Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: gallbladder

10 Gallbladder Amyloidosis Causing Gangrenous Cholecystitis: A Case Report

Authors: Christopher Leung, Guillermo Becerril-Martinez

Abstract:

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease where abnormal proteins invade various organs and impede their function. Occasionally, they can manifest in a solidary organ such as the heart, lung, and nervous systems; rarely do they manifest in the gallbladder. Diagnosis often requires biopsy of the affected area and histopathology shows deposition of abnormally folded globular proteins called amyloid proteins. This case presents a 69-year-old male with a 3-month history of RUQ pain, diarrhea and non-specific symptoms of tiredness, etc. On imaging, both his US and CT abdomen showed gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid, which may represent acute cholecystitis with hypodense lesions around the gallbladder, possibly representing liver abscesses. Given his symptoms of abdominal pain and imaging findings, this gentleman eventually had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy showing a gangrenous gallbladder with a mass on the liver bed. On histopathology, it showed amorphous hyaline eosinophilic material, which Congo-stained confirmed amyloidosis. Amyloidosis explained his non-specific symptoms, he avoided further biopsy, and he was commenced immediately on Lenalidomide. Involvement of the gallbladder is extremely rare, with less than 30 cases around the world. Half of the cases are reported as primary amyloidosis. This case adds to the current literature regarding primary gallbladder amyloidosis. Importantly, this case highlights how laparoscopic cholecystectomy can help with the diagnosis of gallbladder amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloidosis, cholecystitis, gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder, systemic amyloidosis

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9 Expression of miRNA 335 in Gall Bladder Cancer: A Correlative Study

Authors: Naseem Fatima, A. N. Srivastava, Tasleem Raza, Vijay Kumar

Abstract:

Introduction: Carcinoma gallbladder is third most common gastrointestinal lethal disease with the highest incidence and mortality rate among women in Northern India. Scientists have found several risk factors that make a person more likely to develop gallbladder cancer; among these risk factors, deregulation of miRNAs has been demonstrated to be one of the most crucial factors. The changes in the expression of specific miRNA genes result in the control of inflammation, cell cycle regulation, stress response, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion thus mediate the process in tumorgenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MiRNA-335 and may as a molecular marker in early detection of gallbladder cancer in suspected cases. Material and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients with gallbladder cancer aged between 30-75 years were registered for the study. Total RNA was extracted from tissue by using the mirVANA MiRNA isolation Kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The MiRNA- 335 and U6 snRNA-specific cDNA were reverse-transcribed from total RNA using Taqman microRNA reverse-transcription kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. TaqMan MiRNA probes hsa-miR-335 and Taqman Master Mix without AmpEase UNG, Individual real-time PCR assays were performed in a 20 μL reaction volume on a Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus™) to detect MiRNA-335 expression in tissue. Relative quantification of target MiRNA expression was evaluated using the comparative cycle threshold (CT) method. The correlation was done in between cycle threshold (CT Value) of target MiRNA in gallbladder cancer with respect to non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder. Each sample was examined in triplicate. The Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test was used to determine the expression of miR-335. Results: MiRNA335 was found to be significantly downregulated in the gallbladder cancer tissue (P<0.001), when compared with non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder cases. Out of 20 cases, 75% showed reduced expression of MiRNA335, were at last stage of disease with low overall survival rate and remaining 25% were showed up-regulated expression of MiRNA335 with high survival rate. Conclusion: The present study showed that reduced expression of MiRNA335 is associated with the advancement of the disease, and its deregulation may provide important clues to understanding it as a prognostic marker and opportunities for future research.

Keywords: carcinoma gallbladder, downregulation, MiRNA-335, RT-PCR assay

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8 Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Choledochoduodenostomy in an Advanced Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Authors: Diego Carrasco, Catarina Freitas, Hugo Rio Tinto, Ricardo Rio Tinto, Nuno Couto, Joaquim Gago, Carlos Carvalho

Abstract:

Introduction: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CD) to drain the gallbladder can be a palliative care procedure for non-surgical oncologic patients with cholelithiasis and cholangitis process. Case description: A 59-years old Caucasian male diagnosed with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with multiple liver, lung and peritoneum metastasis, unresponsive to treatment with gemcitabine/cisplatin, presented in the institution with fever, hypotension, and severe upper right abdominal pain secondary to cholelithiasis and cholangitis process. The patient was admitted and started on large spectrum antibiotics plus fluid-challenge. Afterward, a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was performed to drain the gallbladder. This procedure temporarily stabilized the patient. However, the definitive solution required gallbladder removal. Since the patient exhibited an advanced oncologic disease and poor response to the chemotherapy, he was not a candidate for surgical intervention. Diagnostic Pathways: A self-expanding metal stent was placed from the duodenum into the bile duct by endoscopic ultrasound-guided. The stent allowed efficient drainage of the contrast from the gallbladder at the end of the endoscopic procedure. Conclusion and Discussion: The stent allowed efficient drainage of the contrast from the gallbladder at the end of the endoscopic procedure and successfully reversed the cholangitis process. EUS-CD is an effective and safe technique and can be used as a palliative care procedure for non-surgical oncologic patients.

Keywords: palliative care, cholangiocarcinoma, choledochoduodenostomy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided

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7 Genetic Association and Functional Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Promoter Variants rs1004030 and rs1003349 in Gallbladder Cancer Pathogenesis

Authors: J. Vinay , Kusumbati Besra, Niharika Pattnaik, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Manjusha Dixit

Abstract:

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is rare but highly malignant cancer; its prevalence is more in certain geographical regions and ethnic groups, which include the Northern and Eastern states of India. Previous studies in India have reported genetic predisposition as one of the risk factors in GBC pathogenesis. Although the matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14) is a well-known modulator of the tumor microenvironment and tumorigenesis and TCGA data also suggests its upregulation yet, its role in the genetic predisposition for GBC is completely unknown. We elucidated the role of MMP14 promoter variants as genetic risk factors and their implications in expression modulation. We screened MMP14 promoter variants association with GBC using Sanger’s sequencing in approximately 300 GBC and 300 control subjects and 26 GBC tissue samples of Indian ethnicity. The immunohistochemistry was used to check the MMP14 protein expression in GBC tissue samples. The role of promoter variants on expression levels was elucidated using a luciferase reporter assay. The variants rs1004030 (p-value = 0.0001) and rs1003349 (p-value = 0.0008) were significantly associated with gallbladder cancer. The luciferase assay in two different cell lines, HEK-293 (p = 0.0006) and TGBC1TKB (p = 0.0036) showed a significant increase in relative luciferase activity in the presence of risk alleles for both the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Similarly, genotype-phenotype correlation in patients samples confirmed that the presence of risk alleles at rs1004030 and rs1003349 increased MMP14 expression. Overall, this study unravels the genetic association of MMP14 promoter variants with gallbladder cancer, which may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing its expression.

Keywords: gallbladder cancer, matrix metalloproteinase-14, single nucleotide polymorphism, case control study, genetic association study

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6 Assessment of the Effect of Orally Administered Itopride on Gall Bladder Ejection Fraction by a Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy in Patients with Diabetes

Authors: Avani Jain, Hasmukh Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jayakanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim of the Study: To assess the effect of orally administered Itopride on gall bladder ejection fraction by fatty meal cholescintigraphy in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (20 males, 10 females, mean age 46+10 yrs) with history of diabetes mellitus (mean duration 4.8+4.1 yrs, fasting blood glucose level 130+35 mg/dl and 2-hours post-prandial blood glucose level 196+76 mg/dl) and found to have gall bladder dysfunction on fatty-meal stimulated cholescintigraphy were selected for this study. These patients underwent a repeat cholescintigraphy similar to baseline study, with 50 mg of Itopride orally along with fatty meal. Pre- and post-Itopride GBEF were then compared to assess the effect of Itopride on gall bladder contraction. Results: Out of these 30 patients, 2 had dyskinetic, 4 had akinetic, 22 had moderately hypokinetic and the remaining 2 had hypokinetic gall bladder function in the baseline study with > 60% GBEF being taken as the normal value. Mean percentage of GBEF in the baseline study was 32%+13% and the mean percentage of GBEF in the post-Itopride study was 57%+17% with change in mean percentage of GBEF being 24%+21%. GBEF of the “baseline study” was significantly lower as compared to GBEF in the “post-Itopride study” (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetic patients with biliary-type pain often tend to have impaired gallbladder function. Cholescintigraphy with fatty meal-stimulation is a simple, cheap and useful investigation for assessment of gallbladder dysfunction in these patients, before any structural changes occur within the lumen or wall of the gall bladder. Improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction after oral administration of a single dose of Itopride, a newer prokinetic drug with fewer side effects, as assessed by cholescintigraphy, provides enough evidence of future therapeutic response. Administration of Itopride, in therapeutic dosage, therefore may be expected to cause significant improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction and hence prolong stone formation within the gall bladder and also prevent the associated long term complications. Hence, based on scintigraphic evidence, Itopride may be recommended, by clinicians, for management of symptomatic diabetic patients having gallbladder dysfunction.

Keywords: itopride, gall bladder ejection fraction, fatty meal, cholescintigraphy, diabetes

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5 The Analysis of Acute Pancreatitis Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Adnan Sahin, Ufuk Uylas, Ercument Pasaoglu, Tarik Caga, Enver Ihtiyar, Serdar Erkasap, Ersin Ates, Fatih Yasar

Abstract:

Background: In this study, it was evaluated the demographic features, etiological factors and the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: 106 patient hospitalized due to acute pancreatitis were retrospectively examined from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015 in Department of General Surgery of ESOGUMF. The data of gender, signs and symptoms, etiological factors, WBC, AST, ALT, Amilase, USG and CT findings treatment options ERCP, and complications, mortality rate were analysed. Results: The mean age of patients were 58.8 (53 men and 53 women). The causes of acute pancreatitis were as follows: gallbladder stone was 89, hyperlipidemia was 5 and idiopathic were 16 patients. Severe pancreatitis was developed in 16 patients in the biliary pancreatitis group and ERCP was performed. Cholecystectomy was performed to all biliary pancreatitis group patients after acute pancreatitis subside. The mean hospital stay period was 9.33 (2-37) day. Discussion and conclusion: Severe acute pancreatitis is a mortal disease. The most common etiological cause of acute pancreatitis is biliary origin. The first line treatment modality of acute pancreatitis is medical. Cholecystectomy should be planned to the all-biliary caused acute pancreatitis patients after the attack subside. ERCP is a useful treatment modality in the case of clinical worsening and suspicion of acute cholangitis. ERCP procedure used 16 patients in our series and these patients have a good morbidity and mean hospital period is lower than the others. We suppose that ERCP procedure should be planned selectively and conservatively.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, ERCP, morbidity, treatment

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4 Comparison Of Virtual Non-Contrast To True Non-Contrast Images Using Dual Layer Spectral Computed Tomography

Authors: O’Day Luke

Abstract:

Purpose: To validate virtual non-contrast reconstructions generated from dual-layer spectral computed tomography (DL-CT) data as an alternative for the acquisition of a dedicated true non-contrast dataset during multiphase contrast studies. Material and methods: Thirty-three patients underwent a routine multiphase clinical CT examination, using Dual-Layer Spectral CT, from March to August 2021. True non-contrast (TNC) and virtual non-contrast (VNC) datasets, generated from both portal venous and arterial phase imaging were evaluated. For every patient in both true and virtual non-contrast datasets, a region-of-interest (ROI) was defined in aorta, liver, fluid (i.e. gallbladder, urinary bladder), kidney, muscle, fat and spongious bone, resulting in 693 ROIs. Differences in attenuation for VNC and TNV images were compared, both separately and combined. Consistency between VNC reconstructions obtained from the arterial and portal venous phase was evaluated. Results: Comparison of CT density (HU) on the VNC and TNC images showed a high correlation. The mean difference between TNC and VNC images (excluding bone results) was 5.5 ± 9.1 HU and > 90% of all comparisons showed a difference of less than 15 HU. For all tissues but spongious bone, the mean absolute difference between TNC and VNC images was below 10 HU. VNC images derived from the arterial and the portal venous phase showed a good correlation in most tissue types. The aortic attenuation was somewhat dependent however on which dataset was used for reconstruction. Bone evaluation with VNC datasets continues to be a problem, as spectral CT algorithms are currently poor in differentiating bone and iodine. Conclusion: Given the increasing availability of DL-CT and proven accuracy of virtual non-contrast processing, VNC is a promising tool for generating additional data during routine contrast-enhanced studies. This study shows the utility of virtual non-contrast scans as an alternative for true non-contrast studies during multiphase CT, with potential for dose reduction, without loss of diagnostic information.

Keywords: dual-layer spectral computed tomography, virtual non-contrast, true non-contrast, clinical comparison

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3 Ultrasound as an Aid to Predict the Onset of Leaking in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Experience of a Dengue Treatment Facility in South Asia

Authors: Hasn Perera, Is Almeida, Hnk Perera, Mzf Mohammed, Ade Silva, H. Wijesinghe, Ajal Fernando

Abstract:

Introduction: Dengue is a major Public Health burden of two clinical entities, Dengue Fever & Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The vast majority of dengue deaths occur in DHF patients, where the diagnosis hinges on the presence of fluid leakage. Limited Ultrasound Scans (USS) of chest and abdomen are used widely at Centre for Clinical Management of Dengue & Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (CCMDDHF), as the primary method for detecting fluid leaking in DHF. This study analyses the relationship between haematological and USS findings at the onset of leaking and to further determine the usefulness of ultrasound in diagnosing DHF. Methods: A prospective analysis of 80 serologically confirmed dengue patients initially admitted to a General Medical and Paediatric wards who were subsequently transferred to the CCMDDHF from March to September 2017 were analysed. In addition to repeated blood counts and capillary haematocrits’, serial USS were done to detect the onset fluid leaking by three competent and experienced doctors at CCMDDHF. Results: 80 patients (male: female: 38:42) with a mean age of 20 years (SD ±16.8, range 3-74) were evaluated. Dropping of platelet counts below 100,000 and haematocrit rise towards 20% started 4±1.3 day of fever with a mean platelet value of 69x103(range17-98x103). Gallbladder wall thickening was the commonest (98.7%) USS finding followed by fluid in hepato-renal pouch (95%), pelvic fluid (58.7%), right-sided pleural effusion (35%), bilateral effusions (7.5%). USS evidence of plasma leakage was detected in 11.25 %( n=9) of DHF cases from 1 day before significant haematocrit rise was noted. 35 (43.7%) patients with lowering platelets and haematocrit rise showed no objective evidence of plasma leaking on ultrasound scan. Conclusion: This outbreak underscores the importance of USS as a useful, sensitive and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of suspected DHF cases, facilitating the tracking of progress of leaking and management of epidemics.

Keywords: dengue, ultrasound, plasma leaking, South Asia

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2 Mesenteric Ischemia Presenting as Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Review of a Rare Complication and Aberrant Anatomy

Authors: Joshua Russell, Omar Zubair, Reuben Ndegwa

Abstract:

Introduction: Mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon condition that can be challenging to diagnose in the acute setting, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Very rarely has acute acalculous cholecystitis been described in the setting of mesenteric ischemia. Case: This was the case in a 78-year-old male, who initially presented with clinical and radiological evidence of small bowel obstruction, thought likely secondary to malignancy. The patient had a 6-week history of anorexia, worsening lower abdominal pain, and ~30kg of unintentional weight loss over a 12-month period and a CT- scan demonstrated a transition point in the distal ileum. The patient became increasingly hemodynamically unstable and peritonitic, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intra-operatively, however, no obvious transition point was identified, and instead, the gallbladder was markedly gangrenous and oedematous, consistent with acalculous cholecystitis. An open total cholecystectomy was subsequently performed. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit post-operatively and continued to deteriorate over the proceeding 48 hours, with two re-look laparotomies demonstrating progressively worsening bowel ischemia, initially in the distribution of the superior mesenteric artery and then the coeliac trunk. On review, the patient was found to have an aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. The extent of ischemia was considered non-survivable, and the patient was palliated. Discussion: Multiple theories currently exist for the underlying pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis, including biliary stasis, sepsis, and ischemia. This case lends further support to ischemia as the underlying etiology of acalculous cholecystitis. This is particularly the case when considered in the context of the patient’s aberrant right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery, which occurs in 11-14% of patients. Conclusion: This case report adds further insight to the debate surrounding the pathophysiology of acalculous cholecystitis. It also presents acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of mesenteric ischemia that should always be considered, especially in the elderly patient and in the context of relatively common anatomical variations. Furthermore, the case brings to attention the importance of maintaining dynamic working diagnoses in the setting of evolving pathophysiology and clinical presentations.

Keywords: acalculous cholecystitis, anatomical variation, general surgery, mesenteric ischemia

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1 Post COVID-19 Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome Masquerading as an Acute Abdomen

Authors: Ali Baker, Russel Krawitz

Abstract:

This paper describes a rare occurrence where a potentially fatal complication of COVID-19 infection (MIS-A) was misdiagnosed as an acute abdomen. As most patients with this syndrome present with fever and gastrointestinal symptoms, they may inadvertently fall under the care of the surgical unit. However, unusual imaging findings and a poor response to anti-microbial therapy should prompt clinicians to suspect a non-surgical etiology. More than half of MIS-A patients require ICU admission and vasopressor support. Prompt referral to a physician is key, as the cornerstone of treatment is IVIG and corticosteroid therapy. A 32 year old woman presented with right sided abdominal pain and fevers. She had also contracted COVID-19 two months earlier. Abdominal examination revealed generalised right sided tenderness. The patient had raised inflammatory markers, but other blood tests were unremarkable. CT scan revealed extensive lymphadenopathy along the ileocolic chain. The patient proved to be a diagnostic dilemma. She was reviewed by several surgical consultants and discussed with several inpatient teams. Although IV antibiotics were commenced, the right sided abdominal pain, and fevers persisted. Pan-culture returned negative. A mild cholestatic derangement developed. On day 5, the patient underwent preparation for colonoscopy to assess for a potential intraluminal etiology. The following day, the patient developed sinus tachycardia and hypotension that was refractory to fluid resuscitation. That patient was transferred to ICU and required vasopressor support. Repeat CT showed peri-portal edema and a thickened gallbladder wall. On re-examination, the patient was Murphy’s sign positive. Biliary ultrasound was equivocal for cholecystitis. The patient was planned for diagnostic laparoscopy. The following morning, a marked rise in cardiac troponin was discovered, and a follow-up echocardiogram revealed moderate to severe global systolic dysfunction. The impression was post-COVID MIS with myocardial involvement. IVIG and Methylprednisolone infusions were commenced. The patient had a great response. Vasopressor support was weaned, and the patient was discharged from ICU. The patient continued to improve clinically with oral prednisolone, and was discharged on day 17. Although MIS following COVID-19 infection is well-described syndrome in children, only recently has it come to light that it can occur in adults. The exact incidence is unknown, but it is thought to be rare. A recent systematic review found only 221 cases of MIS-A, which could be included for analysis. Symptoms vary, but the most frequent include fever, gastrointestinal, and mucocutaneous. Many patients progress to multi-organ failure and require vasopressor support. 7% succumb to the illness. The pathophysiology of MIS is only partly understood. It shares similarities with Kawasaki disease, macrophage activation syndrome, and cytokine release syndrome. Importantly, by definition, the patient must have an absence of severe respiratory symptoms. It is thought to be due to a dysregulated immune response to the virus. Potential mechanisms include reduced levels of neutralising antibodies and autoreactive antibodies that promote inflammation. Further research into MIS-A is needed. Although rare, this potentially fatal syndrome should be considered in the unwell surgical patient who has recently contracted COVID-19 and poses a diagnostic dilemma.

Keywords: acute-abdomen, MIS, COVID-19, ICU

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