Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4791

Search results for: supervised learning

4791 Large-Scale Electroencephalogram Biometrics through Contrastive Learning

Authors: Mostafa ‘Neo’ Mohsenvand, Mohammad Rasool Izadi, Pattie Maes

Abstract:

EEG-based biometrics (user identification) has been explored on small datasets of no more than 157 subjects. Here we show that the accuracy of modern supervised methods falls rapidly as the number of users increases to a few thousand. Moreover, supervised methods require a large amount of labeled data for training which limits their applications in real-world scenarios where acquiring data for training should not take more than a few minutes. We show that using contrastive learning for pre-training, it is possible to maintain high accuracy on a dataset of 2130 subjects while only using a fraction of labels. We compare 5 different self-supervised tasks for pre-training of the encoder where our proposed method achieves the accuracy of 96.4%, improving the baseline supervised models by 22.75% and the competing self-supervised model by 3.93%. We also study the effects of the length of the signal and the number of channels on the accuracy of the user-identification models. Our results reveal that signals from temporal and frontal channels contain more identifying features compared to other channels.

Keywords: brainprint, contrastive learning, electroencephalo-gram, self-supervised learning, user identification

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4790 Modern Machine Learning Conniptions for Automatic Speech Recognition

Authors: S. Jagadeesh Kumar

Abstract:

This expose presents a luculent of recent machine learning practices as employed in the modern and as pertinent to prospective automatic speech recognition schemes. The aspiration is to promote additional traverse ablution among the machine learning and automatic speech recognition factions that have transpired in the precedent. The manuscript is structured according to the chief machine learning archetypes that are furthermore trendy by now or have latency for building momentous hand-outs to automatic speech recognition expertise. The standards offered and convoluted in this article embraces adaptive and multi-task learning, active learning, Bayesian learning, discriminative learning, generative learning, supervised and unsupervised learning. These learning archetypes are aggravated and conferred in the perspective of automatic speech recognition tools and functions. This manuscript bequeaths and surveys topical advances of deep learning and learning with sparse depictions; further limelight is on their incessant significance in the evolution of automatic speech recognition.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, deep learning methods, machine learning archetypes, Bayesian learning, supervised and unsupervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
4789 Methods for Distinction of Cattle Using Supervised Learning

Authors: Radoslav Židek, Veronika Šidlová, Radovan Kasarda, Birgit Fuerst-Waltl

Abstract:

Machine learning represents a set of topics dealing with the creation and evaluation of algorithms that facilitate pattern recognition, classification, and prediction, based on models derived from existing data. The data can present identification patterns which are used to classify into groups. The result of the analysis is the pattern which can be used for identification of data set without the need to obtain input data used for creation of this pattern. An important requirement in this process is careful data preparation validation of model used and its suitable interpretation. For breeders, it is important to know the origin of animals from the point of the genetic diversity. In case of missing pedigree information, other methods can be used for traceability of animal´s origin. Genetic diversity written in genetic data is holding relatively useful information to identify animals originated from individual countries. We can conclude that the application of data mining for molecular genetic data using supervised learning is an appropriate tool for hypothesis testing and identifying an individual.

Keywords: genetic data, Pinzgau cattle, supervised learning, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
4788 Semi-Supervised Learning Using Pseudo F Measure

Authors: Mahesh Balan U, Rohith Srinivaas Mohanakrishnan, Venkat Subramanian

Abstract:

Positive and unlabeled learning (PU) has gained more attention in both academic and industry research literature recently because of its relevance to existing business problems today. Yet, there still seems to be some existing challenges in terms of validating the performance of PU learning, as the actual truth of unlabeled data points is still unknown in contrast to a binary classification where we know the truth. In this study, we propose a novel PU learning technique based on the Pseudo-F measure, where we address this research gap. In this approach, we train the PU model to discriminate the probability distribution of the positive and unlabeled in the validation and spy data. The predicted probabilities of the PU model have a two-fold validation – (a) the predicted probabilities of reliable positives and predicted positives should be from the same distribution; (b) the predicted probabilities of predicted positives and predicted unlabeled should be from a different distribution. We experimented with this approach on a credit marketing case study in one of the world’s biggest fintech platforms and found evidence for benchmarking performance and backtested using historical data. This study contributes to the existing literature on semi-supervised learning.

Keywords: PU learning, semi-supervised learning, pseudo f measure, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
4787 Investigation of Topic Modeling-Based Semi-Supervised Interpretable Document Classifier

Authors: Dasom Kim, William Xiu Shun Wong, Yoonjin Hyun, Donghoon Lee, Minji Paek, Sungho Byun, Namgyu Kim

Abstract:

There have been many researches on document classification for classifying voluminous documents automatically. Through document classification, we can assign a specific category to each unlabeled document on the basis of various machine learning algorithms. However, providing labeled documents manually requires considerable time and effort. To overcome the limitations, the semi-supervised learning which uses unlabeled document as well as labeled documents has been invented. However, traditional document classifiers, regardless of supervised or semi-supervised ones, cannot sufficiently explain the reason or the process of the classification. Thus, in this paper, we proposed a methodology to visualize major topics and class components of each document. We believe that our methodology for visualizing topics and classes of each document can enhance the reliability and explanatory power of document classifiers.

Keywords: data mining, document classifier, text mining, topic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
4786 Experiments on Weakly-Supervised Learning on Imperfect Data

Authors: Yan Cheng, Yijun Shao, James Rudolph, Charlene R. Weir, Beth Sahlmann, Qing Zeng-Treitler

Abstract:

Supervised predictive models require labeled data for training purposes. Complete and accurate labeled data, i.e., a ‘gold standard’, is not always available, and imperfectly labeled data may need to serve as an alternative. An important question is if the accuracy of the labeled data creates a performance ceiling for the trained model. In this study, we trained several models to recognize the presence of delirium in clinical documents using data with annotations that are not completely accurate (i.e., weakly-supervised learning). In the external evaluation, the support vector machine model with a linear kernel performed best, achieving an area under the curve of 89.3% and accuracy of 88%, surpassing the 80% accuracy of the training sample. We then generated a set of simulated data and carried out a series of experiments which demonstrated that models trained on imperfect data can (but do not always) outperform the accuracy of the training data, e.g., the area under the curve for some models is higher than 80% when trained on the data with an error rate of 40%. Our experiments also showed that the error resistance of linear modeling is associated with larger sample size, error type, and linearity of the data (all p-values < 0.001). In conclusion, this study sheds light on the usefulness of imperfect data in clinical research via weakly-supervised learning.

Keywords: weakly-supervised learning, support vector machine, prediction, delirium, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
4785 Incorporating Multiple Supervised Learning Algorithms for Effective Intrusion Detection

Authors: Umar Albalawi, Sang C. Suh, Jinoh Kim

Abstract:

As internet continues to expand its usage with an enormous number of applications, cyber-threats have significantly increased accordingly. Thus, accurate detection of malicious traffic in a timely manner is a critical concern in today’s Internet for security. One approach for intrusion detection is to use Machine Learning (ML) techniques. Several methods based on ML algorithms have been introduced over the past years, but they are largely limited in terms of detection accuracy and/or time and space complexity to run. In this work, we present a novel method for intrusion detection that incorporates a set of supervised learning algorithms. The proposed technique provides high accuracy and outperforms existing techniques that simply utilizes a single learning method. In addition, our technique relies on partial flow information (rather than full information) for detection, and thus, it is light-weight and desirable for online operations with the property of early identification. With the mid-Atlantic CCDC intrusion dataset publicly available, we show that our proposed technique yields a high degree of detection rate over 99% with a very low false alarm rate (0.4%).

Keywords: intrusion detection, supervised learning, traffic classification, computer networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
4784 An Embarrassingly Simple Semi-supervised Approach to Increase Recall in Online Shopping Domain to Match Structured Data with Unstructured Data

Authors: Sachin Nagargoje

Abstract:

Complete labeled data is often difficult to obtain in a practical scenario. Even if one manages to obtain the data, the quality of the data is always in question. In shopping vertical, offers are the input data, which is given by advertiser with or without a good quality of information. In this paper, an author investigated the possibility of using a very simple Semi-supervised learning approach to increase the recall of unhealthy offers (has badly written Offer Title or partial product details) in shopping vertical domain. The author found that the semisupervised learning method had improved the recall in the Smart Phone category by 30% on A=B testing on 10% traffic and increased the YoY (Year over Year) number of impressions per month by 33% at production. This also made a significant increase in Revenue, but that cannot be publicly disclosed.

Keywords: semi-supervised learning, clustering, recall, coverage

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4783 Identification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Supervised Learning Algorithms

Authors: Sagri Sharma

Abstract:

Analysis of diseases integrating multi-factors increases the complexity of the problem and therefore, development of frameworks for the analysis of diseases is an issue that is currently a topic of intense research. Due to the inter-dependence of the various parameters, the use of traditional methodologies has not been very effective. Consequently, newer methodologies are being sought to deal with the problem. Supervised Learning Algorithms are commonly used for performing the prediction on previously unseen data. These algorithms are commonly used for applications in fields ranging from image analysis to protein structure and function prediction and they get trained using a known dataset to come up with a predictor model that generates reasonable predictions for the response to new data. Gene expression profiles generated by DNA analysis experiments can be quite complex since these experiments can involve hypotheses involving entire genomes. The application of well-known machine learning algorithm - Support Vector Machine - to analyze the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously in a timely, automated and cost effective way is thus used. The objectives to undertake the presented work are development of a methodology to identify genes relevant to Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) from gene expression dataset utilizing supervised learning algorithms and statistical evaluations along with development of a predictive framework that can perform classification tasks on new, unseen data.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, biomarker, gene expression datasets, hepatocellular carcinoma, machine learning, supervised learning algorithms, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
4782 Amharic Text News Classification Using Supervised Learning

Authors: Misrak Assefa

Abstract:

The Amharic language is the second most widely spoken Semitic language in the world. There are several new overloaded on the web. Searching some useful documents from the web on a specific topic, which is written in the Amharic language, is a challenging task. Hence, document categorization is required for managing and filtering important information. In the classification of Amharic text news, there is still a gap in the domain of information that needs to be launch. This study attempts to design an automatic Amharic news classification using a supervised learning mechanism on four un-touch classes. To achieve this research, 4,182 news articles were used. Naive Bayes (NB) and Decision tree (j48) algorithms were used to classify the given Amharic dataset. In this paper, k-fold cross-validation is used to estimate the accuracy of the classifier. As a result, it shows those algorithms can be applicable in Amharic news categorization. The best average accuracy result is achieved by j48 decision tree and naïve Bayes is 95.2345 %, and 94.6245 % respectively using three categories. This research indicated that a typical decision tree algorithm is more applicable to Amharic news categorization.

Keywords: text categorization, supervised machine learning, naive Bayes, decision tree

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4781 Framework for Detecting External Plagiarism from Monolingual Documents: Use of Shallow NLP and N-Gram Frequency Comparison

Authors: Saugata Bose, Ritambhra Korpal

Abstract:

The internet has increased the copy-paste scenarios amongst students as well as amongst researchers leading to different levels of plagiarized documents. For this reason, much of research is focused on for detecting plagiarism automatically. In this paper, an initiative is discussed where Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques as well as supervised machine learning algorithms have been combined to detect plagiarized texts. Here, the major emphasis is on to construct a framework which detects external plagiarism from monolingual texts successfully. For successfully detecting the plagiarism, n-gram frequency comparison approach has been implemented to construct the model framework. The framework is based on 120 characteristics which have been extracted during pre-processing the documents using NLP approach. Afterwards, filter metrics has been applied to select most relevant characteristics and then supervised classification learning algorithm has been used to classify the documents in four levels of plagiarism. Confusion matrix was built to estimate the false positives and false negatives. Our plagiarism framework achieved a very high the accuracy score.

Keywords: lexical matching, shallow NLP, supervised machine learning algorithm, word n-gram

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
4780 Predicting Blockchain Technology Installation Cost in Supply Chain System through Supervised Learning

Authors: Hossein Havaeji, Tony Wong, Thien-My Dao

Abstract:

1. Research Problems and Research Objectives: Blockchain Technology-enabled Supply Chain System (BT-enabled SCS) is the system using BT to drive SCS transparency, security, durability, and process integrity as SCS data is not always visible, available, or trusted. The costs of operating BT in the SCS are a common problem in several organizations. The costs must be estimated as they can impact existing cost control strategies. To account for system and deployment costs, it is necessary to overcome the following hurdle. The problem is that the costs of developing and running a BT in SCS are not yet clear in most cases. Many industries aiming to use BT have special attention to the importance of BT installation cost which has a direct impact on the total costs of SCS. Predicting BT installation cost in SCS may help managers decide whether BT is to be an economic advantage. The purpose of the research is to identify some main BT installation cost components in SCS needed for deeper cost analysis. We then identify and categorize the main groups of cost components in more detail to utilize them in the prediction process. The second objective is to determine the suitable Supervised Learning technique in order to predict the costs of developing and running BT in SCS in a particular case study. The last aim is to investigate how the running BT cost can be involved in the total cost of SCS. 2. Work Performed: Applied successfully in various fields, Supervised Learning is a method to set the data frame, treat the data, and train/practice the method sort. It is a learning model directed to make predictions of an outcome measurement based on a set of unforeseen input data. The following steps must be conducted to search for the objectives of our subject. The first step is to make a literature review to identify the different cost components of BT installation in SCS. Based on the literature review, we should choose some Supervised Learning methods which are suitable for BT installation cost prediction in SCS. According to the literature review, some Supervised Learning algorithms which provide us with a powerful tool to classify BT installation components and predict BT installation cost are the Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithm, Back Propagation (BP) neural network, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Choosing a case study to feed data into the models comes into the third step. Finally, we will propose the best predictive performance to find the minimum BT installation costs in SCS. 3. Expected Results and Conclusion: This study tends to propose a cost prediction of BT installation in SCS with the help of Supervised Learning algorithms. At first attempt, we will select a case study in the field of BT-enabled SCS, and then use some Supervised Learning algorithms to predict BT installation cost in SCS. We continue to find the best predictive performance for developing and running BT in SCS. Finally, the paper will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: blockchain technology, blockchain technology-enabled supply chain system, installation cost, supervised learning

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4779 Sentiment Analysis of Consumers’ Perceptions on Social Media about the Main Mobile Providers in Jamaica

Authors: Sherrene Bogle, Verlia Bogle, Tyrone Anderson

Abstract:

In recent years, organizations have become increasingly interested in the possibility of analyzing social media as a means of gaining meaningful feedback about their products and services. The aspect based sentiment analysis approach is used to predict the sentiment for Twitter datasets for Digicel and Lime, the main mobile companies in Jamaica, using supervised learning classification techniques. The results indicate an average of 82.2 percent accuracy in classifying tweets when comparing three separate classification algorithms against the purported baseline of 70 percent and an average root mean squared error of 0.31. These results indicate that the analysis of sentiment on social media in order to gain customer feedback can be a viable solution for mobile companies looking to improve business performance.

Keywords: machine learning, sentiment analysis, social media, supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
4778 Hybrid Reliability-Similarity-Based Approach for Supervised Machine Learning

Authors: Walid Cherif

Abstract:

Data mining has, over recent years, seen big advances because of the spread of internet, which generates everyday a tremendous volume of data, and also the immense advances in technologies which facilitate the analysis of these data. In particular, classification techniques are a subdomain of Data Mining which determines in which group each data instance is related within a given dataset. It is used to classify data into different classes according to desired criteria. Generally, a classification technique is either statistical or machine learning. Each type of these techniques has its own limits. Nowadays, current data are becoming increasingly heterogeneous; consequently, current classification techniques are encountering many difficulties. This paper defines new measure functions to quantify the resemblance between instances and then combines them in a new approach which is different from actual algorithms by its reliability computations. Results of the proposed approach exceeded most common classification techniques with an f-measure exceeding 97% on the IRIS Dataset.

Keywords: data mining, knowledge discovery, machine learning, similarity measurement, supervised classification

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4777 An Approximation Technique to Automate Tron

Authors: P. Jayashree, S. Rajkumar

Abstract:

With the trend of virtual and augmented reality environments booming to provide a life like experience, gaming is a major tool in supporting such learning environments. In this work, a variant of Voronoi heuristics, employing supervised learning for the TRON game is proposed. The paper discusses the features that would be really useful when a machine learning bot is to be used as an opponent against a human player. Various game scenarios, nature of the bot and the experimental results are provided for the proposed variant to prove that the approach is better than those that are currently followed.

Keywords: artificial Intelligence, automation, machine learning, TRON game, Voronoi heuristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
4776 Semi-Supervised Hierarchical Clustering Given a Reference Tree of Labeled Documents

Authors: Ying Zhao, Xingyan Bin

Abstract:

Semi-supervised clustering algorithms have been shown effective to improve clustering process with even limited supervision. However, semi-supervised hierarchical clustering remains challenging due to the complexities of expressing constraints for agglomerative clustering algorithms. This paper proposes novel semi-supervised agglomerative clustering algorithms to build a hierarchy based on a known reference tree. We prove that by enforcing distance constraints defined by a reference tree during the process of hierarchical clustering, the resultant tree is guaranteed to be consistent with the reference tree. We also propose a framework that allows the hierarchical tree generation be aware of levels of levels of the agglomerative tree under creation, so that metric weights can be learned and adopted at each level in a recursive fashion. The experimental evaluation shows that the additional cost of our contraint-based semi-supervised hierarchical clustering algorithm (HAC) is negligible, and our combined semi-supervised HAC algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world datasets. The experiments also show that our proposed methods can improve clustering performance even with a small number of unevenly distributed labeled data.

Keywords: semi-supervised clustering, hierarchical agglomerative clustering, reference trees, distance constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
4775 Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporally Coherent Metrics

Authors: Ross Goroshin, Joan Bruna, Jonathan Tompson, David Eigen, Yann LeCun

Abstract:

Current state-of-the-art classification and detection algorithms rely on supervised training. In this work we study unsupervised feature learning in the context of temporally coherent video data. We focus on feature learning from unlabeled video data, using the assumption that adjacent video frames contain semantically similar information. This assumption is exploited to train a convolutional pooling auto-encoder regularized by slowness and sparsity. We establish a connection between slow feature learning to metric learning and show that the trained encoder can be used to define a more temporally and semantically coherent metric.

Keywords: machine learning, pattern clustering, pooling, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
4774 Deleterious SNP’s Detection Using Machine Learning

Authors: Hamza Zidoum

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of human genetic variation on the function of human proteins using machine-learning algorithms. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism represents the most common form of human genome variation. We focus on the single amino-acid polymorphism located in the coding region as they can affect the protein function leading to pathologic phenotypic change. We use several supervised Machine Learning methods to identify structural properties correlated with increased risk of the missense mutation being damaging. SVM associated with Principal Component Analysis give the best performance.

Keywords: single-nucleotide polymorphism, machine learning, feature selection, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
4773 A Machine Learning Approach for Classification of Directional Valve Leakage in the Hydraulic Final Test

Authors: Christian Neunzig, Simon Fahle, Jürgen Schulz, Matthias Möller, Bernd Kuhlenkötter

Abstract:

Due to increasing cost pressure in global markets, artificial intelligence is becoming a technology that is decisive for competition. Predictive quality enables machinery and plant manufacturers to ensure product quality by using data-driven forecasts via machine learning models as a decision-making basis for test results. The use of cross-process Bosch production data along the value chain of hydraulic valves is a promising approach to classifying the quality characteristics of workpieces.

Keywords: predictive quality, hydraulics, machine learning, classification, supervised learning

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4772 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Mohammad Razi

Abstract:

Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapy

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4771 Auto Classification of Multiple ECG Arrhythmic Detection via Machine Learning Techniques: A Review

Authors: Ng Liang Shen, Hau Yuan Wen

Abstract:

Arrhythmia analysis of ECG signal plays a major role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. Therefore, a single arrhythmia detection of an electrocardiographic (ECG) record can determine multiple pattern of various algorithms and match accordingly each ECG beats based on Machine Learning supervised learning. These researchers used different features and classification methods to classify different arrhythmia types. A major problem in these studies is the fact that the symptoms of the disease do not show all the time in the ECG record. Hence, a successful diagnosis might require the manual investigation of several hours of ECG records. The point of this paper presents investigations cardiovascular ailment in Electrocardiogram (ECG) Signals for Cardiac Arrhythmia utilizing examination of ECG irregular wave frames via heart beat as correspond arrhythmia which with Machine Learning Pattern Recognition.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, ECG, classification, machine learning, pattern recognition, detection, QRS

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4770 Feature-Based Summarizing and Ranking from Customer Reviews

Authors: Dim En Nyaung, Thin Lai Lai Thein

Abstract:

Due to the rapid increase of Internet, web opinion sources dynamically emerge which is useful for both potential customers and product manufacturers for prediction and decision purposes. These are the user generated contents written in natural languages and are unstructured-free-texts scheme. Therefore, opinion mining techniques become popular to automatically process customer reviews for extracting product features and user opinions expressed over them. Since customer reviews may contain both opinionated and factual sentences, a supervised machine learning technique applies for subjectivity classification to improve the mining performance. In this paper, we dedicate our work is the task of opinion summarization. Therefore, product feature and opinion extraction is critical to opinion summarization, because its effectiveness significantly affects the identification of semantic relationships. The polarity and numeric score of all the features are determined by Senti-WordNet Lexicon. The problem of opinion summarization refers how to relate the opinion words with respect to a certain feature. Probabilistic based model of supervised learning will improve the result that is more flexible and effective.

Keywords: opinion mining, opinion summarization, sentiment analysis, text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4769 ILearn, a Pathway to Progress

Authors: Reni Francis

Abstract:

Learning has transcended the classroom boundaries to create a learner centric, interactive, and integrative teaching learning environment. This study analysed the impact of iLearn on the teaching, learning, and evaluation among 100 teacher trainees. The objectives were to cater to the different learning styles of the teacher trainees, to incorporate innovative teaching learning activities, to assist in peer tutoring, to implement different evaluation processes. i: Identifying the learning styles among the teacher trainees through VARK Learning style checklist was followed by planning the teaching-learning process to meet the learning styles of the teacher trainees. L: Leveraging innovations in teaching- learning by planning and creating modules incorporating innovative teaching learning and hence the concept based year plan was prepared. E: Engage learning through constructivism using different teaching methodology to engage the teacher trainees in the learning process through Workshop, Round Robin, Gallery walk, Co-Operative learning, Think-Pair-Share, EDMODO, Course Networking, Concept Map, Brainstorming Sessions, Video Clippings. A: Assessing the learning through an Open Book assignment, Closed book assignment, and Multiple Choice Questions and Seminar presentation. R: Remediation through peer tutoring through Mentor-mentee approach in the tutorial groups, Group work, Library Hours. N: Norming new standards. This was done in the form of extended remediation and tutorials to understand the need of the teacher trainee and support them for further achievements in learning through Face to face interaction, Supervised Study Circle, Mobile (Device) learning. The findings of the study revealed the positive impact of iLearn towards student achievement and enhanced social skills.

Keywords: academic achievement, innovative strategy, learning styles, social skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
4768 Semi-Supervised Learning for Spanish Speech Recognition Using Deep Neural Networks

Authors: B. R. Campomanes-Alvarez, P. Quiros, B. Fernandez

Abstract:

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is a machine-based process of decoding and transcribing oral speech. A typical ASR system receives acoustic input from a speaker or an audio file, analyzes it using algorithms, and produces an output in the form of a text. Some speech recognition systems use Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. Another way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks (DNNs) that have many hidden layers and are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform GMMs on a variety of speech recognition systems. Acoustic models for state-of-the-art ASR systems are usually training on massive amounts of data. However, audio files with their corresponding transcriptions can be difficult to obtain, especially in the Spanish language. Hence, in the case of these low-resource scenarios, building an ASR model is considered as a complex task due to the lack of labeled data, resulting in an under-trained system. Semi-supervised learning approaches arise as necessary tasks given the high cost of transcribing audio data. The main goal of this proposal is to develop a procedure based on acoustic semi-supervised learning for Spanish ASR systems by using DNNs. This semi-supervised learning approach consists of: (a) Training a seed ASR model with a DNN using a set of audios and their respective transcriptions. A DNN with a one-hidden-layer network was initialized; increasing the number of hidden layers in training, to a five. A refinement, which consisted of the weight matrix plus bias term and a Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) training were also performed. The objective function was the cross-entropy criterion. (b) Decoding/testing a set of unlabeled data with the obtained seed model. (c) Selecting a suitable subset of the validated data to retrain the seed model, thereby improving its performance on the target test set. To choose the most precise transcriptions, three confidence scores or metrics, regarding the lattice concept (based on the graph cost, the acoustic cost and a combination of both), was performed as selection technique. The performance of the ASR system will be calculated by means of the Word Error Rate (WER). The test dataset was renewed in order to extract the new transcriptions added to the training dataset. Some experiments were carried out in order to select the best ASR results. A comparison between a GMM-based model without retraining and the DNN proposed system was also made under the same conditions. Results showed that the semi-supervised ASR-model based on DNNs outperformed the GMM-model, in terms of WER, in all tested cases. The best result obtained an improvement of 6% relative WER. Hence, these promising results suggest that the proposed technique could be suitable for building ASR models in low-resource environments.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, deep neural networks, machine learning, semi-supervised learning

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4767 The Effectiveness of Summative Assessment in Practice Learning

Authors: Abdool Qaiyum Mohabuth, Syed Munir Ahmad

Abstract:

Assessment enables students to focus on their learning, assessment. It engages them to work hard and motivates them in devoting time to their studies. Student learning is directly influenced by the type of assessment involved in the programme. Summative Assessment aims at providing measurement of student understanding. In fact, it is argued that summative assessment is used for reporting and reviewing, besides providing an overall judgement of achievement. While summative assessment is a well defined process for learning that takes place in the classroom environment, its application within the practice environment is still being researched. This paper discusses findings from a mixed-method study for exploring the effectiveness of summative assessment in practice learning. A survey questionnaire was designed for exploring the perceptions of mentors and students about summative assessment in practice learning. The questionnaire was administered to the University of Mauritius students and mentors who supervised students for their Work-Based Learning (WBL) practice at the respective placement settings. Some students, having undertaken their WBL practice, were interviewed, for capturing their views and experiences about the application of summative assessment in practice learning. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with three experienced mentors who have assessed students on practice learning. The findings reveal that though learning in the workplace is entirely different from learning at the University, most students had positive experiences about their summative assessments in practice learning. They felt comfortable and confident to be assessed by their mentors in their placement settings and wished that the effort and time that they devoted to their learning be recognised and valued. Mentors on their side confirmed that the summative assessment is valid and reliable, enabling them to better monitor and coach students to achieve the expected learning outcomes.

Keywords: practice learning, judgement, summative assessment, knowledge, skills, workplace

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4766 Unsupervised Images Generation Based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey with Deep Convolutional Generative Neural Networks

Authors: Guanghua Zhang, Fubao Wang, Weijun Duan

Abstract:

Convolution neural network (CNN) has attracted more and more attention on recent years. Especially in the field of computer vision and image classification. However, unsupervised learning with CNN has received less attention than supervised learning. In this work, we use a new powerful tool which is deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs) to generate images from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Training by various star and galaxy images, it shows that both the generator and the discriminator are good for unsupervised learning. In this paper, we also took several experiments to choose the best value for hyper-parameters and which could help to stabilize the training process and promise a good quality of the output.

Keywords: convolution neural network, discriminator, generator, unsupervised learning

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4765 Training in Psychology in Brazil: Reflections on the Role of Early Supervised Internships in Undergraduate Courses

Authors: Ana Paula Melchiors Stahlschmidt, Cristina Py de Pinto Gomes Mairesse

Abstract:

This paper presents observations on the early supervised internships in Psychology, currently called basic internships in Brazil, and its importance in professional training. The work is an experience report and focuses on the Professional training, illustrated by the reality of a Brazilian institution, used as a case study. It was developed from the authors' experience as academic supervisors of this kind of practice throughout this undergraduate course, combined with aspects investigated in the post-doctoral research of one of them. Theoretical references on the subject and related national legislation are analyzed, as well as reports of students who experienced at least one semester of this type of practice, articulated to the observations of the authors. The results demonstrate the importance of the early supervised internships as a way of creating opportunities for the students of a first contact with the professional reality and the practice of psychologists in different fields of insertion, preparing them for further experiments that require more involvement in activities of training and practices in Psychology.

Keywords: training of psychologists, internships in psychology, supervised internships, combination of theory and practice

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4764 A Comprehensive Evaluation of Supervised Machine Learning for the Phase Identification Problem

Authors: Brandon Foggo, Nanpeng Yu

Abstract:

Power distribution circuits undergo frequent network topology changes that are often left undocumented. As a result, the documentation of a circuit’s connectivity becomes inaccurate with time. The lack of reliable circuit connectivity information is one of the biggest obstacles to model, monitor, and control modern distribution systems. To enhance the reliability and efficiency of electric power distribution systems, the circuit’s connectivity information must be updated periodically. This paper focuses on one critical component of a distribution circuit’s topology - the secondary transformer to phase association. This topology component describes the set of phase lines that feed power to a given secondary transformer (and therefore a given group of power consumers). Finding the documentation of this component is call Phase Identification, and is typically performed with physical measurements. These measurements can take time lengths on the order of several months, but with supervised learning, the time length can be reduced significantly. This paper compares several such methods applied to Phase Identification for a large range of real distribution circuits, describes a method of training data selection, describes preprocessing steps unique to the Phase Identification problem, and ultimately describes a method which obtains high accuracy (> 96% in most cases, > 92% in the worst case) using only 5% of the measurements typically used for Phase Identification.

Keywords: distribution network, machine learning, network topology, phase identification, smart grid

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4763 A Supervised Learning Data Mining Approach for Object Recognition and Classification in High Resolution Satellite Data

Authors: Mais Nijim, Rama Devi Chennuboyina, Waseem Al Aqqad

Abstract:

Advances in spatial and spectral resolution of satellite images have led to tremendous growth in large image databases. The data we acquire through satellites, radars and sensors consists of important geographical information that can be used for remote sensing applications such as region planning, disaster management. Spatial data classification and object recognition are important tasks for many applications. However, classifying objects and identifying them manually from images is a difficult task. Object recognition is often considered as a classification problem, this task can be performed using machine-learning techniques. Despite of many machine-learning algorithms, the classification is done using supervised classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the area of interest is known. We proposed a classification method, which considers neighboring pixels in a region for feature extraction and it evaluates classifications precisely according to neighboring classes for semantic interpretation of region of interest (ROI). A dataset has been created for training and testing purpose; we generated the attributes by considering pixel intensity values and mean values of reflectance. We demonstrated the benefits of using knowledge discovery and data-mining techniques, which can be on image data for accurate information extraction and classification from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery.

Keywords: remote sensing, object recognition, classification, data mining, waterbody identification, feature extraction

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4762 Visualization-Based Feature Extraction for Classification in Real-Time Interaction

Authors: Ágoston Nagy

Abstract:

This paper introduces a method of using unsupervised machine learning to visualize the feature space of a dataset in 2D, in order to find most characteristic segments in the set. After dimension reduction, users can select clusters by manual drawing. Selected clusters are recorded into a data model that is used for later predictions, based on realtime data. Predictions are made with supervised learning, using Gesture Recognition Toolkit. The paper introduces two example applications: a semantic audio organizer for analyzing incoming sounds, and a gesture database organizer where gestural data (recorded by a Leap motion) is visualized for further manipulation.

Keywords: gesture recognition, machine learning, real-time interaction, visualization

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