Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3491

Search results for: free fatty acids

3491 Study of Coconut and Babassu Oils with High Acid Content and the Fatty Acids (C6 to C16) Obtained from These Oils

Authors: Flávio A. F. da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, José A. S. Ramos Filho, Monica C. G. Albuquerque

Abstract:

The vegetable oils have many applications in industrial processes and due to this potential have constantly increased the demand for the use of low-quality oils, mainly in the production of biofuel. This work aims to the physicochemical evaluation of babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) of low quality, as well the obtaining the free fatty acids 6 to 16 carbon atoms, with intention to be used as raw material for the biofuels production. The babassu oil and coconut low quality, as well the fatty acids obtained from these oils were characterized as their physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition (using gas chromatography coupled to mass). The NMR technique was used to assess the efficiency of fractional distillation under reduced pressure to obtain the intermediate carbonic chain fatty acids. The results showed that the bad quality in terms of physicochemical evaluation of babassu oils and coconut oils interfere directly in industrial application. However the fatty acids of intermediate carbonic chain (C6 to C16) may be used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and particularly as the biokerosene fuel. The chromatographic analysis showed that the babassu oil and coconut oil have as major fatty acids are lauric acid (57.5 and 38.6%, respectively), whereas the top phase from distillation of coconut oil showed caprylic acid (39.1%) and major fatty acid.

Keywords: babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa), coconut oil (Cocos nucifera), fatty acids, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
3490 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
3489 Cadaver Free Fatty Acid Distribution Associated with Burial in Mangrove and Oil Palm Plantation Soils under Tropical Climate

Authors: Siti Sofo Ismail, Siti Noraina Wahida Mohd Alwi, Mohamad Hafiz Ameran, Masrudin M. Yusoff

Abstract:

Locating clandestine cadaver is crucially important in forensic investigations. However, it requires a lot of man power, costly and time consuming. Therefore, the development of a new method to locate the clandestine graves is urgently needed as the cases involve burial of cadaver in different types of soils under tropical climates are still not well explored. This study focused on the burial in mangrove and oil palm plantation soils, comparing the fatty acid distributions in different soil acidities. A stimulated burial experiment was conducted using domestic pig (Sus scrofa) to substitute human tissues. Approximately 20g of pig fatty flesh was allowed to decompose in mangrove and oil palm plantation soils, mimicking burial in a shallow grave. The associated soils were collected at different designated sampling points, corresponding different decomposition stages. Modified Bligh-Dyer Extraction method was applied to extract the soil free fatty acids. Then, the obtained free fatty acids were analyzed with gas chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID). A similar fatty acid distribution was observed for both mangrove and oil palm plantations soils. Palmitic acid (C₁₆) was the most abundance of free fatty acid, followed by stearic acid (C₁₈). However, the concentration of palmitic acid (C₁₆) higher in oil palm plantation compare to mangrove soils. Conclusion, the decomposition rate of cadaver can be affected by different type of soils.

Keywords: clandestine grave, burial, soils, free fatty acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3488 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3487 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Alla V. Goncharova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. It were defined the features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids varies from 16 to 36 %, the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 65% of total fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).

Keywords: microalgae, lipids, fatty acids, culture conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
3486 Ferric Sulphate Catalyzed Esterification of High Free Fatty Acids Content Used Coconut Oil for Biodiesel Synthesis

Authors: G. N. Maheshika, J. A. R. H. Wijerathna, S. H. P. Gunawardena

Abstract:

Feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFAs) content can be successfully employed for biodiesel synthesis once the high FFA content is reduced to the desired levels. In the present study, the applicability of ferric sulphate as the solid acid catalyst for esterification of FFA in used coconut oil was evaluated at varying catalyst concentration and methanol:oil molar ratios. 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0% w/w Fe2(SO4)3 on oil basis was used at methanol:oil ratios of 3:1, 4.5:1, and 6:1 and at the reaction temperature of 60 0C. The FFA reduction increased with the increase in catalyst and methanol:oil molar ratios while the time requirement to reach the esterification equilibrium reduced. Satisfactory results for esterification could be obtained within a small reaction period in the presence of only a small amount of Fe2(SO4)3 catalyst concentration and at low reaction temperature, which then can be subjected for trans-esterification process. At the end of the considering reaction period the solid Fe2(SO4)3 catalyst could be separated from the reaction system. The economics of the Fe2(SO4)3 catalyzed esterification of high FFA content used coconut oil for biodiesel is at favorable conditions.

Keywords: biodiesel, esterification, ferric sulphate, Free fatty acids, used coconut oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
3485 Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Spelt and Flaxseed Pasta

Authors: Jelena Filipovic, Milenko Kosutic

Abstract:

The dynamic way of life has the tendency to simplify and decrease preparing healthy, quick, cheap and safe meals. Spelt pasta is meeting most of these goals. Contrary to bread, pasta can be stored a long time without deterioration in flavour, odour and usability without losing quality. This paper deals with the chemical composition and content of fatty acids in flaxseed and spelt flour. Ratio of essential fatty acids ω-6/ω-3 is also analysed in spelt pasta and pasta with 0%, 10% and 20% flaxseed flour. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is used for carrying out a quantitative analysis of flaxseed flour, spelt flour and pasta liposoluble extracts. Flaxseed flour has a better fatty acid profile than spelt flour, with low levels of saturated fat (approximately 9g/100g), high concentration of linolenic acid (57g/100g) and lower content of linoleic acid (16g/100g), as well as superior ω-6/ω-3 ratio that is 1:4. Flaxseed flour in the share of 10% and 20% in spelt pasta positively contributes to the essential fatty acids daily intake recommended by nutritionists and the improvement of ω-6/ω-3 ratio (6,7:1 and 1:1.2). This paper points out that investigated pasta with flaxseed is a new product with improved functional properties due to high level of ω-3 fatty acids and it is acceptable for consumers in regard to sensory properties.

Keywords: flaxseed, spelt, fatty acids, ω-3/ω-6 ratio, pasta

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
3484 Kinetic Study of the Esterification of Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Salmon Oil (Salmosalar L.)

Authors: André Luis Lima de Oliveira, Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento, Victória Maura Silva Bermudez, Mauricio Nunes Kleinberg, João Carlos da Costa Assunção, José Osvaldo Beserra Carioca

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize a triglyceride with high content of unsaturated fatty acids from salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) by esterification with glycerol catalyzed dealuminized zeolite. A kinetic study was conducted to determine the reaction order and the activation energy. A statistical study was conducted to determine optimal reaction conditions. Initially, the crude oil was refined salmon physically and chemically. The crude oil was hydrolyzed and unsaturated free fatty acids were separated by urea complexation method. An experimental project to verify the parameters (temperature, glycerin and catalyst) with the greatest impact on the reaction was developed. In experiments aliquots were taken at predetermined times to measure the amount of free fatty acids. Pareto, surface, contour and hub graphs were used to determine the factors that maximized the reaction. According to the graphs the best reaction conditions were: temperature 80 ° C, the proportion glycerine/oil 5: 1 and 1% of catalyst. The kinetic data showed that the system was compatible with a second-order reaction. After analyzing the rate constant versus temperature charts a value of 85.31 kJ/mol was obtained for the reaction activation energy.

Keywords: esterification, kinect, oil, salmon

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
3483 Identification of Lipo-Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Aconitum carmichaelii Using Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Ying Liang, Na Li

Abstract:

Lipo-alkaloid is a kind of C19-norditerpenoid alkaloids existed in Aconitum species, which usually contains an aconitane skeleton and one or two fatty acid residues. The structures are very similar to that of diester-type alkaloids, which are considered as the main bioactive components in Aconitum carmichaelii. They have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-proliferative activities. So far, more than 200 lipo-alkaloids were reported from plants, semisynthesis, and biotransformations. In our research, by the combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadruple-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and an in-house database, 148 lipo-alkaloids were identified from A. carmichaelii, including 93 potential new compounds and 38 compounds with oxygenated fatty acid moieties. To our knowledge, this is the first time of the reporting of the oxygenated fatty acids as the side chains in naturally-occurring lipo-alkaloids. Considering the fatty acid residues in lipo-alkaloids should come from the free acids in the plant, the fatty acids and their relationship with lipo-alkaloids were further investigated by GC-MS and LC-MS. Among 17 fatty acids identified by GC-MS, 12 were detected as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids, which accounted for about 1/3 of total lipo-alkaloids, while these fatty acid residues were less than 1/4 of total fatty acid residues. And, total of 37 fatty acids were determined by UHPCL-Q-TOF-MS, including 18 oxidized fatty acids firstly identified from A. carmichaelii. These fatty acids were observed as the side chains of lipo-alkaloids. In addition, although over 140 lipo-alkaloids were identified, six lipo-alkaloids, 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (1), 8-O-linoleoyl-14-benzoylaconine (2), 8-O-palmitoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (3), 8-O-oleoyl-14-benzoylmesaconine (4), 8-O-pal-benzoylaconine (5), and 8-O-ole-Benzoylaconine (6), were found to be the main components, which accounted for over 90% content of total lipo-alkaloids. Therefore, using these six components as standards, a UHPLC-Triple Quadrupole-MS (UHPLC-QQQ-MS) approach was established to investigate the influence of processing on the contents of lipo-alkaloids. Although it was commonly supposed that the contents of lipo-alkaloids increased after processing, our research showed that no significant change was observed before and after processing. Using the same methods, the lipo-alkaloids in the lateral roots of A. carmichaelii and the roots of A. kusnezoffii were determined and quantified. The contents of lipo-alkaloids in A. kusnezoffii were close to that of the parent roots of A. carmichaelii, while the lateral roots had less lipo-alkaloids than the parent roots. This work was supported by Macao Science and Technology Development Fund (086/2013/A3 and 003/2016/A1).

Keywords: Aconitum carmichaelii, fatty acids, GC-MS, LC-MS, lipo-alkaloids

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3482 Fatty Acid Profile of Meat from Lambs Fed on Diets Containing Mulberry Hay

Authors: A. G. Silva Sobrinho, L. G. A. Cirne, V. T. Santana

Abstract:

The aim of this trial was to evaluate fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed on diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty-four feedlot Ile de France lambs (average weight of 15kg and average age of 60 days) were randomized to receive the different diets and slaughtered at 32kg body weight. Increases were observed in the concentrations of the saturated pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic and arachidic fatty acids; of the monounsaturated nervonic fatty acid and of the polyunsaturated α-linolenic, ɣ-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids. Increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was also found in the meat of lambs fed on 12.5% mulberry hay. In addition, the omega-3 composition was augmented, while the omega-3/omega-6 ratio was decreased in mulberry hay-fed animals. In conclusion, a more desirable fatty acid profile was observed in lamb meat following the substitution of mulberry hay in the concentrate of fed, resulting in improved nutritional characteristics of the meat.

Keywords: alternative food, fatty acids, feedlot, sheep meat

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
3481 Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

Abstract:

Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, laying hen housing system or hen diet, has a primary influence on bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil. The egg yolk oil was extracted from eggs obtained from 4 different hen housing systems: cage, barn and two groups of free range. All hens were fed with commercially produced compound feed except one group of free range hens which get free diet – pastured hens. Extracted egg yolk oils were analyzed for fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins and β-carotene content. α-tocopherol, ergocalcipherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in egg yolk oil was higher from eggs obtained from all housing systems where hens were fed with commercial compound feed. β-carotene and retinol content in egg yolk oils from free range free diet eggs was significantly (p>0.05) higher that from other eggs because hens have access to green forage. Hen physical activity in free range housing systems decreases content of some bioactive compound in egg yolk oil.

Keywords: egg yolk oil, vitamins, caged eggs, free range

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
3480 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın

Abstract:

Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

Keywords: aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
3479 Determination of Hydrolisis Condition in the Extraction of Fatty Acids from Pinchagua's (Opisthonema libertate) Heads, a By-Product of Sardine Industry

Authors: Belen Carrillo, Mauricio Mosquera

Abstract:

Fatty acids are bioactive compounds widely used as nutritional supplements in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Bluefish such as sardines have a large variety of these fatty acids in their composition. The objective of this project is to extract these compounds from fishing wastes, to do this, heads of known species as Pinchagua (Opistonema libertate) were used. The conducted study represents a simplified alternative for obtaining and simultaneous saponification of oil through basic hydrolysis, which separates lipids from protein and saponifies sample all the same time to isolate the fatty acid accurately through salts formation. To do these different concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used, it was demonstrated at a concentration of 1 M the highest yield of saponified oil recovery corresponding a value of 3,64% was obtained. Subsequently, the saponified oil was subjected to an acid hydrolysis in which fatty acids were isolated. Different sulfuric acid concentrations and temperatures for the process were tested. Thus, it was shown that the great fatty acids variety were obtained at a 60 °C temperature and sulfuric acid concentration of 50% v/v. Among the obtained compounds the presence of acids such as palmitic, lauric, caproic and myristic are highlighted. Applications of this type of elements are varied and widely used in the nutritional supplements development. Thus, the described methodology proposes a simple mechanism in the revaluation of fishing industry wastes that allow directly generate high added value elements.

Keywords: fatty acids, hydrolysis, Pinchagua, saponification

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
3478 Comparison of Fatty Acids Composition of Three Commercial Fish Species Farmed in the Adriatic Sea

Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Greta Krešić, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Renata Barić, Tanja Bogdanović, Dražen Oraić, Ana Legac, Snježana Zrnčić

Abstract:

Fish has been acknowledged as an integral component of a well-balanced diet, providing a healthy source of energy, high-quality proteins, vitamins, essential minerals and, especially, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA), and docosahexaenoicacid, (22:6 n-3 DHA), whose pleiotropic effects in terms of health promotion and disease prevention have been increasingly recognised. In this study, the fatty acids composition of three commercially important farmed fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and dentex (Dentex dentex) was investigated. In total, 60 fish samples were retrieved during 2015 (n = 30) and 2016 (n = 30) from different locations in the Adriatic Sea. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). The results show that the most represented fatty acid in all three analysed species is oleic acid (C18:1n-9, OA), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA). Dentex was shown to have two to four times higher eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid content as compared to sea bream and sea bass. The recommended n-6/n-3 ratio was determined in all fish species but obtained results pointed to statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in fatty acid composition among the analysed fish species and their potential as a dietary source of valuable fatty acids. Sea bass and sea bream had a significantly higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, while dentex had a significantly higher proportion of n-3 (C18:4n-3, C20:4n-3, EPA, DHA) fatty acids. A higher hypocholesterolaemic and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids (HH) ratio was determined for sea bass and sea bream, which comes as the consequence of a lower share of SFA determined in these two species in comparison to dentex. Since the analysed fish species vary in their fatty acids composition consumption of diverse fish species would be advisable. Based on the established lipid quality indicators, dentex, a fish species underutilised by the aquaculture, seems to be a highly recommendable and important source of fatty acids recommended to be included into the human diet.

Keywords: dentex, fatty acids, farmed fish, sea bass, sea bream

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3477 Study of the Composition of Lipids in Different Kinds of Packaged Food Products

Authors: Zineb Taidirt, Fathia Sebahi, Mohamed Karim Guarchani, Anissa Berkane, Noureddine Smail, Ouahiba Hadjoudj

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of death in Algeria. Several risk factors are responsible for this, including the consumption of foods containing saturated fat and trans fatty acids TFAs. This brief presents the results of a descriptive study of the lipid composition of 251 food products marketed in Algeria. The objective of the study is to describe the nature and composition of lipids and to verify the compliance of saturated and trans fatty acids intakes with the regulations. The study is based on data from the nutrition labelling of marketed food products. The results showed that the lipids in foodstuffs are diverse in nature and of varying amounts, but their nature is not specified on all products. In addition, the required content of saturated fatty acids is mentioned only in 29.48% of the products; 21.62% of them do not comply with the standard. Hydrogenation of fats, which produced Trans fatty acids, is common: 19.92% of products contain hydrogenated fats, and 74.89% may contain them according to the aspect of the lipid (solid fat). However, the trans fatty acid content is only mentioned in 5.18% of the products. The latter is above the limits set by Algerian regulations in 50% of the butter samples studied. The composition of lipids in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for the body is insufficient: only 13.94% of the products inform their contents on their labels. It is necessary to adopt mandatory restriction of trans fatty acids, to ban the use of partially-hydrogenated oils, and to require required mandatory labeling of the TFAs and the other fatty acids on packaged foods, and to conduct more studies in order to appreciate the intake of TFAs and saturated fat and appreciate their effects on the Algerian population and to get more informed about the composition of the lipid in packaged foods.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, lipids, nutrition labelling, lipids, trans fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
3476 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey

Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz

Abstract:

In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid, composition, gas chromatography

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
3475 Decarboxylation of Waste Coconut Oil and Comparison of Acid Values

Authors: Pabasara H. Gamage, Sisira K. Weliwegamage, Sameera R. Gunatilake, Hondamuni I. C De Silva, Parakrama Karunaratne

Abstract:

Green diesel is an upcoming category of biofuels, which has more practical advantages than biodiesel. Production of green diesel involves production of hydrocarbons from various fatty acid sources. Though green diesel is chemically similar to fossil fuel hydrocarbons, it is more environmentally friendly. Decarboxylation of fatty acid sources is one of green diesel production methods and is less expensive and more energy efficient compared to hydrodeoxygenation. Free fatty acids (FFA), undergo decarboxylation readily than triglycerides. Waste coconut oil, which is a rich source of FFA, can be easily decarboxylated than other oils which have lower FFA contents. These free fatty acids can be converted to hydrocarbons by decarboxylation. Experiments were conducted to carry out decarboxylation of waste coconut oil in a high pressure hastealloy reactor (Toption Goup LTD), in the presence of soda lime and mixtures of soda lime and alumina. Acid value (AV) correlates to the amount of FFA available in a sample of oil. It can be shown that with the decreasing of AV, FFAs have converted to hydrocarbons. First, waste coconut oil was reacted with soda lime alone, at 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure for 2 hours. AVs of products at different temperatures were compared. AV of products decreased with increasing temperature. Thereafter, different mixtures of soda lime and alumina (100% Soda lime, 1:1 soda lime and alumina and 100% alumina) were employed at temperatures 150 °C, 200 °C, and 250 °C and 1.2 MPa pressure. The lowest AV of 2.99±0.03 was obtained when 1:1 soda lime and alumina were employed at 250 °C. It can be concluded with respect to the AV that the amount of FFA decreased when decarboxylation temperature was increased. Soda lime:alumina 1:1 mixture showed the lowest AV among the compositions studied. These findings lead to formulate a method to successfully synthesize hydrocarbons by decarboxylating waste coconut oil in the presence of soda lime and alumina (1:1) at elevated tempertaures such as 250 °C.

Keywords: acid value, free fatty acids, green diesel, high pressure reactor, waste coconut oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
3474 Anti-Acanthamoeba Activities of Fatty Acid Salts and Fatty Acids

Authors: Manami Masuda, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita

Abstract:

Objectives: Fatty acid salts are a type of anionic surfactant and are produced from fatty acids and alkali. Moreover, fatty acid salts are known to have potent antibacterial activities. Acanthamoeba is ubiquitously distributed in the environment including sea water, fresh water, soil and even from the air. Although generally free-living, Acanthamoeba can be an opportunistic pathogen, which could cause a potentially blinding corneal infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. So, in this study, we evaluated the anti-amoeba activity of fatty acid salts and fatty acids to Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of 9 fatty acid salts (potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K), linolenate (C18:3K)) tested on cells of Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010. Fatty acid salts (concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH. The amoeba suspension mixed with KOH with a pH adjusted solution was used as the control. Fatty acids (concentration of 175 mM) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with Tween 80 (20 %). The amoeba suspension mixed with Tween 80 (20 %) was used as the control. The anti-amoeba method, the amoeba suspension (3.0 × 104 cells/ml trophozoites) was mixed with the sample of fatty acid potassium (final concentration of 175 mM). Samples were incubated at 30°C, for 10 min, 60 min, and 180 min and then the viability of A. castellanii was evaluated using plankton counting chamber and trypan blue stainings. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Acanthamoeba was determined using the two-fold dilution method. The MIC was defined as the minimal anti-amoeba concentration that inhibited visible amoeba growth following incubation (180 min). Results: C8K, C10K, and C12K were the anti-amoeba effect of 4 log-unit (99.99 % growth suppression of A. castellanii) incubated time for 180 min against A. castellanii at 175mM. After the amoeba, the suspension was mixed with C10K or C12K, destroying the cell membrane had been observed. Whereas, the pH adjusted control solution did not exhibit any effect even after 180 min of incubation with A. castellanii. Moreover, C6, C8, and C18:3 were the anti-amoeba effect of 4 log-unit incubated time for 60 min. C4 and C18:2 exhibited a 4-log reduction after 180 min incubation. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The MIC of C10K, C12K and C4 were 2.7 mM. These results indicate that C10K, C12K and C4 have high anti-amoeba activity against A. castellanii and suggest C10K, C12K and C4 have great potential for antimi-amoeba agents.

Keywords: Fatty acid salts, anti-amoeba activities, Acanthamoeba, fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
3473 Two Step Biodiesel Production from High Free Fatty Acid Spent Bleaching Earth

Authors: Rajiv Arora

Abstract:

Biodiesel may be economical if produced from inexpensive feedstock which commonly contains high level of free fatty acids (FFA) as an inhibitor in production of methyl ester. In this study, a two-step process for biodiesel production from high FFA spent bleach earth oil in a batch reactor is developed. Oil sample extracted from spent bleaching earth (SBE) was utilized for biodiesel process. In the first step, FFA of the SBE oil was reduced to 1.91% through sulfuric acid catalyzed esterification. In the second step, the product prepared from the first esterification process was carried out transesterification with an alkaline catalyst. The influence of four variables on conversion efficiency to methyl ester, i.e., methanol/ SBE oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction temperature and reaction time, was studied in the second stage. The optimum process variables in the transesterification were methanol/oil molar ratio 6:1, heterogeneous catalyst conc. 5 wt %, reaction temperature 65 °C and reaction time 60 minutes to produce biodiesel. Major fuel properties of SBE biodiesel were measured to comply with ASTM and EN standards. Therefore, an optimized process for production of biodiesel from a low-cost high FFA source was accomplished.

Keywords: biodiesel, esterification, free fatty acids, residual oil, spent bleaching earth, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
3472 Effect of Peppermint Essential Oil versus a Mixture of Formic and Propionic Acids on Corn Silage Volatile Fatty Acid Score

Authors: Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Hodjatpanah Montazeri, Alireza Vakili, Mansoor Tahmasbei

Abstract:

To compare peppermint essential oil versus a mixture of formic and propionic acids a study was conducted to their effects on volatile fatty acid proportion and VFA score of corn silage. Chopped whole crop corn (control) was treated with peppermint essential oil (240 mg kg-1 DM) or a mixture of formic and propionic acids (2:1) at 0.4% of fresh forage weight, and ensiled for 30 days. Then, silage extract was provided and the concentration of each VFA was determined using gas chromatography. The VFA score was calculated according to the patented formula proposed by Dairy One Scientific Committee. The score is calculated based on the positive impact of lactic and acetic acids versus the negative effect of butyric acid to achieve a single value for evaluating silage quality. The essential oil declined pH and increased the concentration of lactic and acetic acids in the silage extract. All corn silages evaluated in this study had a VFA score between 6 through 8. However, silage with peppermint essential oils had lower volatile fatty acids score than those of the other treatments. Both of applied additives caused a significant improvement in silage aerobic stability.

Keywords: peppermint, essential oil, corn silage, VFA (volatile fatty acids)

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
3471 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of an Oil of Pistacia Lentiscus Fruits and Its Effects on Blood Lipid Profile (10364 EJSR)

Authors: Merzougui Imene, Gherib Asma, Henchiri Cherifa

Abstract:

This study has allowed to confirm the physico chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition by GC of the oil of Pistacia lentiscus extracted by traditional method and evaluate its effect on some blood lipid parameters. The results showed that the main physico chemical characteristics of Pistacia lentiscus oil are: moisture (0.84 %), a relatively high iodine value (80,44) indicating that this oil has an important degree of unsaturation. The oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) where oleic acid dominate with 47,01 % of total fatty acids and PUFA's represented by linoleic acid (19,26 %). Concerning the biological survey, oil, at 10% and 20% doses of diet for 15 and 30 days of two periods of treatment, resulted in beneficial effects on the lipid profile of Wistar albinos rats previously fed with animal and vegetable fats. We observed decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGA), total lipids and LDL-C, and an increase in HDL-C "good cholesterol" probably related to the presence of a large amount of (MUFA) and (PUFA).

Keywords: Pistacia lentiscus, oil, lipid profile, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
3470 The Role of Physically Adsorbing Species of Oxyhydryl Reagents in Flotation Aggregate Formation

Authors: S. A. Kondratyev, O. I. Ibragimova

Abstract:

The authors discuss the collecting abilities of desorbable species (DS) of saturated fatty acids. The DS species of the reagent are understood as species capable of moving from the surface of the mineral particle to the bubble at the moment of the rupture of the interlayer of liquid separating these objects of interaction. DS species of carboxylic acids (molecules and ionic-molecular complexes) have the ability to spread over the surface of the bubble. The rate of their spreading at pH 7 and 10 over the water surface is determined. The collectibility criterion of saturated fatty acids is proposed. The values of forces exerted by the spreading DS species of reagents on liquid in the interlayer and the liquid flow rate from the interlayer are determined.

Keywords: criterion of action of physically adsorbed reagent, flotation, saturated fatty acids, surface pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
3469 Spectroscopy Study of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for Pharmaceutical Applications

Authors: Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Nany Hairunisa

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the thermal properties and spectroscopy study of Malaysian Jatropha curcas seed oil. The J. curcas seed oil physicochemical properties such as free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, saponification value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, and viscosity (cp) gave values of 1.89±0.10%, 3.76±0.07, 203.36±0.36 mg/g, 4.90±0.25, 1.76±0.03%, and 32, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acids (FAs) composition. J. curcas seed oil is consisting of saturated FAs (19.55%) such as palmitic (13.19%), palmitoleic (0.40%), and stearic (6.36%) acids and unsaturated FAs (80.42%) such as oleic (43.32%) and linoleic (36.70%) acids. The thermal properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that crystallized TAG was observed at -6.79°C. The melting curves displayed three major exothermic regions of J. curcas seed oil, monounsaturated (lower-temperature peak) at -31.69°C, di-unsaturated (medium temperature peak) at -20.23°C and tri-unsaturated (higher temperature peak) at -12.72°C. The results of this study showed that the J. curcas seed oil is a plausible source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to be developed in the future for pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas seed oil, thermal properties, crystallization, melting, spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
3468 Changes in Chromatographically Assessed Fatty Acid Profile during Technology of Dairy Products

Authors: Lina Lauciene, Vaida Andruleviciute, Ingrida Sinkeviciene, Mindaugas Malakauskas, Loreta Serniene

Abstract:

Dairy product manufacturers constantly are looking for new markets for their production. And in most cases, the problem of product compliance with the composition requirements of foreign products is highlighted. This is especially true of the composition of milk fat in dairy products. It is well known that there are many factors such as feeding ratio, season, cow breed, stage of lactation that affect the fatty acid composition in milk. However, there is less evidence on the impact of the technological process on the composition of fatty acids in raw milk and products made from it. In this study the influence of the technological process on fat composition in 82% fat butter, 15% fat curd, 3.6% fat yogurt and 2.5% fat UHT milk was determined. The samples were collected at each stage of production, starting with raw milk and ending with the final product in the Lithuanian milk-processing company. Fatty acids methyl esters were quantified using a GC (Clarus 680, Perkin Elmer) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) and a capillary column SP-2560, 100 m x 0.25 mm id x 0.20 µm. Fatty acids peaks were identified using Supelco® 37 Component FAME Mix. The concentration of each fatty acid was expressed in percent of the total fatty acid amount. In the case of UHT milk production, it was compared raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and UHT milk but significant differences were not estimated between these stages. Analyzing stages of the yogurt production (raw milk, pasteurized milk, and milk with a starter culture and yogurt), no significant changes were detected between stages as well. A slight difference was observed with C4:0 - a percentage of this fatty acid was less (p=0.053) in the final stage than in milk with the starter culture. During butter production, the composition of fatty acids in raw cream, buttermilk, and butter did not change significantly. Only C14:0 decreased in the butter then compared to buttermilk. The curd fatty acid analysis showed the increase of C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C11:0, C12:0 C14:0 and C17:0 at the final stage when compared to raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and whey. Meantime the increase of C18:1n9c (in comparison with milk mixture and curd) and C18:2n6c (in comparison with raw milk, milk mixture, and curd) was estimated in cream. The results of this study suggest that the technological process did not affect the composition of fatty acids in UHT milk, yogurt, butter, and curd but had the impact on the concentration of individual fatty acids. In general, all of the fatty acids from the raw milk were converted into the final product, only some of them slightly changed the concentration. Therefore, in order to ensure an appropriate composition of certain fatty acids in the final product, producers must carefully choose the raw milk. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by Lithuanian Ministry of Agriculture (No. MT-17-13).

Keywords: dairy products, fat composition, fatty acids, technological process

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
3467 Extraction and Characterization of Kernel Oil of Acrocomia Totai

Authors: Gredson Keif Souza, Nehemias Curvelo Pereira

Abstract:

Kernel oil from Macaúba is an important source of essential fatty acids. Thus, a new knowledge of the oil of this species could be used in new applications, such as pharmaceutical drugs based in the manufacture of cosmetics, and in various industrial processes. The aim of this study was to characterize the kernel oil of macaúba (Acrocomia Totai) at different times of their maturation. The physico-chemical characteristics were determined in accordance with the official analytical methods of oils and fats. It was determined the content of water and lipids in kernel, saponification value, acid value, water content in the oil, viscosity, density, composition in fatty acids by gas chromatography and molar mass. The results submitted to Tukey test for significant value to 5%. Found for the unripe fruits values superior to unsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords: extraction, characterization, kernel oil, acrocomia totai

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3466 Fatty Acid Composition, Total Sugar Content and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of Nine Different Fruit Tree Leaves Collected from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Authors: Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Sukru Karatas

Abstract:

In this research, we determined the total sugar content, fatty acid compositions and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanolic and water extracts of nine different fruit tree leaves. α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity were determined by using Caraway-Somogyi–iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as substrate, respectively. Total sugar content of the nine different fruit tree leaves varies from 281.02 mg GE/g (glucose equivalents) to 643.96 mg GE/g. Methanolic extract from avocado leaves had the strongest in α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 69.21% and 96.26 %, respectively. Fatty acid composition of nine fruit tree leaves was characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and twenty-four components were identified. Among the tested fruit tree leaves, the main component was linolenic acid (49.09%). The level of essential fatty acids are over 50% in mulberry, grape and loquat leaves. PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were major group of fatty acids present in oils of mulberry, fig, pomegranate, grape, and loquat leaves. Therefore, these oils can be considered as a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, avocado can be regarded as a new source for diabetic therapies.

Keywords: fatty acid compositions, total sugar contents, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, fruit tree leaves, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3465 Result of Fatty Acid Content in Meat of Selenge Breed Younger Cattle

Authors: Myagmarsuren Soronzonjav, N. Togtokhbayar, L. Davaahuu, B. Minjigdorj, Seong Gu Hwang

Abstract:

The number of natural or organic product consumers is increased in recent years and this healthy demand pushes to increase usage of healthy meat. At the same time, consumers pay more attention on the healthy fat, especially on unsaturated fatty acids. These long chain carbohydrates reduce heart diseases, improve memory and eye sight and activate the immune system. One of the important issues to be solved for our Mongolia’s food security is to provide healthy, fresh, widely available and cheap meat for the population. Thus, an importance of the Selenge breed meat production is increasing in order to supply the quality meat food security since the Selenge breed cattle are rapidly multiplied, beneficial in term of income, the same quality as Mongolian breed, and well digested for human body. We researched the lipid, unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents of meat of Selenge breed younger cattle by their muscle types. Result of our research reveals that 11 saturated fatty acids are detected. For the content of palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids, 23.61% was in the sirloin meat, 24.01% was in the round and chuck meat, and 24.83% was in the short loin meat.

Keywords: chromatogram, gas chromatography, organic resolving, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
3464 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.

Keywords: biomass, culturing conditions, fungi, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics, lipids

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
3463 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Denis Kučević, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić, Lidija Jevrić

Abstract:

The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.

Keywords: hemometrics, milk, organic farming, quality control

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
3462 Measurement of Fatty Acid Changes in Post-Mortem Belowground Carcass (Sus-scrofa) Decomposition: A Semi-Quantitative Methodology for Determining the Post-Mortem Interval

Authors: Nada R. Abuknesha, John P. Morgan, Andrew J. Searle

Abstract:

Information regarding post-mortem interval (PMI) in criminal investigations is vital to establish a time frame when reconstructing events. PMI is defined as the time period that has elapsed between the occurrence of death and the discovery of the corpse. Adipocere, commonly referred to as ‘grave-wax’, is formed when post-mortem adipose tissue is converted into a solid material that is heavily comprised of fatty acids. Adipocere is of interest to forensic anthropologists, as its formation is able to slow down the decomposition process. Therefore, analysing the changes in the patterns of fatty acids during the early decomposition process may be able to estimate the period of burial, and hence the PMI. The current study concerned the investigation of the fatty acid composition and patterns in buried pig fat tissue. This was in an attempt to determine whether particular patterns of fatty acid composition can be shown to be associated with the duration of the burial, and hence may be used to estimate PMI. The use of adipose tissue from the abdominal region of domestic pigs (Sus-scrofa), was used to model the human decomposition process. 17 x 20cm piece of pork belly was buried in a shallow artificial grave, and weekly samples (n=3) from the buried pig fat tissue were collected over an 11-week period. Marker fatty acids: palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1n-9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6) acid were extracted from the buried pig fat tissue and analysed as fatty acid methyl esters using the gas chromatography system. Levels of the marker fatty acids were quantified from their respective standards. The concentrations of C16:0 (69.2 mg/mL) and C18:1n-9 (44.3 mg/mL) from time zero exhibited significant fluctuations during the burial period. Levels rose (116 and 60.2 mg/mL, respectively) and fell starting from the second week to reach 19.3 and 18.3 mg/mL, respectively at week 6. Levels showed another increase at week 9 (66.3 and 44.1 mg/mL, respectively) followed by gradual decrease at week 10 (20.4 and 18.5 mg/mL, respectively). A sharp increase was observed in the final week (131.2 and 61.1 mg/mL, respectively). Conversely, the levels of C18:2n-6 remained more or less constant throughout the study. In addition to fluctuations in the concentrations, several new fatty acids appeared in the latter weeks. Other fatty acids which were detectable in the time zero sample, were lost in the latter weeks. There are several probable opportunities to utilise fatty acid analysis as a basic technique for approximating PMI: the quantification of marker fatty acids and the detection of selected fatty acids that either disappear or appear during the burial period. This pilot study indicates that this may be a potential semi-quantitative methodology for determining the PMI. Ideally, the analysis of particular fatty acid patterns in the early stages of decomposition could be an additional tool to the already available techniques or methods in improving the overall processes in estimating PMI of a corpse.

Keywords: adipocere, fatty acids, gas chromatography, post-mortem interval

Procedia PDF Downloads 51