Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6996

Search results for: creative problem solving

6996 Using Convergent and Divergent Thinking in Creative Problem Solving in Mathematics

Authors: Keng Keh Lim, Zaleha Ismail, Yudariah Mohammad Yusof


This paper aims to find out how students using convergent and divergent thinking in creative problem solving to solve mathematical problems creatively. Eight engineering undergraduates in a local university took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. They solved the mathematical problems with the use of creative problem solving skills. Their solutions were collected and analyzed to reveal all the processes of problem solving, namely: problem definition, ideas generation, ideas evaluation, ideas judgment, and solution implementation. The result showed that the students were able to solve the mathematical problem with the use of creative problem solving skills.

Keywords: convergent thinking, divergent thinking, creative problem solving, creativity

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6995 Play in College: Shifting Perspectives and Creative Problem-Based Play

Authors: Agni Stylianou-Georgiou, Eliza Pitri


This study is a design narrative that discusses researchers’ new learning based on changes made in pedagogies and learning opportunities in the context of a Cognitive Psychology and an Art History undergraduate course. The purpose of this study was to investigate how to encourage creative problem-based play in tertiary education engaging instructors and student-teachers in designing educational games. Course instructors modified content to encourage flexible thinking during game design problem-solving. Qualitative analyses of data sources indicated that Thinking Birds’ questions could encourage flexible thinking as instructors engaged in creative problem-based play. However, student-teachers demonstrated weakness in adopting flexible thinking during game design problem solving. Further studies of student-teachers’ shifting perspectives during different instructional design tasks would provide insights for developing the Thinking Birds’ questions as tools for creative problem solving.

Keywords: creative problem-based play, educational games, flexible thinking, tertiary education

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6994 Improving Creative Problem Solving for Teams through a Web-Based Peer Review System

Authors: JungYeon Park, Jooyong Park


Brainstorming and discussion are widely used around the world as formal techniques of collaborative creative problem solving. This study investigated whether a web-based peer review system would improve collaborative creative problem solving. In order to assess the efficiency of using web-based peer review system before brainstorming and discussion, we conducted a between-group design study for two conditions (a web-based peer review system vs. face-to-face brainstorming only) using two different scenarios. One hundred and twenty participants were divided into teams of four and randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants were given problems for them to solve. The participants in the experimental group first generated ideas independently for 20 minutes and wrote down their ideas. Afterwards, they reviewed the list of ideas of their peers and gave and received feedback for 10 minutes. These activities were performed on-line. The last activity was face-to-face brain-storming and discussion for 30 minutes. In contrast, the control group participated in brainstorming and discussion for 60 minutes. The quantity and the quality of ideas were measured as dependent variables of creative problem solving. Two evaluators rated the quantity and quality of the proposed ideas. Inter-rater agreement rate was good or strong. The results showed that both the average number of unique ideas and the average quality of ideas generated for the experimental condition were significantly higher than those for the control condition in both scenarios. The results of this study support the hypothesis that collaborative creative problem solving is enhanced when individuals write their thoughts individually and review ideas written by peers before face-to-face brainstorming and discussion. The present study provides preliminary evidence that a web-based peer review system can be instrumental in improving creative problem solving for teams. This system also offers an effective means to quantify the contribution of each member in collaborative team activity. We are planning to replicate these results in real-life situations.

Keywords: brainstorming, creative problem solving, peer-review, team efficiency

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6993 Expert and Novice Problem-Solvers Differences: A Discourse for Effective Teaching Delivery in Physics Classrooms

Authors: Abubakar Sa’adatu Mohammed


This paper reports on a study of problem solving differences between expert and novice Problem solvers for effective physics teaching. Significant differences were found both at the conceptual level and at the level of critical thinking, creative thinking and reasoning. It is suggested for a successful solution of a problem, conceptual knowledge alone may not be sufficient. There is the need of the knowledge of how the conceptual knowledge should be applied (problem solving skills). It is hoped that this research might contribute to efforts of exploring ways for students to acquire a powerful conceptual toolkit based on experts like problem solvers approach for effective teaching delivery.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, critical thinking, creative thinking, reasoning ability

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6992 Young Children’s Use of Representations in Problem Solving

Authors: Kamariah Abu Bakar, Jennifer Way


This study investigated how young children (six years old) constructed and used representations in mathematics classroom; particularly in problem solving. The purpose of this study is to explore the ways children used representations in solving addition problems and to determine whether their representations can play a supportive role in understanding the problem situation and solving them correctly. Data collection includes observations, children’s artifact, photographs and conversation with children during task completion. The results revealed that children were able to construct and use various representations in solving problems. However, they have certain preferences in generating representations to support their problem solving.

Keywords: young children, representations, addition, problem solving

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6991 Effects of Fishbone Creative Thinking Strategy on Problem-Solving Skills of Teaching Personnel in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusegun Adeleke Adenuga


The study examined effect of fishbone creative thinking strategy on problem-solving skills of public teachers in Ogun state, Nigeria. A 2x2x2 factorial design was employed for the study which consisted of 80 participants made up of 40 male and 40 female public teachers randomly selected among public teaching personnel from the two local government area headquarters (Ijebu-ode and Ijebu-Igbo) within Ogun East Senatorial District. Each treatment group received 45minutes instructions and training per week for 8weeks. Data was collected from participants with the use of standardized instrument tagged ‘Problem Solving Inventory’ (PSI) developed by the researchers prior to the training to form a pre-test and immediately after eight weeks of training to form a post-test. One hypothesis was tested; the data obtained was analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) tested at significance level of 0.05. The result of the data analysis shows that there was a significant effect of the fishbone creative thinking technique on the participants (F (2,99) = 12.410; p <.05). Based on the findings, it is therefore recommended that the report of this study be used to effect organizational change and development of teaching service in Nigeria through teachers’ retraining and capacity building.

Keywords: fishbone, creative thinking strategy, and problem-solving skills, public teachers

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6990 Attention and Creative Problem-Solving: Cognitive Differences between Adults with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Lindsey Carruthers, Alexandra Willis, Rory MacLean


Introduction: It has been proposed that distractibility, a key diagnostic criterion of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), may be associated with higher creativity levels in some individuals. Anecdotal and empirical evidence has shown that ADHD is therefore beneficial to creative problem-solving, and the generation of new ideas and products. Previous studies have only used one or two measures of attention, which is insufficient given that it is a complex cognitive process. The current study aimed to determine in which ways performance on creative problem-solving tasks and a range of attention tests may be related, and if performance differs between adults with and without ADHD. Methods: 150 adults, 47 males and 103 females (mean age=28.81 years, S.D.=12.05 years), were tested at Edinburgh Napier University. Of this set, 50 participants had ADHD, and 100 did not, forming the control group. Each participant completed seven attention tasks, assessing focussed, sustained, selective, and divided attention. Creative problem-solving was measured using divergent thinking tasks, which require multiple original solutions for one given problem. Two types of divergent thinking task were used: verbal (requires written responses) and figural (requires drawn responses). Each task is scored for idea originality, with higher scores indicating more creative responses. Correlational analyses were used to explore relationships between attention and creative problem-solving, and t-tests were used to study the between group differences. Results: The control group scored higher on originality for figural divergent thinking (t(148)= 3.187, p< .01), whereas the ADHD group had more original ideas for the verbal divergent thinking task (t(148)= -2.490, p < .05). Within the control group, figural divergent thinking scores were significantly related to both selective (r= -.295 to -.285, p < .01) and divided attention (r= .206 to .290, p < .05). Alternatively, within the ADHD group, both selective (r= -.390 to -.356, p < .05) and divided (r= .328 to .347, p < .05) attention are related to verbal divergent thinking. Conclusions: Selective and divided attention are both related to divergent thinking, however the performance patterns are different between each group, which may point to cognitive variance in the processing of these problems and how they are managed. The creative differences previously found between those with and without ADHD may be dependent on task type, which to the author’s knowledge, has not been distinguished previously. It appears that ADHD does not specifically lead to higher creativity, but may provide explanation for creative differences when compared to those without the disorder.

Keywords: ADHD, attention, creativity, problem-solving

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6989 The Correlation between Hypomania, Creative Potential and Type of Major in Undergraduate Students

Authors: Dhea Kothari


There is an extensive amount of research that has examined the positive relationship between creativity and hypomania in terms of creative accomplishments, eminence, behaviors, occupations. Previous research had recruited participants based on creative occupations or stages of hypomania or bipolar disorder. This thesis focused on the relationship between hypomania and creative cognitive potential, such as divergent thinking and insight problem-solving. This was examined at an undergraduate educational level by recruiting students majoring in art, majoring in natural sciences (NSCI) and those double majoring in arts and NSCI. Participants were given a modified Alternate Uses Task (AUT) to measure divergent thinking and a set of rebus puzzles to measure insight problem-solving. Both tasks involved a level of overcoming functional fixedness. A negative association was observed between hypomania and originality of responses on the AUT when an object with low functional fixedness was given to all participants. On the other hand, a positive association was found between hypomania and originality of responses on the AUT when an object with high functional fixedness was given to the participants majoring in NSCI. Therefore, the research suggests that an increased ability to overcome functional fixedness might be central to individuals with hypomania and individuals with higher creative cognitive potential.

Keywords: creative cognition, convergent thinking, creativity, divergent thinking, insight, major type, problem-solving

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6988 Design Thinking and Creative Problem Solving for Undergraduate Engineering Education in India: Relevance and Student's Reactions

Authors: Tigmanshu Bhatnagar, Petra Badke-Schaub


Facilitating Design Thinking (DT) and Creative Problem Solving (CPS) in engineering education could benefit students by aiding them to think creatively and meaningfully in their education and future profession. A study in the pseudonym of a ‘popup class’ was conducted for a week at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (IITD) to have an indication for the perceived relevance, benefits and challenges of DT and CPS from the perspective of engineering students in India. 30 third year Bachelor of Technology students from various technical fields participated in the study. They were introduced to the notion of DT and CPS via a mix of theoretical lectures, case discussions and practical workshops. Their reactions were identified on the basis of silent observations made during the course and responses were recorded through a questionnaire, which was filled after the course. All the respondents felt that DT and CPS are relevant to their education. It was perceived by them that there is a subtle improvement in the quality, quantity and approach of solutions to open ended problems. 90% responded positively to the induction of such an exercise in their education and reasoned it by stating that it’s important for engineers to know, how to solve open-ended real world problems in a meaningful and innovative way.

Keywords: creative problem solving, design thinking, India, undergraduate engineering education

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6987 The Relations between Language Diversity and Similarity and Adults' Collaborative Creative Problem Solving

Authors: Z. M. T. Lim, W. Q. Yow


Diversity in individual problem-solving approaches, culture and nationality have been shown to have positive effects on collaborative creative processes in organizational and scholastic settings. For example, diverse graduate and organizational teams consisting of members with both structured and unstructured problem-solving styles were found to have more creative ideas on a collaborative idea generation task than teams that comprised solely of members with either structured or unstructured problem-solving styles. However, being different may not always provide benefits to the collaborative creative process. In particular, speaking different languages may hinder mutual engagement through impaired communication and thus collaboration. Instead, sharing similar languages may have facilitative effects on mutual engagement in collaborative tasks. However, no studies have explored the relations between language diversity and adults’ collaborative creative problem solving. Sixty-four Singaporean English-speaking bilingual undergraduates were paired up into similar or dissimilar language pairs based on the second language they spoke (e.g., for similar language pairs, both participants spoke English-Mandarin; for dissimilar language pairs, one participant spoke English-Mandarin and the other spoke English-Korean). Each participant completed the Ravens Progressive Matrices Task individually. Next, they worked in pairs to complete a collaborative divergent thinking task where they used mind-mapping techniques to brainstorm ideas on a given problem together (e.g., how to keep insects out of the house). Lastly, the pairs worked on a collaborative insight problem-solving task (Triangle of Coins puzzle) where they needed to flip a triangle of ten coins around by moving only three coins. Pairs who had prior knowledge of the Triangle of Coins puzzle were asked to complete an equivalent Matchstick task instead, where they needed to make seven squares by moving only two matchsticks based on a given array of matchsticks. Results showed that, after controlling for intelligence, similar language pairs completed the collaborative insight problem-solving task faster than dissimilar language pairs. Intelligence also moderated these relations. Among adults of lower intelligence, similar language pairs solved the insight problem-solving task faster than dissimilar language pairs. These differences in speed were not found in adults with higher intelligence. No differences were found in the number of ideas generated in the collaborative divergent thinking task between similar language and dissimilar language pairs. In conclusion, sharing similar languages seem to enrich collaborative creative processes. These effects were especially pertinent to pairs with lower intelligence. This provides guidelines for the formation of groups based on shared languages in collaborative creative processes. However, the positive effects of shared languages appear to be limited to the insight problem-solving task and not the divergent thinking task. This could be due to the facilitative effects of other factors of diversity as found in previous literature. Background diversity, for example, may have a larger facilitative effect on the divergent thinking task as compared to the insight problem-solving task due to the varied experiences individuals bring to the task. In conclusion, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of language diversity in collaborative creative processes and challenges the general positive effects that diversity has on these processes.

Keywords: bilingualism, diversity, creativity, collaboration

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6986 Number Sense Proficiency and Problem Solving Performance of Grade Seven Students

Authors: Laissa Mae Francisco, John Rolex Ingreso, Anna Krizel Menguito, Criselda Robrigado, Rej Maegan Tuazon


This study aims to determine and describe the existing relationship between number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance of grade seven students from Victorino Mapa High School, Manila. A paper pencil exam containing of 50-item number sense test and 5-item problem-solving test which measures their number sense proficiency and problem-solving performance adapted from McIntosh, Reys, and Bana were used as the research instruments. The data obtained from this study were interpreted and analyzed using the Pearson – Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation to determine the relationship between the two variables. It was found out that students who were low in number sense proficiency tend to be the students with poor problem-solving performance and students with medium number sense proficiency are most likely to have an average problem-solving performance. Likewise, students with high number sense proficiency are those who do excellently in problem-solving performance.

Keywords: number sense, performance, problem solving, proficiency

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6985 Teaching and Learning Physics via GPS and WikiS

Authors: Hashini E. Mohottala


We report the combine use of Wikispaces (WikiS) and Group Problem Solving (GPS) sessions conducted in the introductory level physics classes. As a part of this new teaching tool, some essay type problems were posted on the WikiS in weekly basis and students were encouraged to participate in problem solving without providing numerical final answers but the steps. Wikispace is used as a platform for students to meet online and create discussions. Each week students were further evaluated on problem solving skills opening up more opportunity for peer interaction through GPS. Each group was given a different problem to solve and the answers were graded. Students developed a set of skills in decision-making, problem solving, communication, negotiation, critical and independent thinking and teamwork through the combination of WikiS and GPS.

Keywords: group problem solving (GPS), wikispace (WikiS), physics education, learning

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6984 Strength of Gratitude Determining Subjective Well-Being: Evidence for Mediating Role of Problem-Solving Styles

Authors: Sarwat Sultan, Shahzad Gul


This study was carried out to see the mediating role of problem solving styles (sensing, intuitive, feeling, and thinking) in the predictive relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. A sample of 454 college students aged 20-26 years old participated in this study and provided data on the measures of gratitude, problem solving styles, and subjective well-being. Results indicated the significant relationships of gratitude with subjective well-being and problem solving styles of intuitive and thinking. Results further indicated the positive link of intuitive and thinking styles with subjective well-being. Findings also provided the evidence for the significant mediating role of problem solving styles in the relationship of gratitude with subjective well-being. The implication for this study is likely to enhance the medium to long term effects of gratitude on subjective well-being among students and as well as assessing its value in promoting psychological health and problem solving strategies among students.

Keywords: gratitude, subjective well-being, problem solving styles, college students

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6983 Incorporating Polya’s Problem Solving Process: A Polytechnic Mathematics Module Case Study

Authors: Pei Chin Lim


School of Mathematics and Science of Singapore Polytechnic offers a Basic Mathematics module to students who did not pass GCE O-Level Additional Mathematics. These students are weaker in Mathematics. In particular, they struggle with word problems and tend to leave them blank in tests and examinations. In order to improve students’ problem-solving skills, the school redesigned the Basic Mathematics module to incorporate Polya’s problem-solving methodology. During tutorial lessons, students have to work through learning activities designed to raise their metacognitive awareness by following Polya’s problem-solving process. To assess the effectiveness of the redesign, students’ working for a challenging word problem in the mid-semester test were analyzed. Sixty-five percent of students attempted to understand the problem by making sketches. Twenty-eight percent of students went on to devise a plan and implement it. Only five percent of the students still left the question blank. These preliminary results suggest that with regular exposure to an explicit and systematic problem-solving approach, weak students’ problem-solving skills can potentially be improved.

Keywords: mathematics education, metacognition, problem solving, weak students

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6982 Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences and Attitude towards Children’s Problem Solving Strategies in Early Mathematics Learning

Authors: Temitayo Ogunsanwo


Problem-solving is an important way of learning way of learning because it propels children to use previous experiences to deal with new situations. The purpose of this study is to find out the attitude of pre-service teachers to problem-solving as a strategy for promoting early mathematics learning in children. This qualitative study employed a descriptive design to investigate the experiences of twenty second-year undergraduate early childhood education Pre-service teachers in a teaching practice and their attitude towards five-year-old children’s problem-solving strategies in mathematics. Pre-service teachers were exposed to different strategies for teaching children how to solve problems in mathematics. They were taken through a micro teaching in class using different strategies to teach problem-solving in different topics in the five-year-old mathematics curriculum. The students were then made to teach five-year-olds in neighbouring schools for three weeks, working in pairs, observing and recording children’s problem-solving activities and strategies. After the three weeks exercise, their experiences and attitude towards children’s problem-solving strategies were collected using open-ended questions and analysed in themes. Findings were discussed.

Keywords: attitude, early mathematics learning, experience, pre-service teachers, problem-solving, strategies

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6981 E–Learning System in Virtual Learning Environment to Develop Problem Solving Ability and Team Learning for Learners in Higher Education

Authors: Noawanit Songkram


This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on e–learning system in virtual learning environment to develop problem solving ability and team learning for learners in higher education. The methodology of this study was R&D research. The subjects were 18 undergraduate students in Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University in the academic year of 2013. The research instruments were a problem solving ability assessment, a team learning evaluation form, and an attitude questionnaire. The data was statistically analyzed using mean, standard deviation, one way repeated measure ANOVA and t–test. The research findings discovered the e –learning system in virtual learning environment to develop problem solving ability and team learning for learners in higher education consisted of five components:(1) online collaborative tools, (2) active learning activities, (3) creative thinking, (4) knowledge sharing process, (5) evaluation and nine processes which were (1) preparing in group working, (2) identifying interested topic, (3) analysing interested topic, (4) collecting data, (5) concluding idea (6) proposing idea, (7) creating workings, (8) workings evaluation, (9) sharing knowledge from empirical experience.

Keywords: e-learning system, problem solving ability, team leaning, virtual learning environment

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6980 The Effect of Peer Support to Interpersonal Problem Solving Tendencies and Skills in Nursing Students

Authors: B. Özlük, A. Karaaslan


This study has been conducted as a supplementary and relationship seeking study with the purpose of measuring the tendency and success of support among peers amid nursing students studying at university in solving interpersonal problems. The population of the study (N:279) is comprised of nursing students who are studying at one state and one private university in the province of Konya, while its sample is comprised of 231 nursing students who agreed to take part in the study voluntarily. As a result of this study, it has been determined that the peer support and interpersonal problem solving characteristics among students were at medium levels and that the interpersonal problem solving skills of students studying in the third year were higher than those of first and second year students. While the interpersonal problem solving characteristics of students who are aged 20 and over were found to be higher, no difference could be determined in terms of the interpersonal problem solving skills and tendencies among students, based on their gender and where they reside. A positive – to a medium degree – and significant relationship was determined between peer support and interpersonal problem solving skills, and it is possible to say that as peer support increases, so do the skills and tendencies to solve problems.

Keywords: nursing students, peer support, interpersonal problem, problem solving

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6979 Finite Element and Split Bregman Methods for Solving a Family of Optimal Control Problem with Partial Differential Equation Constraint

Authors: Mahmoud Lot


In this article, we will discuss the solution of elliptic optimal control problem. First, by using the nite element method, we obtain the discrete form of the problem. The obtained discrete problem is actually a large scale constrained optimization problem. Solving this optimization problem with traditional methods is difficult and requires a lot of CPU time and memory. But split Bergman method converts the constrained problem to an unconstrained, and hence it saves time and memory requirement. Then we use the split Bregman method for solving this problem, and examples show the speed and accuracy of split Bregman methods for solving these types of problems. We also use the SQP method for solving the examples and compare with the split Bregman method.

Keywords: Split Bregman Method, optimal control with elliptic partial differential equation constraint, finite element method

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6978 Predictive Power of Achievement Motivation on Student Engagement and Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

Authors: Theresa Marie Miller, Ma. Nympha Joaquin


The aim of this study was to check the predictive power of social-oriented and individual-oriented achievement motivation on student engagement and collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. A sample of 277 fourth year high school students from the Philippines were selected. Surveys and videos of collaborative problem solving activity were used to collect data from respondents. The mathematics teachers of the participants were interviewed to provide qualitative support on the data. Systemaitc correlation and regression analysis were employed. Results of the study showed that achievement motivations−SOAM and IOAM− linearly predicted student engagement but was not significantly associated to the collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. Student engagement correlated positively with collaborative problem-solving skills in mathematics. The results contribute to theorizing about the predictive power of achievement motivations, SOAM and IOAM on the realm of academic behaviors and outcomes as well as extend the understanding of collaborative problem-solving skills of 21st century learners.

Keywords: achievement motivation, collaborative problem-solving skills, individual-oriented achievement motivation, social-oriented achievement motivation, student engagement

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6977 Efficacy of Problem Solving Approach on the Achievement of Students in Mathematics

Authors: Akintunde O. Osibamowo, Abdulrasaq O. Olusanya


The present study was designed to examine the effect of problem-solving approach as a medium of instruction in teaching and learning of mathematics to improve the achievement of the student. One Hundred (100) students were randomly chosen from five (5) Junior Secondary School in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. The data was collected through Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) on the two groups (experimental and control group). The study confirmed that there is a significant different in the achievement of students exposed to problem-solving approach than those not exposed. The result also indicated that male students, however, had a greater mean-score than the female with no significant difference in their achievement. The result of the study supports the use of problem-solving approach in the teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools.

Keywords: problem, achievement, teaching phases, experimental control

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6976 Problem Solving: Process or Product? A Mathematics Approach to Problem Solving in Knowledge Management

Authors: A. Giannakopoulos, S. B. Buckley


Problem solving in any field is recognised as a prerequisite for any advancement in knowledge. For example in South Africa it is one of the seven critical outcomes of education together with critical thinking. As a systematic way to problem solving was initiated in mathematics by the great mathematician George Polya (the father of problem solving), more detailed and comprehensive ways in problem solving have been developed. This paper is based on the findings by the author and subsequent recommendations for further research in problem solving and critical thinking. Although the study was done in mathematics, there is no doubt by now in almost anyone’s mind that mathematics is involved to a greater or a lesser extent in all fields, from symbols, to variables, to equations, to logic, to critical thinking. Therefore it stands to reason that mathematical principles and learning cannot be divorced from any field. In management of knowledge situations, the types of problems are similar to mathematics problems varying from simple to analogical to complex; from well-structured to ill-structured problems. While simple problems could be solved by employees by adhering to prescribed sequential steps (the process), analogical and complex problems cannot be proceduralised and that diminishes the capacity of the organisation of knowledge creation and innovation. The low efficiency in some organisations and the low pass rates in mathematics prompted the author to view problem solving as a product. The authors argue that using mathematical approaches to knowledge management problem solving and treating problem solving as a product will empower the employee through further training to tackle analogical and complex problems. The question the authors asked was: If it is true that problem solving and critical thinking are indeed basic skills necessary for advancement of knowledge why is there so little literature of knowledge management (KM) about them and how they are connected and advance KM?This paper concludes with a conceptual model which is based on general accepted principles of knowledge acquisition (developing a learning organisation), knowledge creation, sharing, disseminating and storing thereof, the five pillars of knowledge management (KM). This model, also expands on Gray’s framework on KM practices and problem solving and opens the doors to a new approach to training employees in general and domain specific areas problems which can be adapted in any type of organisation.

Keywords: critical thinking, knowledge management, mathematics, problem solving

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6975 Ubiquitous Scaffold Learning Environment Using Problem-based Learning Activities to Enhance Problem-solving Skills and Context Awareness

Authors: Noppadon Phumeechanya, Panita Wannapiroon


The purpose of this research is to design the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities that enhance problem-solving skills and context awareness, and to evaluate the suitability of the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities. We divide the research procedures into two phases. The first phase is to design the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities, and the second is to evaluate the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities. The sample group in this study consists of five experts selected using the purposive sampling method. We analyse data by arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The research findings are as follows; the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities consists of three major steps, the first is preparation before learning. This prepares learners to acknowledge details and learn through u-LMS. The second is the learning process, where learning activities happen in the ubiquitous learning environment and learners learn online with scaffold systems for each step of problem solving. The third step is measurement and evaluation. The experts agree that the ubiquitous scaffold learning environment using problem-based learning activities is highly appropriate.

Keywords: ubiquitous learning environment scaffolding, learning activities, problem-based learning, problem-solving skills, context awareness

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6974 Creative Thinking through Mindful Practices: A Business Class Case Study

Authors: Malavika Sundararajan


This study introduces the use of mindfulness techniques in the classroom to make individuals aware of how the creative thinking process works, resulting in more constructive learning and application. Case observation method was utilized within a classroom setting in a graduate class in the Business School. It entailed, briefing the student participants about the use of a template called the dots and depths map, and having them complete it for themselves, compare it to their team members and reflect on the outputs. Finally, they were debriefed about the use of the template and its value to their learning and creative application process. The major finding is the increase in awareness levels of the participants following the use of the template, leading to a subsequent pursuit of diverse knowledge and acquisition of relevant information and not jumping to solutions directly, which increased their overall creative outputs for the given assignment. The significant value of this study is that it can be applied to any classroom on any subject as a powerful mindfulness tool which increases creative problem solving through constructive knowledge building.

Keywords: connecting dots, mindful awareness, constructive knowledge building, learning creatively

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6973 Creativity in Educational Realities: Theoretical Considerations

Authors: Cristina Costa-Lobo, Ana Campina, José Menezes


Creativity implies originality, but originality does not imply the existence of creativity. Today, one of the challenges of the educational context is the development of educated, autonomous, prudent and competent citizens with a critical attitude, a well-founded questioning and a creative search for innovative alternatives and solutions. These supposedly cognitive capacities impose emotional analysis and decision making, and emotion is also considered as a creative act. Authors emphasize the importance of family and school in the creative manifestation of children and young people, and these agents can stimulate or impede creative expression. Thus, children entering the school system are faced with a barrier that blocks the externalization of this competence. This work deals with the implementation of specific strategies and promoters of an educational environment suitable for the development of creativity. The construct of creativity is discussed in a transdisciplinary perspective, and the importance of the construct is enhanced in psychoeducational practices, in challenging and multifaceted environments. It is assumed that the stimulation and early experience of creative thinking in an educational context are conditions that promote the development of problem-solving skills and future challenges.

Keywords: creativity, education, psychology, pedagogy

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6972 Ubiquitous Collaborative Learning Activities with Virtual Teams Using CPS Processes to Develop Creative Thinking and Collaboration Skills

Authors: Sitthichai Laisema, Panita Wannapiroon


This study is a research and development which is intended to: 1) design ubiquitous collaborative learning activities with virtual teams using CPS processes to develop creative thinking and collaboration skills, and 2) assess the suitability of the ubiquitous collaborative learning activities. Its methods are divided into 2 phases. Phase 1 is the design of ubiquitous collaborative learning activities with virtual teams using CPS processes, phase 2 is the assessment of the suitability of the learning activities. The samples used in this study are 5 professionals in the field of learning activity design, ubiquitous learning, information technology, creative thinking, and collaboration skills. The results showed that ubiquitous collaborative learning activities with virtual teams using CPS processes to develop creative thinking and collaboration skills consist of 3 main steps which are: 1) preparation before learning, 2) learning activities processing and 3) performance appraisal. The result of the learning activities suitability assessment from the professionals is in the highest level.

Keywords: ubiquitous learning, collaborative learning, virtual team, creative problem solving

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6971 Limits Problem Solving in Engineering Careers: Competences and Errors

Authors: Veronica Diaz Quezada


In this article, the performance and errors are featured and analysed in the limit problems solving of a real-valued function, in correspondence to competency-based education in engineering careers, in the south of Chile. The methodological component is contextualised in a qualitative research, with a descriptive and explorative design, with elaboration, content validation and application of quantitative instruments, consisting of two parallel forms of open answer tests, based on limit application problems. The mathematical competences and errors made by students from five engineering careers from a public University are identified and characterized. Results show better performance only to solve routine-context problem-solving competence, thus they are oriented towards a rational solution or they use a suitable problem-solving method, achieving the correct solution. Regarding errors, most of them are related to techniques and the incorrect use of theorems and definitions of real-valued function limits of real variable.

Keywords: engineering education, errors, limits, mathematics competences, problem solving

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6970 Solving of Types Mathematical Routine and Non-Routine Problems in Algebra

Authors: Verónica Díaz Quezada


The importance given to the development of the problem solving skill and the requirement to solve problems framed in mathematical or real life contexts, in practice, they are not evidence in relation to the teaching of proportional variations. This qualitative and descriptive study aims to (1) to improve problem solving ability of high school students in Chile, (ii) to elaborate and describe a didactic intervention strategy based on learning situations in proportional variations, focused on solving types of routine problems of various contexts and non-routine problems. For this purpose, participant observation was conducted, test of mathematics problems and an opinion questionnaire to thirty-six high school students. Through the results, the highest academic performance is evidenced in the routine problems of purely mathematical context, realistic, fantasy context, and non-routine problems, except in the routine problems of real context and compound proportionality problems. The results highlight the need to consider in the curriculum different types of problems in the teaching of mathematics that relate the discipline to everyday life situations

Keywords: algebra, high school, proportion variations, nonroutine problem solving, routine problem solving

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
6969 The Relationship between Self Concept Clarity and Need for Absolute Truth and Problem Solving and Symptoms of Stress in Homosexual Male

Authors: Gizem Akcan, Erdinc Ozturk


When it is examined as historically, it has caught attention that homosexual people try to behave as heterosexual or come out to have a place in community. Homosexual people have identity confusion during identity development, they have high levels of need for absolute truth and their psychological well being is affected negatively because of high levels of need for absolute truth and they have problems about self concept clarity. People who have problems about self concept clarity have problems on problem solving and show lots of symptoms of stress. People who have clear self concept use healthier coping strategies to solve problems. The purpose of this study is to show whether need for absolute truth predicts problem solving and symptoms of stress via mediator effect of self concept clarity or not on homosexual men. The participants of this study were 200 homosexual men. The ages of participants were 20-50. In addition, Demographic Information Form, Self Concept Clarity Scale, Need for Absolute Truth Scale, Stres Self-Assessment Checklist and Problem Solving Inventory were applied to the participants. The assessment of the data was made with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis. According to the results of this study, need for absolute truth predicts problem solving and symptoms of stress via mediator effect of self concept clarity on homosexual men.

Keywords: need for absolute truth, self concept clarity, symptoms of stress, problem solving

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
6968 Comparative Analysis of Two Different Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Solving Travelling Salesman Problem

Authors: Sourabh Joshi, Tarun Sharma, Anurag Sharma


Ant Colony Optimization is heuristic Algorithm which has been proven a successful technique applied on number of combinatorial optimization problems. Two variants of Ant Colony Optimization algorithm named Ant System and Max-Min Ant System are implemented in MATLAB to solve travelling Salesman Problem and the results are compared. In, this paper both systems are analyzed by solving the some Travelling Salesman Problem and depict which system solve the problem better in term of cost and time.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Travelling Salesman Problem, Ant System, Max-Min Ant System

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
6967 Production Plan and Technological Variants Optimization by Goal Programming Methods

Authors: Tunjo Perić, Franjo Bratić


In this paper the goal programming methodology for solving multiple objective problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization has been applied. The optimization criteria are determined and the multiple objective linear programming model for solving a problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization is formed and solved. Then the obtained results are analysed. The obtained results point out to the possibility of efficient application of the goal programming methodology in solving the problem of the technological variants and production plan optimization. The paper points out on the advantages of the application of the goal programming methodolohy compare to the Surrogat Worth Trade-off method in solving this problem.

Keywords: goal programming, multi objective programming, production plan, SWT method, technological variants

Procedia PDF Downloads 295