Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Prateek Rastogi

25 Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: A Histopathological Diagnosis

Authors: Prateek Rastogi, Jenash Acharya

Abstract:

Histopathology examination has been a boon to forensic experts all around the world since its implication in autopsy cases. Whenever a case of sudden death is encountered, forensic experts clandestinely focus on cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal or cranio-cerebral causes. After ruling out poisoning or trauma, they are left with the only option available, histopathology examination. Besides preserving thoracic and abdominal organs, brain tissues are very less frequently subjected for the analysis. Based on provisional diagnosis documented on hospital treatment record files, one hemisphere of grossly unremarkable cerebrum was confirmatively diagnosed by histopathology examination to be a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis.

Keywords: cerebral toxoplasmosis, sudden death, health information, histopathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
24 Comparative Analysis of Forensic Medicine Course Evaluation: A Two Year Study

Authors: Prateek Rastogi

Abstract:

Medical teaching in present era concentrates not only on teaching but on effective teaching. For effective teaching a combination of effective carefully designed curriculum, an educated educator, competent learner and fool proof evaluation system is required. Keeping these parameters in mind and study was undertaken at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore among medical students. In this study, evaluation of Forensic Medicine syllabus along with its teaching and evaluation methodology was done using 20 different parameters. This questionnaire based study was done over a period of two years i.e. 2013 and 2014. Batch of students who just passed the forensic medicine subject was included for study. Carefully designed questionnaire contained questions related to course content, teaching methodology and evaluation system along with provisions to mention merits and demerits of subject. The feedbacks in first round were analyzed and suggestions were implemented before conducting the second round of study. Overall evaluation of course was done as well as it was compared with other subjects of second MBBS. It was noted that Scores improved in 2nd survey thus stressing the importance of course evaluation and student feedback in teaching improvement.

Keywords: teaching methodology, system of evaluation, course content, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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23 Survey Paper on Graph Coloring Problem and Its Application

Authors: Prateek Chharia, Biswa Bhusan Ghosh

Abstract:

Graph coloring is one of the prominent concepts in graph coloring. It can be defined as a coloring of the various regions of the graph such that all the constraints are fulfilled. In this paper various graphs coloring approaches like greedy coloring, Heuristic search for maximum independent set and graph coloring using edge table is described. Graph coloring can be used in various real time applications like student time tabling generation, Sudoku as a graph coloring problem, GSM phone network.

Keywords: graph coloring, greedy coloring, heuristic search, edge table, sudoku as a graph coloring problem

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22 Application of Natural Dyes on Polyester and Polyester-Cellulosic Blended Fabrics

Authors: Deepali Rastogi, Akanksha Rastogi

Abstract:

Comfort and safety are two essential factors in a newborn’s clothing. Natural dyes are considered safe for infant clothes because they are non-toxic and have medicinal properties. Natural dyes are sensitive to pH and may show changes in hue under different pH conditions. Infant garments face treatments different than adult clothing, for instance, exposure to infant’s saliva, milk, and urine. The present study was designed to study the suitability of natural dyes for infant clothes. Cotton fabric was dyed using fifteen natural dyes and two mordants, alum, and ferrous sulphate. The dyed samples were assessed for colour fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light. In addition, fastness to milk, saliva, and urine was also tested. Simulated solutions of saliva and urine were prepared for the study. For milk, one of the commercial formulations for infants was taken and used as per the directions. A wide gamut of colours was obtained after dyeing the cotton with different natural dyes and mordants. The colour strength of all the dyed samples was determined in terms of K/S values. Most of the ferrous sulphate mordanted dyes gave higher K/S values than alum mordanted samples. The wash fastness of dyed cotton fabrics ranged from 3/4 -5. Perspiration fastness test for the samples was done in both acidic and alkaline mediums. The ratings ranged from 3-5, with most of the dyes falling in the range of 4-5. The rubbing fastness of the dyed samples was tested in dry and wet conditions. The results showed excellent rub fastness ranging between 4-5. Light fastness was found to be good to moderate. The main food for infants is milk, and this becomes one of the main agents to spot infants' garments. All dyes showed excellent fastness properties against milk with a grey scale rating of 4-5. Fastness against saliva is recommended by various eco-labels, standards, and organizations for fabrics of infants or babies. The fastness of most of the dyes was found to be satisfactory against saliva. Infant garments get frequently soiled with urine. Most of the natural dyes on cotton fabric had good to excellent fastness to simulated urine. The grey scale ratings ranged from 3/4 – 5. Thus, it can be concluded that most of the natural dyes can be successfully used for infant wear and accessories and are fast to various liquids to which infant wear are exposed. Therefore, we can surround little ones with beautiful hues from nature's garden and clothe them in natural fibres dyed with natural dyes.

Keywords: fastness properties, infant wear, mordants, natural dyes

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21 A Generalized Model for Performance Analysis of Airborne Radar in Clutter Scenario

Authors: Vinod Kumar Jaysaval, Prateek Agarwal

Abstract:

Performance prediction of airborne radar is a challenging and cumbersome task in clutter scenario for different types of targets. A generalized model requires to predict the performance of Radar for air targets as well as ground moving targets. In this paper, we propose a generalized model to bring out the performance of airborne radar for different Pulsed Repetition Frequency (PRF) as well as different type of targets. The model provides a platform to bring out different subsystem parameters for different applications and performance requirements under different types of clutter terrain.

Keywords: airborne radar, blind zone, clutter, probability of detection

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20 Analysis of Supply Chain Complexity Sub-Dimensions for Garment Industry

Authors: Niyanta Mehra, Aakriti Khurania, Kshitij Rastogi, S. K. Garg

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There is plenty of literature available that accounts for complexity management in a supply chain. A major fraction of this literature considers a large number of parameters in order to devise management techniques. However, multiple such parameters do not directly affect the result, and incorporating these can make the analyses overly complicated. Most of the causes of supply chain inefficiencies are due to the interconnectedness and interdependencies in the structure, processes, and environment of the supply chains. The level of complexity varies across industries in terms of intensity and ease of management. After a review of the literature related to complexities in supply chains, the paper attempts to build a framework to study the relative significance of these complexities. This paper aims to identify critical complexities for the garment industry. Understanding and controlling these complexities open avenues for better supply chain management and also assist decision-makers in the garment industry in formulating risk mitigation strategies.

Keywords: complexity dimensions, garment industry, supply chain complexity, supply chain management

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19 Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility

Authors: Prateek Kishore, T. M. Muruganandam

Abstract:

Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.

Keywords: method of characteristics, nozzle, supersonic wind tunnel, variable mach number

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18 Drum Scrubber Performance Assessment and Improvement to Achieve the Desired Product Quality

Authors: Prateek Singh, Arun Kumar Pandey, C. Raghu Kumar, M. R. Rath, A. S. Reddy

Abstract:

Drum scrubber is widely used equipment in the washing of Iron ore. The purpose of the scrubber is to release the adhered fine clayey particles from the iron-bearing particles. Presently, the iron ore wash plants in the Eastern region of India consist of the scrubber, double deck screen followed by screw classifier as the main unit operations. Hence, scrubber performance efficiency has a huge impact on the downstream product quality. This paper illustrates the effect of scrubber feed % solids on scrubber performance and alumina distribution on downstream equipment. Further, it was established that scrubber performance efficiency could be defined as the ratio of the adhered particles (-0.15mm) released from scrubber feed during scrubbing operation with respect to the maximum possible release of -0.15mm (%) particles.

Keywords: scrubber, adhered particles, feed % solids, efficiency

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17 Data Management and Analytics for Intelligent Grid

Authors: G. Julius P. Roy, Prateek Saxena, Sanjeev Singh

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Power distribution utilities two decades ago would collect data from its customers not later than a period of at least one month. The origin of SmartGrid and AMI has subsequently increased the sampling frequency leading to 1000 to 10000 fold increase in data quantity. This increase is notable and this steered to coin the tern Big Data in utilities. Power distribution industry is one of the largest to handle huge and complex data for keeping history and also to turn the data in to significance. Majority of the utilities around the globe are adopting SmartGrid technologies as a mass implementation and are primarily focusing on strategic interdependence and synergies of the big data coming from new information sources like AMI and intelligent SCADA, there is a rising need for new models of data management and resurrected focus on analytics to dissect data into descriptive, predictive and dictatorial subsets. The goal of this paper is to is to bring load disaggregation into smart energy toolkit for commercial usage.

Keywords: data management, analytics, energy data analytics, smart grid, smart utilities

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16 Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System (IEVCS)

Authors: Prateek Saxena, Sanjeev Singh, Julius Roy

Abstract:

The security of the power distribution grid remains a paramount to the utility professionals while enhancing and making it more efficient. The most serious threat to the system can be maintaining the transformers, as the load is ever increasing with the addition of elements like electric vehicles. In this paper, intelligent transformer monitoring and grid management has been proposed. The engineering is done to use the evolving data from the smart meter for grid analytics and diagnostics for preventive maintenance. The two-tier architecture for hardware and software integration is coupled to form a robust system for the smart grid. The proposal also presents interoperable meter standards for easy integration. Distribution transformer analytics based on real-time data benefits utilities preventing outages, protects the revenue loss, improves the return on asset and reduces overall maintenance cost by predictive monitoring.

Keywords: electric vehicle charging, transformer monitoring, data analytics, intelligent grid

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15 Development of Fire Douse Vehicle

Authors: Nikhil Verma, Akshay Kant Mishra, Rishabh Rastogi, Bikarama Prasad Yadav

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Emerging fire incidents are the protuberant contributor out turning into life loss, property damage and importantly firefighters. It insinuates that a firefighting and rescue operation of the existing equipment or apparatus and their proficiency is limited, particularly in annihilating firefighting environments. The proposed methodology will help in developing a technology which can be useful in minimizing the risks and losses due to fire. In this paper, design and development of combat mini vehicle comprising of multi-purpose nozzle system is proposed which can target diverse fires simultaneously at distinct time and location. Basically, the system is semi-automated type protection system which can be manoeuvred by controller. Designing of robust vehicle based on semi-automated protection type system is consummated using SolidWorks platform. Concept of developing a robust vehicle will help to fight fires in multiple directions reducing the time required to douse multiple fires.

Keywords: fire douse vehicle, multiple fires, multi-purpose nozzle, semi-automated system

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14 Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric

Authors: Shivi Rastogi, Suman Pant

Abstract:

Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.

Keywords: crease recovery, drapeability, KES, silicone, THV

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13 Impact of Chimerism on Y-STR DNA Determination: Sex Mismatch Analysis

Authors: Anupuma Raina, Ajay P. Balayan, Prateek Pandya, Pankaj Shrivastava, Uma Kanga, Tulika Seth

Abstract:

DNA fingerprinting analysis aids in personal identification for forensic purposes and has always been a driving motivation for law enforcement agencies in almost all countries since its inception. The introduction of DNA markers (Y-STR) has allowed for greater precision and higher discriminatory power in forensic testing. A criminal/ person committing crime after bone marrow transplantation is a rare situation but not an impossible one. Keeping such a situation in mind, a study was carried out to find out the best biological sample to be used for personal identification, especially in forensic situation. We choose a female patient (recipient) and a male donor. The pre transplant sample (blood) and post transplant samples (blood, buccal swab, hair roots) were collected from the recipient (patient). The same were compared with the blood sample of the donor using DNA FP technique. Post transplant samples were collected at different interval of time (15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The study was carried out using Y-STR kit at 23 loci. The results determined discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on Y-STR. Hair sample was found the most suitable sample which had no donor DNA profiling up to 90 days.

Keywords: bone marrow transplantation, chimerism, DNA profiling, Y-STR

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12 Application of Shape Memory Alloy as Shear Connector in Composite Bridges: Overview of State-of-the-Art

Authors: Apurwa Rastogi, Anant Parghi

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are memory metals with a high calibre to outperform as a civil construction material. They showcase novel functionality of undergoing large deformations and self-healing capability (pseudoelasticity) that leads to its emerging applications in a variety of areas. In the existing literature, most of the studies focused on the behaviour of SMA when used in critical regions of the smart buildings/bridges designed to withstand severe earthquakes without collapse and also its various applications in retrofitting works. However, despite having high ductility, their uses as construction joints and shear connectors in composite bridges are still unexplored in the research domain. This article presents to gain a broad outlook on whether SMAs can be partially used as shear connectors in composite bridges. In this regard, existing papers on the characteristics of shear connectors in the composite bridges will be discussed thoroughly and matched with the fundamental characteristics and properties of SMA. Since due to the high strength, stiffness, and ductility phenomena of SMAs, it is expected to be a good material for the shear connectors in composite bridges, and the collected evidence encourages the prior scrutiny of its partial use in the composite constructions. Based on the comprehensive review, important and necessary conclusions will be affirmed, and further emergence of research direction on the use of SMA will be discussed. This opens the window of new possibilities of using smart materials to enhance the performance of bridges even more in the near future.

Keywords: composite bridges, ductility, pseudoelasticity, shape memory alloy, shear connectors

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11 The Effect of Soil Reinforcement on Pullout Behaviour of Flat Under-Reamer Anchor Pile Placed in Sand

Authors: V. K. Arora, Amit Rastogi

Abstract:

To understand the anchor pile behaviour and to predict the capacity of piles under uplift loading are important concerns in foundation analysis. Experimental model tests have been conducted on single anchor pile embedded in cohesionless soil and subjected to pure uplift loading. A gravel-filled geogrid layer was located around the enlarged pile base. The experimental tests were conducted on straight-shafted vertical steel piles with an outer diameter of 20 mm in a steel soil tank. The tested piles have embedment depth-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of 2, 3, and 4. The sand bed is prepared at three different values of density of 1.67, 1.59, and 1.50gm/cc. Single piles embedded in sandy soil were tested and the results are presented and analysed in this paper. The influences of pile embedment ratio, reinforcement, relative density of soil on the uplift capacity of piles were investigated. The study revealed that the behaviour of single piles under uplift loading depends mainly on both the pile embedment depth-to-diameter ratio and the soil density. It is believed that the experimental results presented in this study would be beneficial to the professional understanding of the soil–pile-uplift interaction problem.

Keywords: flat under-reamer anchor pile, geogrid, pullout reinforcement, soil reinforcement

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10 Nighttime Dehaze - Enhancement

Authors: Harshan Baskar, Anirudh S. Chakravarthy, Prateek Garg, Divyam Goel, Abhijith S. Raj, Kshitij Kumar, Lakshya, Ravichandra Parvatham, V. Sushant, Bijay Kumar Rout

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a new computer vision task called nighttime dehaze-enhancement. This task aims to jointly perform dehazing and lightness enhancement. Our task fundamentally differs from nighttime dehazing – our goal is to jointly dehaze and enhance scenes, while nighttime dehazing aims to dehaze scenes under a nighttime setting. In order to facilitate further research on this task, we release a new benchmark dataset called Reside-β Night dataset, consisting of 4122 nighttime hazed images from 2061 scenes and 2061 ground truth images. Moreover, we also propose a new network called NDENet (Nighttime Dehaze-Enhancement Network), which jointly performs dehazing and low-light enhancement in an end-to-end manner. We evaluate our method on the proposed benchmark and achieve SSIM of 0.8962 and PSNR of 26.25. We also compare our network with other baseline networks on our benchmark to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. We believe that nighttime dehaze-enhancement is an essential task, particularly for autonomous navigation applications, and we hope that our work will open up new frontiers in research. Our dataset and code will be made publicly available upon acceptance of our paper.

Keywords: dehazing, image enhancement, nighttime, computer vision

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9 Patient Support Program in Pharmacovigilance: Foster Patient Confidence and Compliance

Authors: Atul Khurana, Rajul Rastogi, Hans-Joachim Gamperl

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical companies are getting more inclined towards patient support programs (PSPs) which assist patients and/or healthcare professionals (HCPs) in more desirable disease management and cost-effective treatment. The utmost objective of these programs is patient care. The PSPs may include financial assistance to patients, medicine compliance programs, access to HCPs via phone or online chat centers, etc. The PSP has a crucial role in terms of customer acquisition and retention strategies. During the conduct of these programs, Marketing Authorisation Holder (MAH) may receive information related to concerned medicinal products, which is usually reported by patients or involved HCPs. This information may include suspected adverse reaction(s) during/after administration of medicinal products. Hence, the MAH should design PSP to comply with regulatory reporting requirements and avoid non-compliance during PV inspection. The emergence of wireless health devices is lowering the burden on patients to manually incorporate safety data, and building a significant option for patients to observe major swings in reference to drug safety. Therefore, to enhance the adoption of these programs, MAH not only needs to aware patients about advantages of the program, but also recognizes the importance of time of patients and commitments made in a constructive manner. It is indispensable that strengthening the public health is considered as the topmost priority in such programs, and the MAH is compliant to Pharmacovigilance (PV) requirements along with regulatory obligations.

Keywords: drug safety, good pharmacovigilance practice, patient support program, pharmacovigilance

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8 Partial Purification and Characterization of a Low Molecular Weight and Industrially Important Chitinase and a Chitin Deacetylase Enzyme from Streptomyces Chilikensis RC1830, a Novel Strain Isolated from Chilika Lake, India

Authors: Lopamudra Ray, Malla Padma, Dibya Bhol, Samir Ranjan Mishra, A. N. Panda, Gurdeep Rastogi, T. K. Adhya, Ajit Kumar Pattnaik, Mrutyunjay Suar, Vishakha Raina

Abstract:

Chilika Lake is the largest coastal estuarine brackish water lagoon in Asia situated on the east coast of India and is a designated Ramsar site. In the current study, several chitinolytic microorganisms were isolated and screened by appearance of clearance zone on 0.5% colloidal chitin agar plate. A strain designated as RC 1830 displayed maximum colloidal chitin degradation by release of 112 μmol/ml/min of N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in 48h. The strain was taxonomically identified by polyphasic approach based on a range of phenotypic and genotypic properties and was found to be a novel species named Streptomyces chilikensis RC1830. The organism was halophilic (12% NaCl w/v), alkalophilic (pH10) and was capable of hydrolyzing chitin, starch, cellulose, gelatin, casein, tributyrin and tween 80. The partial purification of chitinase enzymes from RC1830 was performed by DEAE Sephacel anion exchange chromatography which revealed the presence of a very low molecular weight chitinase(10.5kD) which may be a probable chitobiosidase enzyme. The study reports the presence of a low MW chitinase (10.5kD) and a chitin decaetylase from a novel Streptomyces strain RC1830 isolated from Chilika Lake. Previously chitinases less than 20.5kD have not been reported from any other Streptomyces species. The enzymes was characterized with respect to optimum pH, temperature, and substrate specificity and temperature stability.

Keywords: chitinases, chitobiosidase, Chilika Lake, India

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7 Extraction of Dye from Coconut Husk and Its Application on Wool and Silk

Authors: Deepali Rastogi

Abstract:

Natural dyes are considered to be eco-friendly as they cause no pollution and are safe to use. With the growing interest in natural dyes, new sources of natural dyes are being explored. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is native to tropical eastern region. It is abundantly available in Asia, Africa and South America. While coconut has tremendous commercial value in food, oil, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry, the most important use of coconut husk has been as coir which is used for making mats, ropes, etc. In the present study an attempt has been made to extract dye from the coconut husk and study its application on wool and silk. Dye was extracted from coconut husk in an aqueous medium at three different pH. The coconut husk fibres were boiled in water at different pH of 4, 7 and 9 for one hour. On visual inspection of the extracted dye solution, maximum colour was found to be extracted at pH 9. The solution was obtained in neutral medium whereas, no dye was extracted in acidic medium. Therefore, alkaline medium at pH 9 was selected for the extraction of dye from coconut husk. The extracted dye was applied on wool and silk at three different pH, viz., 4, 7 and 9. The effect of pre- and post- mordanting with alum and ferrous sulphate on the colour value of coconut husk dye was also studied. The L*a*b*/L*c*h* values were measured to see the effect of the mordants on the colour values of all the dyed and mordanted samples. Bright golden brown to dark brown colours were obtained at pH 4 on both wool and silk. The colour yield was not very good at pH 7 and 9. Mordanting with alum resulted in darker and brighter shades of brown, whereas mordanting with ferrous sulphate resulted in darker and duller shades. All the samples were tested for colourfastness to light, rubbing, washing and perspiration. Both wool and silk dyed with dye extracted from coconut husk exhibited good to excellent wash, rub and perspiration fastness. Fastness to light was moderate to good.

Keywords: coconut husk, wool, silk, natural dye, mordants

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6 Establishing Combustion Behaviour for Refuse Derived Fuel Firing at Kiln Inlet through Computational Fluid Dynamics at a Cement Plant in India

Authors: Prateek Sharma, Venkata Ramachandrarao Maddali, Kapil Kukreja, B. N. Mohapatra

Abstract:

Waste management is one of the pressing issues of India. Several initiatives by the Indian Government, including the recent one “Swachhata hi Seva” campaign launched by Prime Minister on 15th August 2018, can be one of the game changers to waste disposal. Under this initiative, the government, cement industry and other stakeholders are working hand in hand to dispose of single-use plastics in cement plants in rotary kilns. This is an exemplary effort and a move that establishes the Indian Cement industry as one of the key players in a circular economy. One of the cement plants in Southern India has been mandated by the state government to co-process shredded plastic and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) available in nearby regions as an alternative fuel in their cement plant. The plant has set a target of 25 % thermal substitution rate (TSR) by RDF in the next five years. Most of the cement plants in India and abroad have achieved high TSR through pre calciner firing. But the cement plant doesn’t have the precalciner and has to achieve this daunting task of 25 % TSR by firing through the main kiln burner. Since RDF is a heterogeneous waste with the change in fuel quality, it is difficult to achieve this task; hence plant has to resort to firing some portion of RDF/plastics at kiln inlet. But kiln inlet has reducing conditions as observed during measurements) under baseline condition. The combustion behavior of RDF of different sizes at different firing locations in riser was studied with the help of a computational fluid dynamics tool. It has been concluded that RDF above 50 mm size results in incomplete combustion leading to CO formation. Moreover, best firing location appears to be in the bottom portion of the kiln riser.

Keywords: kiln inlet, plastics, refuse derived fuel, thermal substitution rate

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5 Liraglutide Augments Extra Body Weight Loss after Sleeve Gastrectomy without Change in Intrahepatic and Intra-Pancreatic Fat in Obese Individuals: Randomized, Controlled Study

Authors: Ashu Rastogi, Uttam Thakur, Jimmy Pathak, Rajesh Gupta, Anil Bhansali

Abstract:

Introduction: Liraglutide is known to induce weight loss and metabolic benefits in obese individuals. However, its effect after sleeve gastrectomy are not known. Methods: People with obesity (BMI>27.5 kg/m2) underwent LSG. Subsequently, participants were randomized to receive either 0.6mg liraglutide subcutaneously daily from 6 week post to be continued till 24 week (L-L group) or placebo (L-P group). Patients were assessed before surgery (baseline) and 6 weeks, 12weeks, 18weeks and 24weeks after surgery for height, weight, waist and hip circumference, BMI, body fat percentage, HbA1c, fasting C-peptide, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, GLP-1 levels (after standard OGTT). MRI abdomen was performed prior to surgery and at 24weeks post operatively for the estimation of intrapancreatic and intrahepatic fat content. Outcome measures: Primary outcomes were changes in metabolic variables of fasting and stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin, c-peptide, plasma glucose levels. Secondary variables were indices of insulin resistance HOMA-IR, Matsuda index; and pancreatic and hepatic steatosis. Results: Thirty-eight patients undergoing LSG were screened and 29 participants were enrolled. Two patients withdrew consent and one patient died of acute coronary event. 26 patients were randomized and data analysed. Median BMI was 40.73±3.66 and 46.25±6.51; EBW of 49.225±11.14 and 651.48±4.85 in the L-P and L-L group, respectively. Baseline FPG was 132±51.48, 125±39.68; fasting insulin 21.5±13.99, 13.15±9.20, fasting GLP-1 2.4± .37, 2.4± .32, AUC GLP-1 340.78± 44 and 332.32 ± 44.1, HOMA-IR 7.0±4.2 and 4.42±4.5 in the L-P and L-L group, respectively. EBW loss was 47± 13.20 and 65.59± 24.20 (p<0.05) in the placebo versus liraglutide group. However, we did not observe inter-group difference in metabolic parameters between the groups in spite of significant intra-group changes after 6 months of LSG. Intra-pancreatic fat prior to surgery was 3.21±1.7 and 2.2±0.9 (p=0.38) that decreased to 2.14±1.8 and 1.06±0.8 (p=0.25) at 6 months in L-P and L-L group, respectively. Similarly, intra-pancreatic fat was 1.97±0.27 and 1.88±0.36 (p=0.361) at baseline that decreased to 1.14±0.44 and 1.36±0.47 (p=0.465) at 6 months in L-P and L-L group, respectively. Conclusion: Liraglutide augments extra body weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy. A decrease in intra-pancreatic and intra-hepatic fat is noticed after bariatric surgery without additive benefit of liraglutide administration.

Keywords: sleeve gastrectomy, liraglutide, intra-pancreatic fat, insulin

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4 Optimization of Tundish Geometry for Minimizing Dead Volume Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Prateek Singh, Dilshad Ahmad

Abstract:

Growing demand for high-quality steel products has inspired researchers to investigate the unit operations involved in the manufacturing of these products (slabs, rods, sheets, etc.). One such operation is tundish operation, in which a vessel (tundish) acts as a buffer of molten steel for the solidification operation in mold. It is observed that tundish also plays a crucial role in the quality and cleanliness of the steel produced, besides merely acting as a reservoir for the mold. It facilitates removal of dissolved oxygen (inclusions) from the molten steel thus improving its cleanliness. Inclusion removal can be enhanced by increasing the residence time of molten steel in the tundish by incorporation of flow modifiers like dams, weirs, turbo-pad, etc. These flow modifiers also help in reducing the dead or short circuit zones within the tundish which is significant for maintaining thermal and chemical homogeneity of molten steel. Thus, it becomes important to analyze the flow of molten steel in the tundish for different configuration of flow modifiers. In the present work, effect of varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir on the dead volume in tundish is studied. Steady state thermal and flow profiles of molten steel within the tundish are obtained using OpenFOAM. Subsequently, Residence Time Distribution analysis is performed to obtain the percentage of dead volume in the tundish. Design of Experiment method is then used to configure different tundish geometries for varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir, and dead volume for each tundish design is obtained. A second-degree polynomial with two-term interactions of independent variables to predict the dead volume in the tundish with positions and heights/depths of dam and weir as variables are computed using Multiple Linear Regression model. This polynomial is then used in an optimization framework to obtain the optimal tundish geometry for minimizing dead volume using Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization.

Keywords: design of experiments, multiple linear regression, OpenFOAM, residence time distribution, sequential quadratic programming optimization, steel, tundish

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3 A Study of the Effect of Early and Late Meal Time on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Smriti Rastogi, Narsingh Verma

Abstract:

Background: A vast body of research exists on the use of oral hypoglycaemic drugs, insulin injections and the like in managing diabetes but no such research exists that has taken into consideration the parameter of time restricted meal intake and its positive effects in managing diabetes. The utility of this project is immense as it offers a solution to the woes of diabetics based on circadian rhythm and normal physiology of the human body. Method: 80 Diabetics, enrolled from the Out Patient Department of Endocrinology, KGMU (King George's Medical University) were randomly divided based on consent to early dinner TRM(time restricted meal) group or not (control group). Follow up was done at six months and 12 months for anthropometric measurement, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, neck size, fasting, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c, serum urea, serum creatinine, and lipid profile. The patient was given a clear understanding of chronomedicine and how it affects their health. A single intervention was done - the timing of dinner was at or around 7 pm for TRM group. Result: 65% of TRM group and 40 %(non- TRM) had normal HbA1c after 12 months. HbA1c in TRM Group (first visit to second follow up) had a significant p value=0.017. A p value of <0.0001 was observed on comparing the values of blood sugar (fasting) in TRM Group from the first visit and second follow up. The values of blood sugar (postprandial) in TRM Group (first visit and second follow up) showed a p-value <0.0001 (highly significant). Values of the three parameters were non- significant in the control group. Hip size(First Visit to Second Follow Up) TRM Group showed a p-value = 0.0344 (Significant) (Difference between means=2.762 ± 1.261)Detailed results of the above parameters and a few newer ones will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Time restricted meal intake in diabetics shows promise and is worth exploring further. Time Restricted Meal intake in Type 2 diabetics has a significant effect in controlling and maintaining HbA1c as the reduction in HbA1c value was very significant in the TRM group vs. the control group. Similar highly significant results were obtained in the case of fasting and postprandial values of blood sugar in the TRM group when compared to the control group. The effects of time restricted meal intake in diabetics show promise and are worth exploring further. It is one of the first studies which have been undertaken in Indian diabetics, although the initial data obtained is encouraging yet further research and study are required to corroborate results.

Keywords: chronomedicine, diabetes, endocrinology, time restricted meal intake

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2 Competitive Effects of Differential Voting Rights and Promoter Control in Indian Start-Ups

Authors: Prateek Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The definition of 'control' in India is a rapidly evolving concept, owing to varying rights attached to varying securities. Shares with differential voting rights (DVRs) provide the holder with differential rights as to voting, as compared to ordinary equity shareholders of the company. Such DVRs can amount to both superior voting rights and inferior voting rights, where DVRs with superior voting rights amount to providing the holder with golden shares in the company. While DVRs are not a novel concept in India having been recognized since 2000, they were placed on a back burner by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) in 2010 after issuance of DVRs with superior voting rights was restricted. In June 2019, the SEBI rekindled the ebbing fire of DVRs, keeping mind the fast-paced nature of the global economy, the government's faith that India’s ‘new age technology companies’ (i.e., Start-Ups) will lead the charge in achieving its goal of India becoming a $5 trillion dollar economy by 2024, and recognizing that the promoters of such Start-Ups seek to raise capital without losing control over their companies. DVRs with superior voting rights guarantee promoters with up to 74% shareholding in Start-Ups for a period of 5 years, meaning that the holder of such DVRs can exercise sole control and material influence over the company for that period. This manner of control has the potential of causing both pro-competitive and anti-competitive effects in the markets where these companies operate. On the one hand, DVRs will allow Start-Up promoters/founders to retain control of their companies and protect its business interests from foreign elements such as private/public investors – in a scenario where such investors have multiple investments in firms engaged in associated lines of business (whether on a horizontal or vertical level) and would seek to influence these firms to enter into potential anti-competitive arrangements with one another, DVRs will enable the promoters to thwart such scenarios. On the other hand, promoters/founders who themselves have multiple investments in Start-Ups, which are in associated lines of business run the risk of influencing these associated Start-Ups to engage in potentially anti-competitive arrangements in the name of profit maximisation. This paper shall be divided into three parts: Part I shall deal with the concept of ‘control’, as deliberated upon and decided by the SEBI and the Competition Commission of India (CCI) under both company/securities law and competition law; Part II shall review this definition of ‘control’ through the lens of DVRs, and Part III shall discuss the aforementioned potential pro-competitive and anti-competitive effects caused by the DVRs by examining the current Indian Start-Up scenario. The paper shall conclude by providing suggestions for the CCI to incorporate a clearer and more progressive concept of ‘control’.

Keywords: competition law, competitive effects, control, differential voting rights, DVRs, investor shareholding, merger control, start-ups

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1 Fe3O4 Decorated ZnO Nanocomposite Particle System for Waste Water Remediation: An Absorptive-Photocatalytic Based Approach

Authors: Prateek Goyal, Archini Paruthi, Superb K. Misra

Abstract:

Contamination of water resources has been a major concern, which has drawn attention to the need to develop new material models for treatment of effluents. Existing conventional waste water treatment methods remain ineffective sometimes and uneconomical in terms of remediating contaminants like heavy metal ions (mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium and chromium); organic matter (dyes, chlorinated solvents) and high salt concentration, which makes water unfit for consumption. We believe that nanotechnology based strategy, where we use nanoparticles as a tool to remediate a class of pollutants would prove to be effective due to its property of high surface area to volume ratio, higher selectivity, sensitivity and affinity. In recent years, scientific advancement has been made to study the application of photocatalytic (ZnO, TiO2 etc.) nanomaterials and magnetic nanomaterials in remediating contaminants (like heavy metals and organic dyes) from water/wastewater. Our study focuses on the synthesis and monitoring remediation efficiency of ZnO, Fe3O4 and Fe3O4 coated ZnO nanoparticulate system for the removal of heavy metals and dyes simultaneously. Multitude of ZnO nanostructures (spheres, rods and flowers) using multiple routes (microwave & hydrothermal approach) offers a wide range of light active photo catalytic property. The phase purity, morphology, size distribution, zeta potential, surface area and porosity in addition to the magnetic susceptibility of the particles were characterized by XRD, TEM, CPS, DLS, BET and VSM measurements respectively. Further on, the introduction of crystalline defects into ZnO nanostructures can also assist in light activation for improved dye degradation. Band gap of a material and its absorbance is a concrete indicator for photocatalytic activity of the material. Due to high surface area, high porosity and affinity towards metal ions and availability of active surface sites, iron oxide nanoparticles show promising application in adsorption of heavy metal ions. An additional advantage of having magnetic based nanocomposite is, it offers magnetic field responsive separation and recovery of the catalyst. Therefore, we believe that ZnO linked Fe3O4 nanosystem would be efficient and reusable. Improved photocatalytic efficiency in addition to adsorption for environmental remediation has been a long standing challenge, and the nano-composite system offers the best of features which the two individual metal oxides provide for nanoremediation.

Keywords: adsorption, nanocomposite, nanoremediation, photocatalysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 173