Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Safia M. Ali

20 Relation Between Demodex Folliculorum and Rosacea

Authors: Maha M. Eissa, Safia M. Ali, Sonia R. Allam, Ezzat A. Badawy, Nahid M. Baddour

Abstract:

The obligate follicle mite Demodex folliculorum (Df) has been demonstrated in increased numbers in patients with rosacea. The significance of this finding is still not completely understood, because many people free of skin disease may also have mites. So, the aim of this work was to study the possible role of Df in patients with rosacea. Facial punch biopsy specimens were taken from patients with rosacea (either telangiectatic, papulopustular, squamous, granulomatous form or with rhinophyma) and age and sex matched healthy subjects. Results of this study showed that 63.3% of the rosacea patients were harbouring the mite with higher incidence in patients with papulopustular form.

Keywords: Demodex folliculorum, rosacea, papulopustular, punch biopsy

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19 Performance of the Strong Stability Method in the Univariate Classical Risk Model

Authors: Safia Hocine, Zina Benouaret, Djamil A¨ıssani

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the performance of the strong stability method of the univariate classical risk model. We interest to the stability bounds established using two approaches. The first based on the strong stability method developed for a general Markov chains. The second approach based on the regenerative processes theory . By adopting an algorithmic procedure, we study the performance of the stability method in the case of exponential distribution claim amounts. After presenting numerically and graphically the stability bounds, an interpretation and comparison of the results have been done.

Keywords: Marcov chain, regenerative process, risk model, ruin probability, strong stability

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18 Voice over IP Quality of Service Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Network in an Indoor Environment for Different Voice Codecs

Authors: Lina Abou Haibeh, Nadir Hakem, Ousama Abu Safia

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and quality of Voice over IP (VoIP) calls carried over a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) which has a number of SIP nodes registered on a SIP Proxy are analyzed. The testing campaigns are carried out in an indoor corridor structure having a well-defined channel’s characteristics and model for the different voice codecs, G.711, G.727 and G.723.1. These voice codecs are commonly used in VoIP technology. The calls’ quality are evaluated using four Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, namely, mean opinion score (MOS), jitter, delay, and packet loss. The relationship between the wireless channel’s parameters and the optimum codec is well-established. According to the experimental results, the voice codec G.711 has the best performance for the proposed MANET topology

Keywords: wireless channel modelling, Voip, MANET, session initiation protocol (SIP), QoS

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17 Peristaltic Transport of a Jeffrey Fluid with Double-Diffusive Convection in Nanofluids in the Presence of Inclined Magnetic Field

Authors: Safia Akram

Abstract:

In this article, the effects of peristaltic transport with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids through an asymmetric channel with different waveforms is presented. Mathematical modelling for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a Jeffrey fluid model along with double-diffusive convection in nanofluids are given. Exact solutions are obtained for nanoparticle fraction field, concentration field, temperature field, stream functions, pressure gradient and pressure rise in terms of axial and transverse coordinates under the restrictions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. With the help of computational and graphical results the effects of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, Dufour, Soret, and Grashof numbers (thermal, concentration, nanoparticles) on peristaltic flow patterns with double-diffusive convection are discussed.

Keywords: nanofluid particles, peristaltic flow, Jeffrey fluid, magnetic field, asymmetric channel, different waveforms

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16 Quality of the Ruin Probabilities Approximation Using the Regenerative Processes Approach regarding to Large Claims

Authors: Safia Hocine, Djamil Aïssani

Abstract:

Risk models, recently studied in the literature, are becoming increasingly complex. It is rare to find explicit analytical relations to calculate the ruin probability. Indeed, the stability issue occurs naturally in ruin theory, when parameters in risk cannot be estimated than with uncertainty. However, in most cases, there are no explicit formulas for the ruin probability. Hence, the interest to obtain explicit stability bounds for these probabilities in different risk models. In this paper, we interest to the stability bounds of the univariate classical risk model established using the regenerative processes approach. By adopting an algorithmic approach, we implement this approximation and determine numerically the bounds of ruin probability in the case of large claims (heavy-tailed distribution).

Keywords: heavy-tailed distribution, large claims, regenerative process, risk model, ruin probability, stability

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15 The High Efficiency of Cationic Azo Dye Removal Using Raw, Purified and Pillared Clay from Algerian Clay

Authors: Amina Ramdani, Abdelkader Kadeche, Zoubida Taleb, Safia Taleb

Abstract:

The aim of this present study is to evaluate the adsorption capacity of a dye, Malachite green, on a local Algerian montmorillonite clay mineral (raw, purified and Cr-pillared). Various parameters influencing the dye adsorption process ie contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of dye, pH of the solution and temperature. Cr pillared clay has been obtained with a better surface character than purified and natural clay. An increase in basal spacing from 12.45 Å (Mont-Na) to 22.88 Å (Mont-PLCr), surface area from 67 m2 /g (Mont-Na) to 102 m2 /g (Mont-PLCr). The experimental results show that the dye adsorption kinetic were fast: 5 min for Cr-pillared clay mineral, and 30 min for raw and purified clay mineral (RC and Mont-Na). The removal efficiency on Mont-PLCr (98.64%) is greater than that of Mont-Na (86.20%) and RC (82.09%). The acidity and basicity of the medium considerably affect the adsorption of the dye. It attained its maximum at pH 4.8. The equilibrium and kinetic data were found to fit well the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model.

Keywords: Dye removal, pillared clay, isotherm, kinetic

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14 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

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13 Influence of Nanoparticles Phenomena on the Peristaltic Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid in an Inclined Asymmetric Channel with Different Wave Forms

Authors: Safia Akram

Abstract:

The influence of nanofluid with different waveforms in the presence of inclined asymmetric channel on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic fluid is examined. The governing equations for two-dimensional and two directional flows of a pseudoplastic fluid along with nanofluid are modeled and then simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The exact solutions for temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are calculated. Series solution of the stream function and pressure gradient are carried out using perturbation technique. The flow quantities have been examined for various physical parameters of interest. It was found, that the magnitude value of the velocity profile decreases with an increase in volume flow rate (Q) and relaxation times (ζ) and increases in sinusoidal, multisinusoidal, trapezoidal and triangular waves. It was also observed that the size of the trapping bolus decreases with the drop of the width of the channel ‘d’ and increases with a rise of relaxation times ζ.

Keywords: nanofluid particles, peristaltic flow, pseudoplastic fluid, different waveforms, inclined asymmetric channel

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12 An Improved Modular Multilevel Converter Voltage Balancing Approach for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Safia Bashir, Zulfiqar Memon

Abstract:

During the last decade, renewable energy sources in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) has gained increased attention. Therefore, various PV converters topologies have emerged. Among this topology, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered as one of the most promising topologies for the grid-connected PV system due to its modularity and transformerless features. When it comes to the safe operation of MMC, the balancing of the Submodules Voltages (SMs) plays a critical role. This paper proposes a balancing approach based on space vector PWM (SVPWM). Unlike the existing techniques, this method generates the switching vectors for the MMC by using only one SVPWM for the upper arm. The lower arm switching vectors are obtained by finding the complement of the upper arm switching vectors. The use of one SVPWM not only simplifies the calculation but also helped in reducing the circulating current in the MMC. The proposed method is varied through simulation using Matlab/Simulink and compared with other available modulation methods. The results validate the ability of the suggested method in balancing the SMs capacitors voltages and reducing the circulating current which will help in reducing the power loss of the PV system.

Keywords: capacitor voltage balancing, circulating current, modular multilevel converter, PV system

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11 Impact of Coccidia on Mortality and Weight Growth in Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae) in Algeria

Authors: Amina Smai, Fairouz Haddadj, Habiba Saadi-Idouhar, Meriem Aissi, Safia Zenia, Salaheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

Coccidiosis is a very common intestinal parasitic disease caused by a worldwide distributed protozoan of the genus Eimeria. This disease is very common in young birds beyond the second week of life, especially in land-based breeding. The study was carried out in a hunting center of Zeralda located in the north-east of Algiers. The objective of our work is to study the evolution of coccidiosis in quails from 1 to 35 days old by collecting their droppings daily. These are analyzed in the laboratory using the flotation method and the Mac Master one to count coccidia. Weight changes are taken into account as well as mortality in parallel with certain zootechnical parameters such as density. The species of coccidia recovered is Eimeria coturnicis. The results showed that there is an average evolution of mortality of individuals with a rate of 13.33% due to the presence of coccidia with a significant regression (p=0.031). The weight of the quails increases with the age of the animal with a rapid growth rate from the 3rd week onwards. Indeed, the statistical analysis reveals that the evolution of the number did not affect the evolution of the weight (p=0.70) and the GMQ (R=0.52).

Keywords: coccidiosis, Coturnix japonica, daily average gain, weight

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10 Comparative Analysis of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as Wetland Plants Applied for Domestic Wastewater Treatment in a Mesocosm Scale Study

Authors: Sadia Aziz, Mahwish Ali, Safia Ahmed

Abstract:

Comparing other methods of waste water treatment, constructed wetlands are one of the most fascinating practices because being a natural process they are eco-friendly have low construction and maintenance cost and have considerable capability of wastewater treatment. The current research was focused mainly on comparison of Ranunculus muricatus and Typha latifolia as wetland plants for domestic wastewater treatment by designing and constructing efficient pilot scale HSSF mesocosms. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were studied continuously with successive treatments. Treatment efficiency of the system increases with passage of time and with increase in temperature. Efficiency of T. latifolia planted setups in open environment was fairly good for parameters like COD and BOD5 which was showing up to 82.5% for COD and 82.6% for BOD5 while DO was increased up to 125%. Efficiency of R. muricatus vegetated setup was also good but lowers than that of T. latifolia planted showing 80.95% removal of COD and BOD5. Ranunculus muricatus was found effective in reducing bacterial count in wastewater. Both macrophytes were found promising in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, wetland, mesocosms study, wetland plants

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9 Assessing the Mechanical Safety, Durability, Strength, and Stability of Wooden Furniture Produced in Ghana

Authors: Haruna Seidu, Francis Wilson Owusu, Michael Mensah, Felix Boakye, James Korang, Safia Ibrahim

Abstract:

Over the years, wooden furniture produced in Ghana had no means of testing their products against standards. It was therefore difficult for such furniture producers to know whether their products conform to international standards. The setting up of the ISO 17025 compliant laboratory has become a reference and accessing point for determining the quality of the furniture they produce. The objective of the study includes the determination of mechanical safety, durability, strength, and stability of wooden furniture produced in Ghana. Twelve wooden furniture manufacturers were randomly selected to design furniture (chairs and tables) for testing. 9 out of the 12 produced chairs, and three provided tables. Standard testing methods were used in this experiment, including GS EN 581-1, GS EN 581-2, and GS EN 581-3. The test results analysis indicates 55.6% of the chairs tested passed all applicable tests. 66.7% of tables tested passed all the applicable tests. The percentage pass and failure of the 12 furniture were 58.3% and 41.7% respectively. In conclusion, chair manufacturers had good designs that withstand the standard testing of strength and durability; most failures occurred largely as a result of poor stability designs adopted for the construction of the chairs and tables. It was observed that the manufacturers did not use the software in designing their furniture.

Keywords: durability, international standards, mechanical safety, wooden furniture design

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8 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Uranium in Ceramic Tiles Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Authors: Reem M. Altuwirqi, Mohja S. Summan, Entesar A. Ganash, Safia H. Hamidalddin, Tamer E. Youssef, Mohammed A. Gondal

Abstract:

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique using 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser was optimized and applied for investigating the existence of radioactive elements (uranium) in twenty-six different ceramic tiles. These tiles were collected from the local Saudi market. Qualitative and quantitative analysis for trace radioactive elements like uranium in these samples was achieved using LIBS. The plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density were calculated to confirm that the plasma generated by the tile samples under laser irradiation can be related to analyte concentrations. In order to perform a quantitative analysis, calibration curves were constructed for two uranium lines (U II (424.166 nm) and U II (424.437 nm)). The Uranium activity concentration in Bq/kg for each sample was measured. Cross-validation of LIBS results with a conventional technique such as Gamma-Ray spectroscopy was also carried out for five ceramic samples. The results show that the LIBS method is an effective way of determining radioactive elements such as uranium in ceramic tiles. Moreover, the uranium concentrations of the investigated samples were below the permissible safe limit for building materials in the majority of samples. Such LIBS system could be applied to determine the presence of natural radioactive elements in ceramic tiles and their radioactivity level rapidly to ensure that they are under the safe allowed limit.

Keywords: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy, natural radioactivity, uranium, ceramic tiles

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7 Experiencing Daylight in Architectural Spaces: A Case Study of Public Buildings in the Context of Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Safia Asif, Saadia Bano

Abstract:

In a world with rapidly depleting resources, using artificial lighting during daytime is an act of human ignorance. Imitated light is the major source of energy consumption in public buildings. Despite, the fact that substantial working hours of these buildings usually persist in natural daylight time; there is a trend of isolated, un-fenestrated and a-contextual interiors majorly dependent on active energy sources. On the contrary, if direct and un-controlled sunlight is allowed inside the building, it will create visual and thermal discomfort. Controlled daylighting with appropriate design mechanisms is one of the important aspects of achieving thermal and visual comfort. The natural sunlight can be utilized intelligently with the help of architectural thermal controlling mechanisms to achieve a healthy and productive environment. This paper is an attempt to investigate and analyze the importance of daylighting with reference to energy efficiency and thermal comfort. For this purpose, three public buildings including two educational institutions and one general post office are selected, as case-studies in the context of Karachi, Pakistan. Various parameters of visual and thermal comfort are analyzed which includes orientation, ceiling heights, overall building profile along with daylight controlling mechanisms in terms of penetration, distribution, protection, and control. In the later part of the research, a questionnaire survey is also conducted to evaluate the user experience in terms of adequate daylighting and thermal comfort.

Keywords: daylight, public buildings, sustainable architecture, visual and thermal comfort

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6 The Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion at 45⁰C

Authors: Nuruol S. Mohd, Safia Ahmed, Rumana Riffat, Baoqiang Li

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures have been widely studied and evaluated by numerous researchers. Limited extensive research has been conducted on anaerobic digestion in the intermediate zone of 45°C, mainly due to the notion that limited microbial activity occurs within this zone. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the performance and the capability of anaerobic digestion at 45°C in producing class A biosolids, in comparison to a mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion system operated at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. In addition to that, the investigation on the possible inhibition factors affecting the performance of the digestion system at this temperature will be conducted as well. The 45°C anaerobic digestion systems were not able to achieve comparable methane yield and high-quality effluent compared to the mesophilic system, even though the systems produced biogas with about 62-67% methane. The 45°C digesters suffered from high acetate accumulation, but sufficient buffering capacity was observed as the pH, alkalinity and volatile fatty acids (VFA)-to-alkalinity ratio were within recommended values. The accumulation of acetate observed in 45°C systems were presumably due to the high temperature which contributed to high hydrolysis rate. Consequently, it produced a large amount of toxic salts that combined with the substrate making them not readily available to be consumed by methanogens. Acetate accumulation, even though contributed to 52 to 71% reduction in acetate degradation process, could not be considered as completely inhibitory. Additionally, at 45°C, no ammonia inhibition was observed and the digesters were able to achieve volatile solids (VS) reduction of 47.94±4.17%. The pathogen counts were less than 1,000 MPN/g total solids, thus, producing Class A biosolids.

Keywords: 45°C anaerobic digestion, acetate accumulation, class A biosolids, salt toxicity

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5 Salinity Reduction from Saharan Brackish Water by Fluoride Removal on Activated Natural Materials: A Comparative Study

Authors: Amina Ramadni, Safia Taleb, André Dératani

Abstract:

The present study presents, firstly, to characterize the physicochemical quality of brackish groundwater of the Terminal Complex (TC) from the region of Eloued-souf and to investigate the presence of fluoride, and secondly, to study the comparison of adsorbing power of three materials, such as (activated alumina AA, sodium clay SC and hydroxyapatite HAP) against the groundwater in the region of Eloued-souf. To do this, a sampling campaign over 16 wells and consumer taps was undertaken. The results show that the groundwater can be characterized by very high fluoride content and excessive mineralization that require in some cases, specific treatment before supply. The study of adsorption revealed removal efficiencies fluoride by three adsorbents, maximum adsorption is achieved after 45 minutes at 90%, 83.4% and 73.95%, and with an adsorbed fluoride content of 0.22 mg/L, 0.318 mg/L and 0.52 mg/L for AA, HAP and SC, respectively. The acidity of the medium significantly affects the removal fluoride. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. The adsorption tests by adsorbent materials show that the physicochemical characteristics of brackish water are changed after treatment. The adsorption mechanism is an exchange between the OH- ions and fluoride ions. Three materials are proving to be effective adsorbents for fluoride removal that could be developed into a viable technology to help reduce the salinity of the Saharan hyper-fluorinated waters. Finally, a comparison between the results obtained from the different adsorbents allowed us to conclude that the defluoridation by AA is the process of choice for many waters of the region of Eloued-souf, because it was shown to be a very interesting and promising technique.

Keywords: fluoride removal, hydrochemical characterization of groundwater, natural materials, nanofiltration

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4 Baseline Data from Specialist Obesity Clinic in a Large Tertiary Care Facility, Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Asma Ahmed, Farah Khalid, Sahlah Sohail, Saira Banusokwalla, Sabiha Banu, Inaara Akbar, Safia Awan, Syed Iqbal Azam

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: The level of knowledge regarding obesity as a disease condition and health-seeking behavior regarding its management is grossly lacking. We present data from our multidisciplinary obesity clinic at the large tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan, to provide baseline profiles and outcomes of patients attending these clinics. Methods: 260 who attended the obesity clinic between June 2018 to March 2020 were enrolled in this study. The analysis included descriptive and ROC analysis to identify the best cut-offs of theanthropometric measurements to diagnose obesity-related comorbid conditions. Results: The majority of the studied population were women (72.3%) and employed(43.7%) with a mean age of 35.5 years. Mean BMIwas 37.4, waist circumference was 112.4 cm, visceral fat was 11.7%, and HbA1C was 6.9%. The most common comorbidities were HTN & D.M (33 &31%, respectively). The prevalence of MetS was 16.3% in patients and was slightly higher in males. Visceral fat was the main factor in predicting D.M (0.750; 95% CI: 0.665, 0.836) and MetS (0.709; 95% CI: 0.590, 0.838) compared to total body fat, waist circumference, and BMI. The risk of predicting DM &MetS for the visceral fat above 9.5% in women had the highest sensitivity (80% for D.M & 79% for MetS) and an NPV (92.75% for D.M & 95% for MetS). Conclusions: This study describes and establishes characteristics of these obese individuals, which can help inform clinical practices. These practices may involve using visceral fat for earlier identification and counseling-based interventions to prevent more severe surgical interventions down the line.

Keywords: obesity, metabolic syndrome, tertiary care facility, BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat

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3 Study of Some Biometric Parameters of the Incubated Eggs and Unhatched Eggs Depending on the Age of Breeding in Domestic Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: Amina Smaï, Habiba Idouhar-Saadi, Safia Zenia, Fairouz Haddadj, Salaheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

The poultry industry (chicken and egg consumption) has become important in Algeria, but that does not prevent other farms from beginning to position themselves on the ground like the turkey, guinea fowl, partridge and quail Japanese. The breeding importance of this last, reside, also in game meat, egg quality and their therapeutic role without forgetting its growth performance. To the same effect, a study was held at the center of Zeralda hunting on various parameters such as the weight and number of eggs laid and this in order to know better the potential of production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg laying has started from the 8th week of reproductive age, their harvest and their counts are performed daily up to 32 weeks of age and more. We have given the biometrics of incubated eggs and unhatched eggs. The parameters studied were the weight, large and small diameter, density, volume, shell index and the shape index. The work revealed that the maximum weight in males is reached in the 11th week, against the female, he reached the 13th week of age. Indeed, there is a good correlation (R = 0.79) between the weight of females and egg production. The rate of unhatched eggs varies between 11 and 43%, these values are recorded respectively in breeding under the age of 25 and 43 weeks. Furthermore, the biometric parameters of hatched and unhatched eggs have differences that are marked, especially during the beginning and end of lay. Further results will be subsequently exploited. Indeed, rearing Japanese quail is easy in technical terms and does not require big investment but its practical application vigilance and daily presence of the breeder within the farm who oversees the hygiene and well-being of its poultry.

Keywords: Japanese quail, biometrics, eggs, unhatching eggs, reproduction

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2 Place and Importance of Goats in the Milk Sector in Algeria

Authors: Tennah Safia, Azzag Naouelle, Derdour Salima, Hafsi Fella, Laouadi Mourad, Laamari Abdalouahab, Ghalmi Farida, Kafidi Nacerredine

Abstract:

Currently, goat farming is widely practiced among the rural population of Algeria. Although milk yield of goats is low (110 liters per goat and per year on average), this milk partly ensures the feeding of small children and provides raw milk, curd, and fermented milk to the whole family. In addition, given its investment cost, which is ten times lower than that of a cow, this level of production is still of interest. This interest is reinforced by the qualities of goat's milk, highly sought after for its nutritional value superior to that of cow's milk. In the same way, its aptitude for the transformation, in particular in quality cheeses, is very sought after. The objective of this study is to give the situation of goat milk production in rural areas of Algeria and to establish a classification of goat breeds according to their production potential. For this, a survey was carried out with goat farmers in Algerian steppe. Three indigenous breeds were encountered in this study: the breed Arabia, Mozabite, and Mekatia; Arabia being the most dominant. The Mekatia breed and the Mozabite breed appear to have higher production and milking abilities than other local breeds. They are therefore indicated to play the role of local dairy breeds par excellence. The other breed that could be improved milk performance is the Arabia breed. There, however, the milk performance of this breed is low. However, in order to increase milk production, uncontrolled crosses with imported breeds (mainly Saanen and Alpine) were carried out. The third population that can be included in the category for dairy production is the dairy breed group of imported origin. There are farms in Algeria composed of Alpine and Saanen breeds born locally. Improved milk performance of local goats, Crusader population, and dairy breeds of imported origin could be done by selection. For this, it is necessary to set up a milk control to detect the best animals. This control could be carried out among interested farmers in each large goat breeding area. In conclusion, sustained efforts must be made to enable the sustainable development of the goat sector in Algeria. It will, therefore, be necessary to deepen the reflection on a national strategy to valorize goat's milk, taking into account the specificities of the environment, the genetic biodiversity, and the eating habits of the Algerian consumer.

Keywords: goat, milk, Algeria, biodiversity

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1 Supermarket Shoppers Perceptions to Genetically Modified Foods in Trinidad and Tobago: Focus on Health Risks and Benefits

Authors: Safia Hasan Varachhia, Neela Badrie, Marsha Singh

Abstract:

Genetic modification of food is an innovative technology that offers a host of benefits and advantages to consumers. Consumer attitudes towards GM food and GM technologies can be identified a major determinant in conditioning market force and encouraging policy makers and regulators to recognize the significance of consumer influence on the market. This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the extent of consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks and benefit in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. The specific objectives of this study were to (determine consumer awareness to GM foods, ascertain their perspectives on health and safety risks and ethical issues associated with GM foods and determine whether labeling of GM foods and ingredients will influence consumers’ willingness to purchase GM foods. A survey comprising of a questionnaire consisting of 40 questions, both open-ended and close-ended was administered to 240 shoppers in small, medium and large-scale supermarkets throughout Trinidad between April-May, 2015 using convenience sampling. This survey investigated consumer awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods and its associated health risks/benefits. The data was analyzed using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. One-way ANOVA investigated the effects categories of supermarkets and knowledge scores on shoppers’ awareness, knowledge, perception and acceptance of GM foods. Linear Regression tested whether demographic variables (category of supermarket, age of consumer, level of were useful predictors of consumer’s knowledge of GM foods). More than half of respondents (64.3%) were aware of GM foods and GM technologies, 28.3% of consumers indicated the presence of GM foods in local supermarkets and 47.1% claimed to be knowledgeable of GM foods. Furthermore, significant associations (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (age, income, and education), and consumer knowledge of GM foods. Also, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between demographic variables (education, gender, and income) and consumer knowledge of GM foods. In addition, age, education, gender and income (P < 0.05) were useful predictors of consumer knowledge of GM foods. There was a contradiction as whilst 35% of consumers considered GM foods safe for consumption, 70% of consumers were wary of the unknown health risks of GM foods. About two-thirds of respondents (67.5%) considered the creation of GM foods morally wrong and unethical. Regarding GM food labeling preferences, 88% of consumers preferred mandatory labeling of GM foods and 67% of consumers specified that any food product containing a trace of GM food ingredients required mandatory GM labeling. Also, despite the declaration of GM food ingredients on food labels and the reassurance of its safety for consumption by food safety and regulatory institutions, the majority of consumers (76.1%) still preferred conventionally produced foods over GM foods. The study revealed the need to inform shoppers of the presence of GM foods and technologies, present the scientific evidence as to the benefits and risks and the need for a policy on labeling so that informed choices could be taken.

Keywords: genetically modified foods, income, labeling consumer awareness, ingredients, morality and ethics, policy

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