than the lump sum needs during retirement phase. Thirdly, financial assets should be prepared in early age to accumulate substantial funding to support household retirement life. Practical Implications: The outcomes benefit to retiree and working adults. It highlights the importance of financial literacy to retirement planning. It is also a milestone for Malaysian to achieve developed country if Malaysian has sufficient retirement funding. Originality/Value: There is currently lack of in-depth research on financial literacy related to household retirement planning. Further, the paper also focusses on financial literacy, as a means to assist those in funding retirement resources, in order to fulfil the retirement gap.

Keywords: financial literacy, retirement planning, retirement resources, retirement gap, Malaysian household

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
403 The Concepts of Urban Sustainable Development and Smart Cities: In the Understanding of Academia and the European Union

Authors: Wolfgang Haupt

Abstract:

When considering the future city one repeatedly comes across two sometimes sparsely differentiated terms: Sustainable and smart. ‘A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable, and Inclusive Growth’, this is how the European Commission named its current growth strategy. Thus, Europe should become smarter and more sustainable. Both, the smart and the sustainable city represent a positive vision of urban development as well as a subject area for contemporary and future urban policies. However, more clarity on what is actually behind these terminologies is required. The paper analyses how the terms are defined academically and how this academic understanding is represented in the funding mechanisms of European urban policies. The theoretical framework is mainly based on sources such as journal articles and policy reports. It became clear that despite some similarities, such as the broad field of work or the tendency to operationalize the terms by defining sub-categories, both ideas are distinctly different in terms of the development history, the main driving forces behind and the theoretical scope. Moreover, the significantly more comprehensively defined term sustainability has found its way into the centre of European regional funding policies. On the contrary, the smart city vision still lacks terminological and content-related clarity and as a consequence, the corresponding European funding landscape is more small-scaled and less customized.

Keywords: European spatial policy, European union, smart city, urban sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
402 Challenges of Effective Management in Tetiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Simon Oga Egboja, Agi Sunday

Abstract:

The government of Nigeria have invested so much in our tertiary education but the desire qualitative goals and objectives are yet to be achieved because management at all level are not efficient and effective in implementing the desired educational policies and programmes due to some management challenges. This paper investigates some of the major challenges to effective management of tertiary institution in Nigeria some variable that are important to effective management includes political stability, adequate funding, establishment of information system, recruitment and appointment of qualified teachers and condition of service.

Keywords: effective management includes political stability, adequate funding, establishment of information system, recruitment and appointment of qualified teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
401 Entrepreneurship in Nigeria-Funding and Financing Strategies

Authors: Yusuf Abdullahi

Abstract:

The contribution of entrepreneurship in the economic development cannot be over-emphasized neither it should be underestimated for any reason as this is already a known fact that it plays an important role as a change agent and as a prime mover of economy. In developed or underdeveloped economy, the essence of entrepreneurship is highly significant as this exist in both private as well as public sectors of any economy. The roles of entrepreneurship are worldly acclaimed but yet as laudable as these roles there can be no significant success by any entrepreneur except with availability of finance. Nonetheless, mere availability of finance also cannot guarantee the success of an enterprise but there must be in place appropriate financial strategies for the funding/investment needs of an enterprise. Thus, little has been said when it comes to strategies needed to access various sources of finance. This paper, therefore, establishes appropriate strategies to obtain funds sources of finance by both small and as well as medium enterprises.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Nigeria, financial strategies, economic development

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
400 The Role of Chennai NGOs in Combatting Human Trafficking

Authors: Nisha James, Shubha Ranganathan

Abstract:

Sex trafficking is a type of human trafficking involving prostitution of individuals for sexual exploitation. The stigma and social isolation they face in the society often makes it difficult for them to become rehabilitated from trafficking, due to which many of them continue in prostitution for years after being sex trafficked. Victims are subjected to violations of their fundamental human rights, deprived of basic medical facilities and undergo long-term abuse. This paper focuses on the role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the rescue and rehabilitation of victims of sex trafficking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 survivors of sex trafficking, five sex workers and 14 non-community staff members of a project running NGO in the city of Chennai in South India. Chennai has a number of NGOs that are involved in HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention programs. In many cases, rehabilitation of sex trafficking victims is also a mandate of these NGOs. This particular NGO was also involved in development activities towards the eradication of HIV/AIDS. For instance, they were engaged in inculcating safe sex practices among high-risk groups such as sex workers or in fighting for sex worker rights. The study found that the NGO’s role in combatting sex trafficking is overrun by the way it approaches these issue related to HIV/AIDS. Further, their activities are dependent solely on funding. Given that gradually, international funding for HIV/AIDS has slowly been withdrawn, there have been problems such as reduction in the salary of the project staff, the outreach workers and peer educators, many of whom were survivors of sex trafficking who have been able to survive on their wages instead of continuing in prostitution. Therefore, till date, the project funding has helped in making them aware of the health and social consequences of continuing in prostitution, and in supporting them socioeconomically, but the lack of funding may also lead the NGO workers into a state of unemployment, poverty and eventually into being re-trafficked. The study concludes by pointing to the need for disengaging anti-trafficking efforts from the HIV/AIDS related programs.

Keywords: non-governmental organization role, non-governmental organization staff, sex trafficking survivors, sex workers

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
399 Perceptions on Community Media for Effective Acculturation in Nigerian Indigenous Languages

Authors: Chima Onwukwe

Abstract:

This study examined perceptions on the effectiveness, attendant challenges and remedies of community media for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages. The qualitative survey design was adopted with Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) of 50 purposively chosen informants. It was perceived that community media could serve as veritable platform for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages since they would engender the setting of acculturation in Nigerian languages as national objective or goal. It was further held that the strengths of community media for acculturation were in being goal-defined, ensuring local content and diversification. The study identified that as palatable as the proposal for community media for effective acculturation in Nigerian languages is; it would be fraught with some set-backs or challenges that were very much surmountable. Perceptions pointed towards transient nature of community media and funding as challenges, as well as multi-based funding as one remedy. Immediate establishment of community media for the purpose of acculturation in Nigerian languages was recommended.

Keywords: perception, community media, acculturation, indigenous language

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
398 Determining Factors Influencing the Total Funding in Islamic Banking of Indonesia

Authors: Euphrasia Susy Suhendra, Lies Handrijaningsih

Abstract:

The banking sector as an intermediary party or intermediaries occupies a very important position in bridging the needs of working capital investment in the real sector with funds owner. This will certainly make money more effectively to improve the economic value added. As an intermediary, Islamic banks raise funds from the public and then distribute in the form of financing. In practice, the distribution of funding that is run by Islamic Banking is not as easy as, in theory, because, in fact, there are many financing problems; some are caused by lacking the assessment and supervision of banks to customers. This study aims to analyze the influence of the Third Party Funds, Return on Assets (ROA), Non Performing Financing (NPF), and Financing Deposit Ratio (FDR) to Total Financing provided to the Community by Islamic Banks in Indonesia. The data used is monthly data released by Bank of Indonesia in Islamic Banking Statistics in the time period of January 2009 - December 2013. This study uses cointegration test to see the long-term relationship, and use error correction models to examine the relationship of short-term. The results of this study indicate that the Third Party Fund has a short-term effect on total funding, Return on Assets has a long term effect on the total financing, Non Performing Financing has long-term effects of total financing, and Financing deposit ratio has the effect of short-term and long-term of the total financing provided by Islamic Banks in Indonesia.

Keywords: Islamic banking, third party fund, return on asset, non-performing financing, financing deposit ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 342