Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Aerva javanica

11 Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of Aerva javanica Aerial Parts in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rats

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari, Adnan J. Al-Rehaily

Abstract:

We investigated ex vivo and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective effect of Aerva javanica. Total ethanol extract of A. javanica aerial parts was prepared, and tested on DCFH-toxicated HepG2 cell in CCl4-injured Wistar rats. MTT-assay was used to determine cell viability, and serum biochemical markers of liver injury as well as histopathology were performed. In vitro DPPH and β-carotene free-radical scavenging assay and phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Furthermore, A. javanica total extract was standardized and validated by HPTLC method. While DCFH-injured cells were recovered to about 56.7% by 100 microg/ml of the extract, a 200 microg/ml dose resulted in hepatocytes recovery by about 90.2%. Oral administration of the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg.bw/day) significantly normalized the serum SGOT, SGPT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, TG and MDA levels, including tissue NP-SH and TP in CCl4-injured rats. In addition, the histopathology of dissected liver also revealed that A. javanica cured the tissue lesion compared to reference drug, Silymarin. In vitro assays revealed strong free-radical scavenging ability of the extract and presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and saponins where Rutin, a well-known antioxidant flavonoid was identified. Our finding therefore, suggests the therapeutic potential of A. javanica in various liver diseases. However, isolation of the active principles, their mechanism of action and other therapeutic contribution remain to be addressed.

Keywords: Aerva javanica, antioxidant, hepatoprotection, rutin

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10 In vitro Antioxidant and Antisickling Effects of Aerva javanica, and Ficus palmata Extracts on Sickle Cell Anemia

Authors: E. A. Alaswad, H. M. Choudhry, F. Z. Filimban

Abstract:

Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) is one type of blood diseases related to autosomal disorder. The sickle shaped red blood cells are the main cause of many problems in the blood vessels and capillaries. Aerva Javanica (J) and Ficus Palmata (P) are medicinal plants that have many popular uses and have been proved their efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidants activity and the antisickling effect of J and P extractions. The period of this study, air-dried leaves of J, and P plants were ground and the active components were extracted by maceration in water (W) and methanol (M) as solvents. The antioxidants activity of JW, PW, JM, and PM were assessed by way of the radical scavenging method using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). To determine the antisickling effect of J and P extracts. 20 samples were collected from sickle cell anemia patients. Different concentrations of J and P extracts (200 and 110 μg/mL) were added on the sample and incubated. A drop of each sample was examined with light microscope. Normal and sickled RBCs were calculated and expressed as the percent of sickling. The stabilization effect of the extracts was measured by the osmotic fragility test for erythrocytes. The finding suggests as estimated by DPPH method, all the extracts showed an antioxidant activity with a significant inhibition of the DPPH radicals. PM has the least IC50% with 71.49 μg/ml while JM was the most with 408.49 μg/ml. Sickle cells treated with extracts at different concentrations significantly reduced the percentage of sickling compering to control samples. However, JM 200 μg/mL give the highest anti-sickling affect with 17.4% of sickling compared to control 67.5 of sickling while PM at 200 μg/mL showed the highest membrane cell stability. In a conclusion, the results showed that J and P extracts have antisickling effects. Therefore, the Aerva javanica and Ficus palmata may have a role in SCA management and a good impact on the patient's lives.

Keywords: Aerva javanica, antioxidant, antisickling, Ficus palmata, sickle cell anemia

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9 Cytotoxic Activity of Parkia javanica Merr. and Parkia speciosa Hassk. against Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Parkia javanica Merr. germinating seeds and Parkia speciosa Hassk. seeds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against three different types of human cancer cell lines including colon cancer (LS174T), breast cancer (MCF-7) and prostate cancer (PC3) using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The fresh plant parts were divided into 2 parts. The first part was extracted by maceration with 95% ethanol for 3 days and then filtered, and the filtrates were evaporated by rotary evaporator. The other part was squeezed and filtered. Then the filtrates were dried by freeze dryer. The screening found that the aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds exhibited more than 70% inhibition (at concentration 50 µg/ml) against all types of human cancer cells. The aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds showed the highest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 with the IC50 value as 5.63 µg/ml. The aqueous extract of P. javanica Merr. germinating seeds also showed high cytotoxic activity against PC3 and LS174T with the IC50 values as 10.79 and 11.40 µg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, P. javanica Merr. germinating seed is a natural source of anticancer activity and further research to isolate active compounds from this plant should be undertaken.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, Parkia javanica Merr., Parkia speciosa Hassk., human cancer cell lines

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8 Nephroprotective Activity of Aqueous Methanolic Extract of Aerva Lanata (Busehri Booti) against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohd Aslam Aslam

Abstract:

Chronic renal failure is a debilitating condition responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Because of its costs and the complexity of its treatment, proper care is available to very few patients in India. According to researchers, the number of adults aged 30 or older who have chronic kidney disease is projected to increase from 13.2 percent currently, to 14.4 percent in 2020 and 16.7 percent in 2030. The aerial part of Aerva lanata (Busehri booti) have been used in kidney disorders by the Unani physicians. In the present study, the effect of extract of Aerva lanata was investigated on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The renal effects of this drug was evaluated by monitoring levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum uric acid in blood and histopathological examination of kidney. Aerva lanata was evaluated at two different doses (1400 mg/kg and 2800 mg/kg). The effect of higher dose was more pronounced in terms of inhibition in the rise of BUN, serum creatinine and uric acid. Higher dose show greater prevention in the rise of BUN, serum creatinine, and uric acid. The histopathological examination of the kidney tissue of the rats treated with aqueous methanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Higher dose-2800 mg/kg) showed marked inhibition of glomerular congestion, tubular casts, peritubular congestion, epithelial desquamation, blood vessel congestion, interstitial edema and inflammatory cells produced by the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This finding clearly indicates the protective role of Aerva lanata at higher dose. Present investigation validates the use of Aerva lanata in kidney disorders by Unani physicians.

Keywords: Aerva lanata, Busehri booti, nephroprotective, unani medicine

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7 A Perceptive Study on Oviposition Behavior and Selection of Host Plant for Egg Laying in Schistocerca gregaria

Authors: Riffat Sultana, Ahmed Ali Samejo

Abstract:

Desert Locust is a critical pest of crop and non-crop plants throughout the old world including Pakistan. Geographically, this pest invades 31 million km2 in about 60 countries during the gregarious phase which may bring calamity. The present study is carried out in order to conduct field observations on oviposition behavior from Thar Desert, Pakistan. Females preferred loose soil for oviposition rather than packed or hard soil. The depth of egg pods inside the soil was measured up to 8.996±1.40 cm, and duration of egg laying was measured up to 105.9±26.4 min. Besides this, an insightful recognition has been made that the solitary females oviposited predominantly in the vicinity of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and guar or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) crops in cultivated fields while in uncultivated land preferred the surroundings of bekar grass (Indigofera caerulea) and snow bush (Aerva javanica). It was also observed that nymphs preferred to feed on these host plants. Furthermore, experimental outcomes indicated that gravid females oviposited on the bottom of perforated plastic cages while, they did not find suitable soil for oviposition.

Keywords: calamity, cultivated fields, desert locust, host plants, oviposition behavior

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6 Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato

Authors: Hajji Lobna, Chattaoui Mayssa, Regaieg Hajer, M'Hamdi-Boughalleb Naima, Rhouma Ali, Horrigue-Raouani Najet

Abstract:

In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rate inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) was reached 75.5% with Tr1. Parasitism rate of root-knot nematode was 60% for juveniles and 75% for eggs with the same one. Pots experiment results showed that Tr1 and Tr2, compared to chemical treatment, enhanced the plant growth and exhibited better antagonism against root-knot nematode and root-rot fungi separated or combined. All Trichoderma isolates revealed a bioprotection potential against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. When pathogen fungi inoculated alone, Fusarium wilt index and browning vascular rate were reduced significantly with Tr1 (0.91, 2.38%) and Tr2 (1.5, 5.5%), respectively. In the case of combined infection with Fusarium and nematode, the same isolate of Trichoderma Tr1 and Tr2 decreased Fusarium wilt index at 1.1 and 0.83 and reduced the browning vascular rate at 6.5% and 6%, respectively. Similarly, the isolate Tr1 and Tr2 caused maximum inhibition of nematode multiplication. Multiplication rate was declined at 4% with both isolates either tomato infected by nematode separately or concomitantly with Fusarium. The chemical treatment was moderate in activity against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici alone and combined.

Keywords: trichoderma spp., meloidogyne javanica, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.radicis lycopersici, biocontrol

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5 Resistance to the South African Root-Knot Nematode Population Densities in Artemisia annua: An Anti-Malaria Ethnomedicinal Plant

Authors: Kgabo Pofu, Hintsa Araya, Dean Oelofse, Sonja Venter, Christian Du Plooy, Phatu Mashela

Abstract:

Nematode resistance to the tropical root-knot (Meloidogyne species) nematodes is one of the most preferred nematode management strategies in development of smallholder resource-poor farming systems. Due to its pharmacological and ethnomedicinal applications, Artemisia annua is one of the underutilised crops that have attracted attention of policy-makers in rural agrarian development in South Africa. However, the successful introduction of this crop in smallholder resource-poor farming systems could be upset by the widespread aggressive Meloidogyne species, which have limited management options. The objective of this study therefore was to determine the degree of nematode resistance to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities on A. annua seedlings. Uniform three-week-old seedlings in pots containing pasteurised growing medium under greenhouse conditions were inoculated using a series of eggs and second-stage juveniles of two Meloidogyne species in separate trials. At 56 days after inoculation, treatments were highly significant on reproductive factor (RF) for M. incognita and M. javanica on A. annua, contributing 87 and 89% in total treatment variation of the variables, respectively. At all levels of inoculation, RF values for M. incognita (0.17-0.79) and M. javanica (0.02-0.29) were below unity, without any noticeable root galls. Infection of A. annua by both Meloidogyne species had no significant effects on growth variables. In conclusion, A. annua seedlings are resistant to the South African M. incognita and M. javanica population densities and could therefore be explored further for use in smallholder resource-poor farming systems.

Keywords: ethnomedicial plants, medicinal plants, underutilised crops, plant parasitic nematodes

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4 Application of Metarhizium anisopliae against Meloidogyne javanica in Soil Amended with Oak Debris

Authors: Mohammad Abdollahi

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most popular, widely grown and the second most important vegetable crop, after potatoes. Nematodes have been identified as one of the major pests affecting tomato production throughout the world. The most destructive nematodes are the genus Meloidogyne. Most widespread and devastating species of this genus are M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. These species can cause complete crop loss under adverse growing conditions. There are several potential methods for management of the root knot nematodes. Although the chemicals are widely used against the phytonematodes, because of hazardous effects of these compounds on non-target organisms and on the environment, there is a need to develop other control strategies. Nowadays, non-chemical measures are widely used to control the plant parasitic nematodes. Biocontrol of phytonematodes is an important method among environment-friendly measures of nematode management. There are some soil-inhabiting fungi that have biocontrol potential on phytonematodes, which can be used in nematode management program. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, originally is an entomopathogenic bioagent. Biocontrol potential of this fungus on some phytonematodes has been reported earlier. Recently, use of organic soil amendments as well as the use of bioagents is under special attention in sustainable agriculture. This research aimed to reduce the pesticide use in control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. The effects of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and different levels of oak tree debris on M. javanica were determined. The combination effect of the fungus as well as the different rates of soil amendments was determined. Pots were filled with steam pasteurized soil mixture and the six leaf tomato seedlings were inoculated with 3000 second stage larvae of M. javanica/kg of soil. After eight weeks, plant growth parameters and nematode reproduction factors were compared. Based on the results of our experiment, combination of M. anisopliae IMI 330189 and oak debris caused more than 90% reduction in reproduction factor of nematode, at the rates of 100 and 150 g/kg soil (P ≤ 0.05). As compared to control, the reduction in number of galls was 76%. It was 86% for nematode reproduction factor, showing the significance of combined effect of both tested agents. Our results showed that plant debris can increase the biological activity of the tested bioagent. It was also proved that there was no adverse effect of oak debris, which potentially has antimicrobial activity, on antagonistic power of applied bioagent.

Keywords: biological control, nematode management, organic soil, Quercus branti, root knot nematode, soil amendment

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3 Impact of Water Deficit and Nematode Infection Stress on Growth and Physiological Responses of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)

Authors: Areej A. Alzarqaa, Shahira S. Roushdy, Ali A. Alderfasi, Fahad A. AL-Yahya, Ahmed A. Dawaba

Abstract:

The resistance of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczeck) and its physiological responses to drought stress was studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. A randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement having three replications of each treatment was used. Treatments included three water deficit samples (80%, 40% and 20% of field capacity), two mungbean genotypes (Kawmay-1 and VC2010) and two root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) infection levels (infected and non-infected). Results showed that water deficit stress significantly hampered most of the studied parameters, except for the shoot water content, whereas genotypes showed highly significant differences for stomatal conductance, shoot dry weight and leaf area. Shoot water content was found to be non-significant in relation to chlorophyll b, shoot dry weight and leaf area, whereas highly significant but negatively correlated with chlorophyll a and stomatal conductance. However, all other possible correlations among studied parameters were found to be highly and positively significant. Results also showed that VC 2010 surpassed Kawmay-1 in most of studied characteristics. In the present study, genotypic variation was observed for these parameters and can be used as a basis for selection of the most promising variety under drought conditions.

Keywords: drought stress, Meloidogyne javanica, mungbean, stomatal conductivity, leaf area, root-knot nematode, shoot water content

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2 Medicinal Plants and Arbuscular mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Ammani K., Glory M.

Abstract:

Demands of traditional herbal medicines are increasing day by day over the world. Considering the growing demand of medicinal plants in curative treatments and the role of VAM fungi in augmentation of the production of active secondary metabolites by the medicinal plants, the present work has been undertaken to survey the mycorrhizal status in 30 different medicinal plants belonging to various families from Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. The roots were collected carefully and stained by the Phillips & Hayman technique. Basing on the occurrence of vesicles and arbuscules, categorized into four grades; Excellent: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present more than 75% of root bits, Good: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 50-75% in surface of root bits, moderate: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 25-50% in surface of root bits, and poor: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 1-25% in surface of root bits. The study reveals that the roots of all plants were colonized by AM fungi. Percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was more in Aloe vera, Phylanthus emblica, Azadiracta indica and least in plants such as Aerva lanata, Vinca rosea, Crotalaria verrucosa among the 30 medicinal plants in present study. The enhancement of growth and vigour and increased production of bioactive compounds of the medicinal plants is desirable which may be achieved by inoculation of the roots with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. There is a steady increase in the cultivation of medicinal plants to maintain a steady supply to support the increasing demand but corresponding researches of VAM fungi and their association in medicinal plants have received very little attention as compared to the studies on forest species and field crops. So a vast research on this field is necessary for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizae, colonization, categories, medicinal plants

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1 Selection of Indigenous Tree Species and Microbial Inoculation for the Restoration of Degraded Uplands

Authors: Nelly S. Aggangan, Julieta A. Anarna

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Indigenous tree species are priority planting materials for the National Greening Program of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Areas for reforestation are marginal grasslands where plant growth is stunted and seedling survival is low. This experiment was conducted to compare growth rates and seedling survival of seven indigenous reforestation species. Narra (Pterocarpus indicus), salago (Wikstroemia lanceolata), kisubeng (Sapindus saponaria), tuai (Biscofia javanica), batino (Alstonia macrophylla), bani (Pongamina pinnata) and ipil (Intsia bijuga) were inoculated with Mykovam® (mycorrhizal fungi) and Bio-N® (N2-fixing bacteria) during pricking. After five months in the nursery, the treated seedlings were planted in degraded upland acidic red soil in Cavinti, Laguna (Luzon). During outplanting, all mycorrhiza inoculated seedlings had 50-80% mycorrhizal roots while the control ones had 5-10% mycorrhizal roots. Mykovam increased height of narra, salago and kisubeng. Stem diameter was bigger in mycorrhizal salago than the control. After two years in the field, Mykovam®+Bio-N® inoculated narra, salago and bani gave 95% survival while non-mycorrhizal tuai gave the lowest survival (25%). Inoculated seedlings grew faster than the control. Highest height increase was in batino (103%), followed by bani (95%), ipil (59%), narra (58%), tuai (53%) and kisubeng was the lowest (10%). Stem diameter was increased by Mykovam® from 13-39% over the control. Highest stem diameter was obtained from narra (50%), followed by bani (40%), batino (36%), ipil (33%), salago (28%), kisubeng and tuai (12%) had the lowest. In conclusion, Mykovam® inoculated batino, bani, narra, salago and ipil can be selected to restore degraded upland acidic red soil in the Philippines.

Keywords: Azospirillum spp., Bio-N®, Mykovam®, nitrogen fixing bacteria, acidic red soil

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