Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: flowmeter orifice

47 Comparative Analysis of Turbulent Plane Jets from a Sharp-Edged Orifice, a Beveled-Edge Orifice and a Radially Contoured Nozzle

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo

Abstract:

This article investigates through experiments the flow characteristics of plane jets from sharp-edged orifice-plate, beveled-edge and radially contoured nozzle. The first two configurations exhibit saddle-backed velocity profiles while the third shows a top-hat. A vena contracta is found for the jet emanating from orifice at x/h = 3 while the contoured case displays a potential core extending to the range x/h = 5. A spurt in jet pressure on the centerline supports vena contracta for the orifice-jet. Momentum thicknesses and integral length scales elongate linearly with x although the growth of the shear-layer and large-scale eddies for the orifice are greater than the contoured case. The near-field spectrum exhibits higher frequency of the primary eddies that concur with enhanced turbulence intensity. Importantly, highly “turbulent” state of the orifice-jet prevails in the far-field where the spectra confirm more energetic secondary eddies associated with greater flapping amplitude of the orifice-jet.

Keywords: orifice, beveled-edge-orifice, radially contoured nozzle, plane jets

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
46 Investigation of Flow Characteristics on Upstream and Downstream of Orifice Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: War War Min Swe, Aung Myat Thu, Khin Cho Thet, Zaw Moe Htet, Thuzar Mon

Abstract:

The main parameter of the orifice hole diameter was designed according to the range of throttle diameter ratio which gave the required discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficient is determined by difference diameter ratios. The value of discharge coefficient is 0.958 occurred at throttle diameter ratio 0.5. The throttle hole diameter is 80 mm. The flow analysis is done numerically using ANSYS 17.0, computational fluid dynamics. The flow velocity was analyzed in the upstream and downstream of the orifice meter. The downstream velocity of non-standard orifice meter is 2.5% greater than that of standard orifice meter. The differential pressure is 515.379 Pa in standard orifice.

Keywords: CFD-CFX, discharge coefficients, flow characteristics, inclined

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
45 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová

Abstract:

This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
44 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo

Abstract:

This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x=10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra displays the largest eddies generated by the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR.

Keywords: plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
43 Effect of the Orifice Plate Specifications on Coefficient of Discharge

Authors: Abulbasit G. Abdulsayid, Zinab F. Abdulla, Asma A. Omer

Abstract:

On the ground that the orifice plate is relatively inexpensive, requires very little maintenance and only calibrated during the occasion of plant turnaround, the orifice plate has turned to be in a real prevalent use in gas industry. Inaccuracy of measurement in the fiscal metering stations may highly be accounted to be the most vital factor for mischarges in the natural gas industry in Libya. A very trivial error in measurement can add up a fast escalating financial burden to the custodian transactions. The unaccounted gas quantity transferred annually via orifice plates in Libya, could be estimated in an extent of multi-million dollars. As the oil and gas wealth is the solely source of income to Libya, every effort is now being exerted to improve the accuracy of existing orifice metering facilities. Discharge coefficient has become pivotal in current researches undertaken in this regard. Hence, increasing the knowledge of the flow field in a typical orifice meter is indispensable. Recently and in a drastic pace, the CFD has become the most time and cost efficient versatile tool for in-depth analysis of fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer of various industrial applications. Getting deeper into the physical phenomena lied beneath and predicting all relevant parameters and variables with high spatial and temporal resolution have been the greatest weighing pros counting for CFD. In this paper, flow phenomena for air passing through an orifice meter were numerically analyzed with CFD code based modeling, giving important information about the effect of orifice plate specifications on the discharge coefficient for three different tappings locations, i.e., flange tappings, D and D/2 tappings compared with vena contracta tappings. Discharge coefficients were paralleled with discharge coefficients estimated by ISO 5167. The influences of orifice plate bore thickness, orifice plate thickness, beveled angle, perpendicularity and buckling of the orifice plate, were all duly investigated. A case of an orifice meter whose pipe diameter of 2 in, beta ratio of 0.5 and Reynolds number of 91100, was taken as a model. The results highlighted that the discharge coefficients were highly responsive to the variation of plate specifications and under all cases, the discharge coefficients for D and D/2 tappings were very close to that of vena contracta tappings which were believed as an ideal arrangement. Also, in general sense, it was appreciated that the standard equation in ISO 5167, by which the discharge coefficient was calculated, cannot capture the variation of the plate specifications and thus further thorough considerations would be still needed.

Keywords: CFD, discharge coefficients, orifice meter, orifice plate specifications

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
42 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Cross Flow on Discharge Coefficient of an Orifice

Authors: Mathew Saxon A, Aneeh Rajan, Sajeev P

Abstract:

Many fluid flow applications employ different types of orifices to control the flow rate or to reduce the pressure. Discharge coefficients generally vary from 0.6 to 0.95 depending on the type of the orifice. The tabulated value of discharge coefficients of various types of orifices available can be used in most common applications. The upstream and downstream flow condition of an orifice is hardly considered while choosing the discharge coefficient of an orifice. But literature shows that the discharge coefficient can be affected by the presence of cross flow. Cross flow is defined as the condition wherein; a fluid is injected nearly perpendicular to a flowing fluid. Most researchers have worked on water being injected into a cross-flow of water. The present work deals with water to gas systems in which water is injected in a normal direction into a flowing stream of gas. The test article used in the current work is called thermal regulator, which is used in a liquid rocket engine to reduce the temperature of hot gas tapped from the gas generator by injecting water into the hot gas so that a cooler gas can be supplied to the turbine. In a thermal regulator, water is injected through an orifice in a normal direction into the hot gas stream. But the injection orifice had been calibrated under backpressure by maintaining a stagnant gas medium at the downstream. The motivation of the present study aroused due to the observation of a lower Cd of the orifice in flight compared to the calibrated Cd. A systematic experimental investigation is carried out in this paper to study the effect of cross-flow on the discharge coefficient of an orifice in water to a gas system. The study reveals that there is an appreciable reduction in the discharge coefficient with cross flow compared to that without cross flow. It is found that the discharge coefficient greatly depends on the ratio of momentum of water injected to the momentum of the gas cross flow. The effective discharge coefficient of different orifices was normalized using the discharge coefficient without cross-flow and it is observed that normalized curves of effective discharge coefficient of different orifices with momentum ratio collapsing into a single curve. Further, an equation is formulated using the test data to predict the effective discharge coefficient with cross flow using the calibrated Cd value without cross flow.

Keywords: cross flow, discharge coefficient, orifice, momentum ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
41 Effect of Fuel Type on Design Parameters and Atomization Process for Pressure Swirl Atomizer and Dual Orifice Atomizer for High Bypass Turbofan Engine

Authors: Mohamed K. Khalil, Mohamed S. Ragab

Abstract:

Atomizers are used in many engineering applications including diesel engines, petrol engines and spray combustion in furnaces as well as gas turbine engines. These atomizers are used to increase the specific surface area of the fuel, which achieve a high rate of fuel mixing and evaporation. In all combustion systems reduction in mean drop size is a challenge which has many advantages since it leads to rapid and easier ignition, higher volumetric heat release rate, wider burning range and lower exhaust concentrations of the pollutant emissions. Pressure atomizers have a different configuration for design such as swirl atomizer (simplex), dual orifice, spill return, plain orifice, duplex and fan spray. Simplex pressure atomizers are the most common type of all. Among all types of atomizers, pressure swirl types resemble a special category since they differ in quality of atomization, the reliability of operation, simplicity of construction and low expenditure of energy. But, the disadvantages of these atomizers are that they require very high injection pressure and have low discharge coefficient owing to the fact that the air core covers the majority of the atomizer orifice. To overcome these problems, dual orifice atomizer was designed. This paper proposes a detailed mathematical model design procedure for both pressure swirl atomizer (Simplex) and dual orifice atomizer, examines the effects of varying fuel type and makes a clear comparison between the two types. Using five types of fuel (JP-5, JA1, JP-4, Diesel and Bio-Diesel) as a case study, reveal the effect of changing fuel type and its properties on atomizers design and spray characteristics. Which effect on combustion process parameters; Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), spray cone angle and sheet thickness with varying the discharge coefficient from 0.27 to 0.35 during takeoff for high bypass turbofan engines. The spray atomizer performance of the pressure swirl fuel injector was compared to the dual orifice fuel injector at the same differential pressure and discharge coefficient using Excel. The results are analyzed and handled to form the final reliability results for fuel injectors in high bypass turbofan engines. The results show that the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) in dual orifice atomizer is larger than Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) in pressure swirl atomizer, the film thickness (h) in dual orifice atomizer is less than the film thickness (h) in pressure swirl atomizer. The Spray Cone Angle (α) in pressure swirl atomizer is larger than Spray Cone Angle (α) in dual orifice atomizer.

Keywords: gas turbine engines, atomization process, Sauter mean diameter, JP-5

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40 Challenges of Cryogenic Fluid Metering by Coriolis Flowmeter

Authors: Evgeniia Shavrina, Yan Zeng, Boo Cheong Khoo, Vinh-Tan Nguyen

Abstract:

The present paper is aimed at providing a review of error sources in cryogenic metering by Coriolis flowmeters (CFMs). Whereas these flowmeters allow accurate water metering, high uncertainty and low repeatability are commonly observed at cryogenic fluid metering, which is often necessary for effective renewable energy production and storage. The sources of these issues might be classified as general and cryogenic specific challenges. A conducted analysis of experimental and theoretical studies shows that material behaviour at cryogenic temperatures, composition variety, and multiphase presence are the most significant cryogenic challenges. At the same time, pipeline diameter limitation, ambient vibration impact, and drawbacks of the installation may be highlighted as the most important general challenges of cryogenic metering by CFM. Finally, the techniques, which mitigate the impact of these challenges are reviewed, and future development direction is indicated.

Keywords: Coriolis flowmeter, cryogenic, multicomponent flow, multiphase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
39 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir

Abstract:

Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
38 Preparation Control Information and Analyzing of Metering Gas System Based of Orifice Plate

Authors: A. Harrouz, A. Benatiallah, O. Harrouz

Abstract:

This paper presents the search for errors in the measurement instruments in a dynamic system of metering liquid or gas and sees the tolerance defined by the international standards and recommendations. We will implement a program on MATLAB/Simulink which is calculated based on the ISO-5167. This program will take the system parameters on considerations such as: the willingness plates, the size of the orifice, the given design conditions, reference conditions, find pressure drop for a given flow, or flow for a loss of given load. The results are considered very good and satisfactory because the errors identified of measuring instruments system are within the margin of error limit by the regulations.

Keywords: analyzing, control, gas, meters system

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
37 Thermal Performance of a Pair of Synthetic Jets Equipped in Microchannel

Authors: J. Mohammadpour, G. E. Lau, S. Cheng, A. Lee

Abstract:

Numerical study was conducted using two synthetic jet actuators attached underneath a micro-channel. By fixing the oscillating frequency and diaphragm amplitude, the effects on the heat transfer within the micro-channel were investigated with two synthetic jets being in-phase and 180° out-of-phase at different orifice spacing. There was a significant benefit identified with two jets being 180° out-of-phase with each other at the orifice spacing of 2 mm. By having this configuration, there was a distinct pattern of vortex forming which disrupts the main channel flow as well as promoting thermal mixing at high velocity within the channel. Therefore, this configuration achieved higher cooling performance compared to the other cases studied in terms of the reduction in the maximum temperature and cooling uniformity in the silicon wafer.

Keywords: synthetic jets, microchannel, electronic cooling, computational fluid dynamics

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36 Effect of Synthetic Jet on Wind Turbine Noise

Authors: Reda Mankbadi

Abstract:

The current work explores the use of Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) for control of the acoustic radiation of a low-speed transitioning airfoil in a uniform stream. In the adopted numerical procedure, the actuator is modeled without its resonator cavity through imposing a simple fluctuating-velocity boundary condition at the bottom of the actuator's orifice. The orifice cavity, with the properly defined boundary condition, is then embedded into the airfoil surface. High-accuracy viscous simulations are then conducted to study the effects of the actuation on sound radiated by the airfoil. Results show that SJA can considerably suppress the radiated sound of the airfoil in uniform incoming stream.

Keywords: simulations, aeroacoustics, wind turbine noise, synthetic jet actuators (SJAs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
35 Thrust Vectoring Control of Supersonic Flow through an Orifice Injector

Authors: I. Mnafeg, A. Abichou, L. Beji

Abstract:

Traditional mechanical control systems in thrust vectoring are efficient in rocket thrust guidance but their costs and their weights are excessive. The fluidic injection in the nozzle divergent constitutes an alternative procedure to achieve the goal. In this paper, we present a 3D analytical model for fluidic injection in a supersonic nozzle integrating an orifice. The fluidic vectoring uses a sonic secondary injection in the divergent. As a result, the flow and interaction between the main and secondary jet has built in order to express the pressure fields from which the forces and thrust vectoring are deduced. Under various separation criteria, the present analytical model results are compared with the existing numerical and experimental data from the literature.

Keywords: flow separation, fluidic thrust vectoring, nozzle, secondary jet, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
34 Effect of Helical Flow on Separation Delay in the Aortic Arch for Different Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses by Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Qianhui Li, Christoph H. Bruecker

Abstract:

Atherosclerotic plaques are typically found where flow separation and variations of shear stress occur. Although helical flow patterns and flow separations have been recorded in the aorta, their relation has not been clearly clarified and especially in the condition of artificial heart valve prostheses. Therefore, an experimental study is performed to investigate the hemodynamic performance of different mechanical heart valves (MHVs), i.e. the SJM Regent bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) and the Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA trileaflet mechanical heart valve (TMHV), in a transparent model of the human aorta under a physiological pulsatile right-hand helical flow condition. A typical systolic flow profile is applied in the pulse-duplicator to generate a physiological pulsatile flow which thereafter flows past an axial turbine blade structure to imitate the right-hand helical flow induced in the left ventricle. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to map the flow evolution. A circular open orifice nozzle inserted in the valve plane as the reference configuration initially replaces the valve under investigation to understand the hemodynamic effects of the entered helical flow structure on the flow evolution in the aortic arch. Flow field analysis of the open orifice nozzle configuration illuminates the helical flow effectively delays the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. The comparison of the flow evolution for different MHVs shows that the BMHV works like a flow straightener which re-configures the helical flow pattern into three parallel jets (two side-orifice jets and the central orifice jet) while the TMHV preserves the helical flow structure and therefore prevent the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. Therefore the TMHV is of better hemodynamic performance and reduces the pressure loss.

Keywords: flow separation, helical aortic flow, mechanical heart valve, particle image velocimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
33 Quantitative Characterization of Single Orifice Hydraulic Flat Spray Nozzle

Authors: Y. C. Khoo, W. T. Lai

Abstract:

The single orifice hydraulic flat spray nozzle was evaluated with two global imaging techniques to characterize various aspects of the resulting spray. The two techniques were high resolution flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A CCD camera with 29 million pixels was used to capture shadowgraph images to realize ligament formation and collapse as well as droplet interaction. Quantitative analysis was performed to give the sizing information of the droplets and ligaments. This camera was then applied with a PIV system to evaluate the overall velocity field of the spray, from nozzle exit to droplet discharge. PIV images were further post-processed to determine the inclusion angle of the spray. The results from those investigations provided significant quantitative understanding of the spray structure. Based on the quantitative results, detailed understanding of the spray behavior was achieved.

Keywords: spray, flow visualization, PIV, shadowgraph, quantitative sizing, velocity field

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
32 Parametric Investigation of Aircraft Door’s Emergency Power Assist System (EPAS)

Authors: Marshal D. Kafle, Jun H. Kim, Hyun W. Been, Kyoung M. Min

Abstract:

Fluid viscous damping systems are well suited for many air vehicles subjected to shock and vibration. These damping system work with the principle of viscous fluid throttling through the orifice to create huge pressure difference between compression and rebound chamber and obtain the required damping force. One application of such systems is its use in aircraft door system to counteract the door’s velocity and safely stop it. In exigency situations like crash or emergency landing where the door doesn’t open easily, possibly due to unusually tilting of fuselage or some obstacles or intrusion of debris obstruction to move the parts of the door, such system can be combined with other systems to provide needed force to forcefully open the door and also securely stop it simultaneously within the required time i.e.less than 8seconds. In the present study, a hydraulic system called snubber along with other systems like actuator, gas bottle assembly which together known as emergency power assist system (EPAS) is designed, built and experimentally studied to check the magnitude of angular velocity, damping force and time required to effectively open the door. Whenever needed, the gas pressure from the bottle is released to actuate the actuator and at the same time pull the snubber’s piston to operate the emergency opening of the door. Such EPAS installed in the suspension arm of the aircraft door is studied explicitly changing parameters like orifice size, oil level, oil viscosity and bypass valve gap and its spring of the snubber at varying temperature to generate the optimum design case. Comparative analysis of the EPAS at several cases is done and conclusions are made. It is found that during emergency condition, the systemopening time and angular velocity, when snubber with 0.3mm piston and shaft orifice and bypass valve gap of 0.5 mm with its original spring is used,shows significant improvement over the old ones.

Keywords: aircraft door damper, bypass valve, emergency power assist system, hydraulic damper, oil viscosity

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31 Effect of Downstream Pressure in Tuning the Flow Control Orifices of Pressure Fed Reaction Control System Thrusters

Authors: Prakash M.N, Mahesh G, Muhammed Rafi K.M, Shiju P. Nair

Abstract:

Introduction: In launch vehicle missions, Reaction Control thrusters are being used for the three-axis stabilization of the vehicle during the coasting phases. A pressure-fed propulsion system is used for the operation of these thrusters due to its less complexity. In liquid stages, these thrusters are designed to draw propellant from the same tank used for the main propulsion system. So in order to regulate the propellant flow rates of these thrusters, flow control orifices are used in feed lines. These orifices are calibrated separately as per the flow rate requirement of individual thrusters for the nominal operating conditions. In some missions, it was observed that the thrusters were operated at higher thrust than nominal. This point was addressed through a series of cold flow and hot tests carried out in-ground and this paper elaborates the details of the same. Discussion: In order to find out the exact reason for this phenomenon, two flight configuration thrusters were identified and hot tested in the ground with calibrated orifices and feed lines. During these tests, the chamber pressure, which is directly proportional to the thrust, is measured. In both cases, chamber pressures higher than the nominal by 0.32bar to 0.7bar were recorded. The increase in chamber pressure is due to an increase in the oxidizer flow rate of both the thrusters. Upon further investigation, it is observed that the calibration of the feed line is done with ambient pressure downstream. But in actual flight conditions, the orifices will be subjected to operate with 10 to 11bar pressure downstream. Due to this higher downstream pressure, the flow through the orifices increases and thereby, the thrusters operate with higher chamber pressure values. Conclusion: As part of further investigatory tests, two numbers of fresh thrusters were realized. Orifice tuning of these thrusters was carried out in three different ways. In the first trial, the orifice tuning was done by simulating 1bar pressure downstream. The second trial was done with the injector assembled downstream. In the third trial, the downstream pressure equal to the flight injection pressure was simulated downstream. Using these calibrated orifices, hot tests were carried out in simulated vacuum conditions. Chamber pressure and flow rate values were exactly matching with the prediction for the second and third trials. But for the first trial, the chamber pressure values obtained in the hot test were more than the prediction. This clearly shows that the flow is detached in the 1st trial and attached for the 2nd & 3rd trials. Hence, the error in tuning the flow control orifices is pinpointed as the reason for this higher chamber pressure observed in flight.

Keywords: reaction control thruster, propellent, orifice, chamber pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
30 Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter with Deep Water Reactance

Authors: William C. Alexander

Abstract:

The oscillating water column (OSC) wave energy converter (WEC) with deep water reactance (DWR) consists of a large hollow sphere filled with seawater at the base, referred to as the ‘stabilizer’, a hollow cylinder at the top of the device, with a said cylinder having a bottom open to the sea and a sealed top save for an orifice which leads to an air turbine, and a long, narrow rod connecting said stabilizer with said cylinder. A small amount of ballast at the bottom of the stabilizer and a small amount of floatation in the cylinder keeps the device upright in the sea. The floatation is set such that the mean water level is nominally halfway up the cylinder. The entire device is loosely moored to the seabed to keep it from drifting away. In the presence of ocean waves, seawater will move up and down within the cylinder, producing the ‘oscillating water column’. This gives rise to air pressure within the cylinder alternating between positive and negative gauge pressure, which in turn causes air to alternately leave and enter the cylinder through said top-cover situated orifice. An air turbine situated within or immediately adjacent to said orifice converts the oscillating airflow into electric power for transport to shore or elsewhere by electric power cable. Said oscillating air pressure produces large up and down forces on the cylinder. Said large forces are opposed through the rod to the large mass of water retained within the stabilizer, which is located deep enough to be mostly free of any wave influence and which provides the deepwater reactance. The cylinder and stabilizer form a spring-mass system which has a vertical (heave) resonant frequency. The diameter of the cylinder largely determines the power rating of the device, while the size (and water mass within) of the stabilizer determines said resonant frequency. Said frequency is chosen to be on the lower end of the wave frequency spectrum to maximize the average power output of the device over a large span of time (such as a year). The upper portion of the device (the cylinder) moves laterally (surge) with the waves. This motion is accommodated with minimal loading on the said rod by having the stabilizer shaped like a sphere, allowing the entire device to rotate about the center of the stabilizer without rotating the seawater within the stabilizer. A full-scale device of this type may have the following dimensions. The cylinder may be 16 meters in diameter and 30 meters high, the stabilizer 25 meters in diameter, and the rod 55 meters long. Simulations predict that this will produce 1,400 kW in waves of 3.5-meter height and 12 second period, with a relatively flat power curve between 5 and 16 second wave periods, as will be suitable for an open-ocean location. This is nominally 10 times higher power than similar-sized WEC spar buoys as reported in the literature, and the device is projected to have only 5% of the mass per unit power of other OWC converters.

Keywords: oscillating water column, wave energy converter, spar bouy, stabilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
29 A Measurement Device of Condensing Flow Rate, an Order of MilliGrams per Second

Authors: Hee Joon Lee

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in measuring a small flow rate of an order of milli grams per minute (LPM) or less using a conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a flow meter with minimal loss and based on a new concept was designed as part of this paper. A chamber was manufactured with a level transmitter and an on-off control valve. When the level of the collected condensed water reaches the top of the chamber, the valve opens to allow the collected water to drain back into the tank. To allow the water to continue to drain when the signal is lost, the valve is held open for a few seconds by a time delay switch and then closed. After an examination, the condensing flow rate was successfully measured with the uncertainty of ±5.7% of the full scale for the chamber.

Keywords: chamber, condensation, flow meter, milli-grams

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
28 Developing Environmental Engineering Alternatives for Deep Desulphurization of Transportation Fuels

Authors: Nalinee B. Suryawanshi, Vinay M. Bhandari, Laxmi Gayatri Sorokhaibam, Vivek V. Ranade

Abstract:

Deep desulphurization of transportation fuels is a major environmental concern all over the world and recently prescribed norms for the sulphur content require below 10 ppm sulphur concentrations in fuels such as diesel and gasoline. The existing technologies largely based on catalytic processes such as hydrodesulphurization, oxidation require newer catalysts and demand high cost of deep desulphurization whereas adsorption based processes have limitations due to lower capacity of sulphur removal. The present work is an attempt to provide alternatives for the existing methodologies using a newer non-catalytic process based on hydrodynamic cavitation. The developed process requires appropriate combining of organic and aqueous phases under ambient conditions and passing through a cavitating device such as orifice, venturi or vortex diode. The implosion of vapour cavities formed in the cavitating device generates (in-situ) oxidizing species which react with the sulphur moiety resulting in the removal of sulphur from the organic phase. In this work, orifice was used as a cavitating device and deep desulphurization was demonstrated for removal of thiophene as a model sulphur compound from synthetic fuel of n-octane, toluene and n-octanol. The effect of concentration of sulphur (up to 300 ppm), nature of organic phase and effect of pressure drop (0.5 to 10 bar) was discussed. A very high removal of sulphur content of more than 90% was demonstrated. The process is easy to operate, essentially works at ambient conditions and the ratio of aqueous to organic phase can be easily adjusted to maximise sulphur removal. Experimental studies were also carried out using commercial diesel as a solvent and the results substantiate similar high sulphur removal. A comparison of the two cavitating devices- one with a linear flow and one using vortex flow for effecting pressure drop and cavitation indicates similar trends in terms of sulphur removal behaviour. The developed process is expected to provide an attractive environmental engineering alternative for deep desulphurization of transportation fuels.

Keywords: cavitation, petroleum, separation, sulphur removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
27 Open Channel Flow Measurement of Water by Using Width Contraction

Authors: Arun Goel, D. V. S. Verma, Sanjeev Sangwan

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to develop a discharge measuring device for irrigation and laboratory channels. Experiments were conducted on a sharp edged constricted flow meters having four types of width constrictions namely 2:1, 1.5:1, 1:1, and 90o in the direction of flow. These devices were made of MS sheets and installed separately in a rectangular flume. All these four devices were tested under free and submerged flow conditions. Eight different discharges varying from 2 lit/sec to 30 lit/sec were passed through each device. In total around 500 observations of upstream and downstream depths were taken in the present work. For each discharge, free submerged and critical submergence under different flow conditions were noted and plotted. Once the upstream and downstream depths of flow over any of the device are known, the discharge can be easily calculated with the help of the curves developed for free and submerged flow conditions. The device having contraction 2:1 is the most efficient one as it allows maximum critical submergence.

Keywords: flowrate, flowmeter, open channels, submergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
26 Evaluation of Turbulence Modelling of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in a Venturi

Authors: Mengke Zhan, Cheng-Gang Xie, Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

A venturi flowmeter is a common device used in multiphase flow rate measurement in the upstream oil and gas industry. Having a robust computational model for multiphase flow in a venturi is desirable for understanding the gas-liquid and fluid-pipe interactions and predicting pressure and phase distributions under various flow conditions. A steady Eulerian-Eulerian framework is used to simulate upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical venturi. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements of venturi differential pressure and chord-averaged gas holdup in the venturi throat section. The choice of turbulence model is nontrivial in the multiphase flow modelling in a venturi. The performance cross-comparison of the k-ϵ model, Reynolds stress model (RSM) and shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model is made in the study. In terms of accuracy and computational cost, the SST k-ω turbulence model is observed to be the most efficient.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), gas-liquid flow, turbulence modelling, venturi

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
25 Numerical Investigation of the Electromagnetic Common Rail Injector Characteristics

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

The paper describes the modeling of a fuel injector for common rail systems. A one-dimensional model of a solenoid-valve-controlled injector with Valve Closes Orifice (VCO) spray was modelled in the AVL Hydsim. This model shows the dynamic phenomena that occur in the injector. The accuracy of the calibration, based on a regulation of the parameters of the control valve and the nozzle needle lift, was verified by comparing the numerical results of injector flow rate. Our model is capable of a precise simulation of injector operating parameters in relation to injection time and fuel pressure in a fuel rail. As a result, there were made characteristics of the injector flow rate and backflow.

Keywords: common rail, diesel engine, fuel injector, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
24 Project and Experiment-Based Fluid Dynamics Education

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

This paper presents the project and experiment-based fluid dynamics education in Meisei University, a private institution in Tokyo, Japan. We pay attention not only to the basic engineering courses but also to the practical aspect of engineering experience. So, we prepare courses called the Projects from I to VI. The Projects I and II are designed for the first year, III and IV are designated for the second year, V and VI are prepared for the third year, respectively. Each supervisor is responsible for two of these projects every year. When students take the Project V and VI at the third year, we automatically assume that these students will join the lab of the project for the graduation thesis. We would like to show our experience in the Project I in the summer term, 2016. In this project, we introduce a traction flight vehicle called Cat Flyer. This is a kind of a kite towed by a car for example. This is very similar to parasailing, but flight is possible even on the roads. Experiments in mechanical engineering education are also very important, and we would like to explain our course on centrifugal pump, venture, and orifice. Although these are described in detail in the text books of fluid dynamics, it is still crucial to have practical experiments as a student.

Keywords: aerodynamics, experiment, fluid dynamics, project

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23 Simulation and Analysis of Different Parameters in Hydraulic Circuit Due to Leakage

Authors: J.Das, Gyan Wrat

Abstract:

Leakage is the main gradual failure in the fluid power system, which is usually caused by the impurity in the oil and wear of matching surfaces between parts and lead to the change of the gap value. When leakage occurs in the system, the oil will flow from the high pressure chamber into the low pressure chamber through the gap, causing the reduction of system flow as well as the loss of system pressure, resulting in the decreasing of system efficiency. In the fluid power system, internal leakage may occur in various components such as gear pump, reversing valve and hydraulic cylinder, and affect the system work performance. Therefore, component leakage in the fluid power system is selected as the study to characterize the leakage and the effect of leakage on the system. Effect of leakage on system pressure and cylinder displacement can be obtained using pressure sensors and the displacement sensor. The leakage can be varied by changing the orifice using a flow control valve. Hydraulic circuit for leakage will be developed in Matlab/Simulink environment and simulations will be done by changing different parameters.

Keywords: leakage causes, effect, analysis, MATLAB simulation, hydraulic circuit

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22 Gas-Liquid Flow Regimes in Vertical Venturi Downstream of Horizontal Blind-Tee

Authors: Muhammad Alif Bin Razali, Cheng-Gang Xie, Wai Lam Loh

Abstract:

A venturi device is commonly used as an integral part of a multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) in real-time oil-gas production monitoring. For an accurate determination of individual phase fraction and flowrate, a gas-liquid flow ideally needs to be well mixed in the venturi measurement section. Partial flow mixing is achieved by installing a venturi vertically downstream of the blind-tee pipework that ‘homogenizes’ the incoming horizontal gas-liquid flow. In order to study in-depth the flow-mixing effect of the blind-tee, gas-liquid flows are captured at blind-tee and venturi sections by using a high-speed video camera and a purpose-built transparent test rig, over a wide range of superficial liquid velocities (0.3 to 2.4m/s) and gas volume fractions (10 to 95%). Electrical capacitance sensors are built to measure the instantaneous holdup (of oil-gas flows) at the venturi inlet and throat. Flow regimes and flow (a)symmetry are investigated based on analyzing the statistical features of capacitance sensors’ holdup time-series data and of the high-speed video time-stacked images. The perceived homogenization effect of the blind-tee on the incoming intermittent horizontal flow regimes is found to be relatively small across the tested flow conditions. A horizontal (blind-tee) to vertical (venturi) flow-pattern transition map is proposed based on gas and liquid mass fluxes (weighted by the Baker parameters).

Keywords: blind-tee, flow visualization, gas-liquid two-phase flow, MPFM

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21 A Numerical Study on the Flow in a Pipe with Perforated Plates

Authors: Myeong Hee Jeong, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

The use of perforated plate and tubes is common in applications such as vehicle exhaust silencers, attenuators in air moving ducts and duct linings in jet engines. Also, perforated plate flow conditioners designed to improve flow distribution upstream of an orifice plate flow meter typically have 50–60% free area but these generally employ a non-uniform distribution of holes of several sizes to encourage the formation of a fully developed pipe flow velocity distribution. In this study, therefore, numerical investigations on the flow characteristics with the various perforated plates have been performed and then compared to the case without a perforated plate. Three different models are adopted such as a flat perforated plate, a convex perforated plate in the direction of the inlet, and a convex perforated plate in the direction of the outlet. Simulation results show that the pressure drop with and without perforated plates are similar each other. However, it can be found that that the different shaped perforated plates influence the velocity contour, flow uniformity index, and location of the fully developed fluid flow. These results can be used as a practical guide to the best design of pipe with the perforated plate.

Keywords: perforated plate, flow uniformity, pipe turbulent flow, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

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20 A Computational Analysis of Gas Jet Flow Effects on Liquid Aspiration in the Collison Nebulizer

Authors: James Q. Feng

Abstract:

Pneumatic nebulizers (as variations based on the Collison nebulizer) have been widely used for producing fine aerosol droplets from a liquid material. As qualitatively described by many authors, the basic working principle of those nebulizers involves utilization of the negative pressure associated with an expanding gas jet to syphon liquid into the jet stream, then to blow and shear into liquid sheets, filaments, and eventually droplets. But detailed quantitative analysis based on fluid mechanics theory has been lacking in the literature. The purpose of present work is to investigate the nature of negative pressure distribution associated with compressible gas jet flow in the Collison nebulizer by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, using an OpenFOAM® compressible flow solver. The value of the negative pressure associated with a gas jet flow is examined by varying geometric parameters of the jet expansion channel adjacent to the jet orifice outlet. Such an analysis can provide valuable insights into fundamental mechanisms in liquid aspiration process, helpful for effective design of the pneumatic atomizer in the Aerosol Jet® direct-write system for micro-feature, high-aspect-ratio material deposition in additive manufacturing.

Keywords: collison nebulizer, compressible gas jet flow, liquid aspiration, pneumatic atomization

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19 Design and Experimental Studies of a Centrifugal SWIRL Atomizer

Authors: Hemabushan K., Manikandan

Abstract:

In a swirl atomizer, fluid undergoes a swirling motion as a result of centrifugal force created by opposed tangential inlets in the swirl chamber. The angular momentum of fluid continually increases as it reaches the exit orifice and forms a hollow sheet. Which disintegrates to form ligaments and droplets respectively as it flows downstream. This type of atomizers used in rocket injectors and oil burner furnaces. In this present investigation a swirl atomizer with two opposed tangential inlets has been designed. Water as working fluid, experiments had been conducted for the fluid injection pressures in regime of 0.033 bar to 0.519 bar. The fluid has been pressured by a 0.5hp pump and regulated by a pressure regulator valve. Injection pressure of fluid has been measured by a U-tube mercury manometer. The spray pattern and the droplets has been captured with a high resolution camera in black background with a high intensity flash highlighting the fluid. The unprocessed images were processed in ImageJ processing software for measuring the droplet diameters and its shape characteristics along the downstream. The parameters such as mean droplet diameter and distribution, wave pattern, rupture distance and spray angle were studied for this atomizer. The above results were compared with theoretical results and also analysed for deviation with design parameters.

Keywords: swirl atomizer, injector, spray, SWIRL

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18 Analysis of Factors Influencing the Response Time of an Aspirating Gaseous Agent Concentration Detection Method

Authors: Yu Guan, Song Lu, Wei Yuan, Heping Zhang

Abstract:

Gas fire extinguishing system is widely used due to its cleanliness and efficiency, and since its spray will be affected by many factors such as convection and obstacles in jetting region, so in order to evaluate its effectiveness, detecting concentration distribution in the jetting area is indispensable, which is commonly achieved by aspirating concentration detection technique. During the concentration measurement, the response time of detector is a very important parameter, especially for those fire-extinguishing systems with rapid gas dispersion. Long response time will not only underestimate its concentration but also prolong the change of concentration with time. Therefore it is necessary to analyze the factors influencing the response time. In the paper, an aspirating concentration detection method was introduced, which is achieved by using a small critical nozzle and a laminar flowmeter, and because of the response time is mainly related to the gas transport process from sampling site to the sensor, the effects of exhaust pipe size, gas flow rate, and gas concentration on its response time were analyzed. During the research, Bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF₃) was used. The effect of the sampling tube was investigated with different length of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m (5mm in pipe diameter) and different pipe diameter of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 mm (3m in length). The effect of gas flow rate was analyzed by changing the throat diameter of the critical nozzle with 0.5, 0.682, 0.75, 0.8, 0.84 and 0.88 mm. The effect of gas concentration on response time was studied with the concentration range of 0-25%. The result showed that the response time increased with the increase of both the length and diameter of the sampling pipe, and the effect of length on response time was linear, but for the effect of diameter, it was exponential. It was also found that as the throat diameter of critical nozzle increased, the response time reduced a lot, in other words, gas flow rate has a great influence on response time. For the effect of gas concentration, the response time increased with the increase of the CBrF₃ concentration, and the slope of the curve was reduced.

Keywords: aspirating concentration detection, fire extinguishing, gaseous agent, response time

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