Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: barcoding

17 Identification of Shark Species off The Nigerian Coast Using DNA Barcoding

Authors: O. O. Fola-Matthews, O. O. Soyinka, D. N. Bitalo

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Nigeria is one of the major shark fishing nations in Africa, but its fisheries managers still record catch data in aggregates ‘sharks’ with no species-specific details. This is because most of the shark specimens look identical in morphology, and field identification of some closely related species is tricky. This study uses DNA barcoding as a method to identify shark species from five different landing areas off the Nigerian Coast. 100 dorsal fins were sampled in order to provide a Chondrichthyan sequence that would be matched to reference specimens in a DNA barcode database

Keywords: BOLD, DNA barcoding, nigeria, sharks

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16 Use of DNA Barcoding and UPLC-MS to Authenticate Agathosma spp. in South African Herbal Products

Authors: E. Pretorius, A. M. Viljoen, M. van der Bank

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Introduction: The phytochemistry of Agathosma crenulata and A. betulina has been studied extensively, while their molecular analysis through DNA barcoding remains virtually unexplored. This technique can confirm the identity of plant species included in a herbal product, thereby ensuring the efficacy of the herbal product and the accuracy of its label. Materials and methods: Authentic Agathosma reference material of A. betulina (n=16) and A. crenulata (n=10) were obtained. Thirteen commercial products were purchased from various health shops around Johannesburg, South Africa, using the search term “Agathosma” or “Buchu.” The plastid regions matK and ycf1 were used to barcode the Buchu products, and BRONX analysis confirmed the taxonomic identity of the samples. UPLC-MS analyses were also performed. Results: Only (30/60) 60% of the traded samples tested from 13 suppliers contained A. betulina in their herbal products. Similar results were also obtained for the UPLC-MS analysis. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate the application of DNA barcoding in combination with phytochemical analysis to authenticate herbal products claiming to contain Agathosma plants as an ingredient in their products. This supports manufacturing efforts to ensure that herbal products that are safe for the consumer.

Keywords: Buchu, substitution, barcoding, BRONX algorithm, matK, ycf1, UPLC-MS

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15 Identification and Differentiation of Fagonia Arabica and Fagonia Indica by Using DNA Barcode Region Matk

Authors: Noshaba Dilbar, Aisha Tahir, Amer Jamil

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During the last decade, DNA barcoding proved to be an authentic tool for discovery and identification of plants. In the present study, DNA barcoding of two species, Fagonia arabica and Fagonia indica was done for differentiation by using matK region. matK gene is considered as a universal barcode because of its easy alignment and high discrimination ability. In this study, matK yielded 100% sequencing results. The sequences from both plants were aligned at clustal W and observed that there is no nucleotide variation and polymorphism among both sequences. This was further analysed by BLAST which showed the similar sequences from different plants belonging to same family but didn’t find sequence of both species. Considering this, the resulted sequence was submitted by the name of Fagonia arabica with accession number KM276890. In the end, we analysed the results from BOLD which gave us the final conclusion that both plants are same as their matK sequences are 100% identical. In literature, both Fagonia indica and Fagonia arabica names are used for this plant but there is no clear differentiation has been observed in these plants. Results evaluate that Fagonia indica and Fagonia arabica are the alternative names of same plant.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, Fagonia arabica, Fagonia indica, matK

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14 The Advantages of Using DNA-Barcoding for Determining the Fraud in Seafood

Authors: Elif Tugce Aksun Tumerkan

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Although seafood is an important part of human diet and categorized highly traded food industry internationally, it is remain overlooked generally in the global food security aspect. Food product authentication is the main interest in the aim of both avoids commercial fraud and to consider the risks that might be harmful to human health safety. In recent years, with increasing consumer demand for regarding food content and it's transparency, there are some instrumental analyses emerging for determining food fraud depend on some analytical methodologies such as proteomic and metabolomics. While, fish and seafood consumed as fresh previously, within advanced technology, processed or packaged seafood consumption have increased. After processing or packaging seafood, morphological identification is impossible when some of the external features have been removed. The main fish and seafood quality-related issues are the authentications of seafood contents such as mislabelling products which may be contaminated and replacement partly or completely, by lower quality or cheaper ones. For all mentioned reasons, truthful consistent and easily applicable analytical methods are needed for assurance the correct labelling and verifying of seafood products. DNA-barcoding methods become popular robust that used in taxonomic research for endangered or cryptic species in recent years; they are used for determining food traceability also. In this review, when comparing the other proteomic and metabolic analysis, DNA-based methods are allowing a chance to identification all type of food even as raw, spiced and processed products. This privilege caused by DNA is a comparatively stable molecule than protein and other molecules. Furthermore showing variations in sequence based on different species and founding in all organisms, make DNA-based analysis more preferable. This review was performed to clarify the main advantages of using DNA-barcoding for determining seafood fraud among other techniques.

Keywords: DNA-barcoding, genetic analysis, food fraud, mislabelling, packaged seafood

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13 Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mina Kalantarzadeh, Claire Lockie-Williams, Caroline Howard

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DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.

Keywords: degradation, DNA extraction, nucleic acid reference material, trnH-psbA

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12 DNA Barcoding for Identification of Dengue Vectors from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh: North-Eastern States in India

Authors: Monika Soni, Shovonlal Bhowmick, Chandra Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Prafulla Dutta, Jagadish Mahanta

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Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are considered as two major vectors to transmit dengue virus. In North-east India, two states viz. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are known to be high endemic zone for dengue and Chikungunya viral infection. The taxonomical classification of medically important vectors are important for mapping of actual evolutionary trends and epidemiological studies. However, misidentification of mosquito species in field-collected mosquito specimens could have a negative impact which may affect vector-borne disease control policy. DNA barcoding is a prominent method to record available species, differentiate from new addition and change of population structure. In this study, a combined approach of a morphological and molecular technique of DNA barcoding was adopted to explore sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene within dengue vectors. The study has revealed the map distribution of the dengue vector from two states i.e. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Approximate five hundred mosquito specimens were collected from different parts of two states, and their morphological features were compared with the taxonomic keys. The analysis of detailed taxonomic study revealed identification of two species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The species aegypti comprised of 66.6% of the specimen and represented as dominant dengue vector species. The sequences obtained through standard DNA barcoding protocol were compared with public databases, viz. GenBank and BOLD. The sequences of all Aedes albopictus have shown 100% similarity whereas sequence of Aedes aegypti has shown 99.77 - 100% similarity of COI gene with that of different geographically located same species based on BOLD database search. From dengue prevalent different geographical regions fifty-nine sequences were retrieved from NCBI and BOLD databases of the same and related taxa to determine the evolutionary distance model based on the phylogenetic analysis. Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree was constructed in MEGA6.06 software with 1000 bootstrap replicates using Kimura-2-Parameter model. Data were analyzed for sequence divergence and found that intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 2.0% and interspecific divergence ranged from 11.0 to 12.0%. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. The sequences were deposited in NCBI: GenBank database. This observation claimed the first DNA barcoding analysis of Aedes mosquitoes from North-eastern states in India and also confirmed the range expansion of two important mosquito species. Overall, this study insight into the molecular ecology of the dengue vectors from North-eastern India which will enhance the understanding to improve the existing entomological surveillance and vector incrimination program.

Keywords: COI, dengue vectors, DNA barcoding, molecular identification, North-east India, phylogenetics

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11 Nucleotide Diversity and Bacterial Endosymbionts of the Black Cherry Aphid Myzus cerasi (Fabricus, 1775) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Turkey

Authors: Burcu Inal, Irfan Kandemir

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Sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene of twenty-five Turkish and one Greek Myzus cerasi (Fabricus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in populations were collected from Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus. The partial coding region of COI studied is 605 bp for all the populations, from which 565 nucleotides were conserved, 40 were variable, 37 were singleton, and 3 sites were parsimony-informative. Four haplotypes were identified based on nucleotide substitutions, and the mean of intraspecific divergence was calculated to be 0.3%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Evolution, Neighbor-joining, and Unweighed Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Myzus borealis Ossiannilson were included as outgroups. The population of M. cerasi from Isparta diverged from the rest of the groups and formed a clade (Haplotype B) with Myzus borealis. The rest of the haplotype diversity includes Haplotype A and Haplotype C with individuals characterized as Myzus cerasi pruniavium and Haplotype D with Myzus cerasi cerasi. M. cerasi diverge into two subspecies and it must be reevaluated whether this pest is monophagous or oligophagous in terms of plant type dependence. The obligated endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola was also found during this research, but no facultative symbionts could be found. It is expected further studies will be required for a complete barcoding and diversity of bacterial endosymbionts present.

Keywords: bacterial endosymbionts, barcoding, black cherry aphid, nucleotide diversity

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10 Diversity of Rhopalocera in Different Vegetation Types of PC Hills, Philippines

Authors: Sean E. Gregory P. Igano, Ranz Brendan D. Gabor, Baron Arthur M. Cabalona, Numeriano Amer E. Gutierrez

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Distribution patterns and abundance of butterflies respond in the long term to variations in habitat quality. Studying butterfly populations would give evidence on how vegetation types influence their diversity. In this research, the Rhopalocera diversity of PC Hills was assessed to provide information on diversity trends in varying vegetation types. PC Hills, located in Palo, Leyte, Philippines, is a relatively undisturbed area having forests and rivers. Despite being situated nearby inhabited villages; the area is observed to have a possible rich butterfly population. To assess the Rhopalocera species richness and diversity, transect sampling technique was applied to monitor and document butterflies. Transects were placed in locations that can be mapped, described and relocated easily. Three transects measuring three hundred meters each with a 5-meter diameter were established based on the different vegetation types present. The three main vegetation types identified were the agroecosystem (transect 1), dipterocarp forest (transect 2), and riparian (transect 3). Sample collections were done only from 9:00 A.M to 3:00 P.M. under warm and bright weather, with no more than moderate winds and when it was not raining. When weather conditions did not permit collection, it was moved to another day. A GPS receiver was used to record the location of the selected sample sites and the coordinates of where each sample was collected. Morphological analysis was done for the first phase of the study to identify the voucher specimen to the lowest taxonomic level possible using books about butterfly identification guides and species lists as references. For the second phase, DNA barcoding will be used to further identify the voucher specimen into the species taxonomic level. After eight (8) sampling sessions, seven hundred forty-two (742) individuals were seen, and twenty-two (22) Rhopalocera genera were identified through morphological identification. Nymphalidae family of genus Ypthima and the Pieridae family of genera Eurema and Leptosia were the most dominant species observed. Twenty (20) of the thirty-one (31) voucher specimen were already identified to their species taxonomic level using DNA Barcoding. Shannon-Weiner index showed that the highest diversity level was observed in the third transect (H’ = 2.947), followed by the second transect (H’ = 2.6317) and the lowest being in the first transect (H’ = 1.767). This indicates that butterflies are likely to inhabit dipterocarp and riparian vegetation types than agroecosystem, which influences their species composition and diversity. Moreover, the appearance of a river in the riparian vegetation supported its diversity value since butterflies have the tendency to fly into areas near rivers. Species identification of other voucher specimen will be done in order to compute the overall species richness in PC Hills. Further butterfly sampling sessions of PC Hills is recommended for a more reliable diversity trend and to discover more butterfly species. Expanding the research by assessing the Rhopalocera diversity in other locations should be considered along with studying factors that affect butterfly species composition other than vegetation types.

Keywords: distribution patterns, DNA barcoding, morphological analysis, Rhopalocera

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9 Molecular Diversity of Forensically Relevant Insects from the Cadavers of Lahore

Authors: Sundus Mona, Atif Adnan, Babar Ali, Fareeha Arshad, Allah Rakha

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Molecular diversity is the variation in the abundance of species. Forensic entomology is a neglected field in Pakistan. Insects collected from the crime scene should be handled by forensic entomologists who are currently virtually non-existent in Pakistan. Correct identification of insect specimen along with knowledge of their biodiversity can aid in solving many problems related to complicated forensic cases. Inadequate morphological identification and insufficient thermal biological studies limit the entomological utility in Forensic Medicine. Recently molecular identification of entomological evidence has gained attention globally. DNA barcoding is the latest and established method for species identification. Only proper identification can provide a precise estimation of postmortem intervals. Arthropods are known to be the first tourists scavenging on decomposing dead matter. The objective of the proposed study was to identify species by molecular techniques and analyze their phylogenetic importance with barcoded necrophagous insect species of early succession on human cadavers. Based upon this identification, the study outcomes will be the utilization of established DNA bar codes to identify carrion feeding insect species for concordant estimation of post mortem interval. A molecular identification method involving sequencing of a 658bp ‘barcode’ fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene from collected specimens of unknown dipteral species from cadavers of Lahore was evaluated. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using MEGA 7 and Arlequin, and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was generated. Three species were identified, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya saffranea, and Chrysomya rufifacies with low genetic diversity. The fixation index was 0.83992 that suggests a need for further studies to identify and classify forensically relevant insects in Pakistan. There is an exigency demand for further research especially when immature forms of arthropods are recovered from the crime scene.

Keywords: molecular diversity, DNA barcoding, species identification, forensically relevant

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8 Enumerating Insect Biodiversity in the Himalayan Mountains of India in Context to Species Richness, Biogeographic Distribution, and Possible Gap Areas in Taxonomic Research

Authors: Kailash Chandra, Devanshu Gupta

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The Himalayan Mountains of India fall under two biogeographic zones Trans Himalaya (TH) and Himalaya and seven biotic provinces (TH-Ladakh Mountains, TH-Tibetan Plateau, TH-Sikkim, North-West Himalaya, West Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and East Himalaya). Because of the extreme environment and altitudinal variations, unique physiography, varied ecological conditions, and different vegetations, the Himalaya exhibit a rich assemblage of life, both flora, and fauna, further subjected to the impacts of climate change. To the authors’ best knowledge, there is no comprehensive account except for sporadic faunal investigations, to assess or interpret the insect diversity and their biogeographic distribution in Indian Himalaya (IH), one of the biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, in this paper, a compelling review of the extensive knowledge of insect diversity of IH is presented for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The inventory of the known insect species of IH was compiled from the exploration cum faunal-study data ready with the zoological survey of India, Kolkata as well as from the information published in the scientific literature till date. The species were listed with their valid names with their distribution in seven biotic provinces of IH. The insect fauna of IH represents about 38% of the identified insect diversity of India. The interpretation of data provided significant information in detecting possible gap areas in the taxonomic representation of different insect orders. Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Ephemeroptera, Phasmida, Embioptera, Psocoptera, Phthiraptera, Strepsiptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Siphonaptera, and Mecoptera need revisions, and it is required to collect more samples from remote areas of the region. Scope for finding new taxa even in the most diverse orders, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera cannot be overlooked. Exploration of cold deserts of Trans Himalaya and East Himalaya (Arunachal Pradesh) may result in a good number of new species from these regions. The most notable data was that many of the species recorded from Himalaya are still known from their type localities only, so there is an urgency to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the evaluation of the status of those species. It is also required to assess and monitor the impact of climate change on the diversity of insects inhabiting in the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. DNA barcoding especially pests and biological control agents to solve the problems of identification in species complexes is also the need of the hour. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that the inventory of insects of this region is extensive but is far from final as every year hundreds of new species are described.

Keywords: catalog, climate change, diversity, DNA barcoding

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7 One Species into Five: Nucleo-Mito Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Species in 'Frankliniella Schultzei Complex': Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, Kailash Chandra, Kaomud Tyagi

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The insect order Thysanoptera includes small insects commonly called thrips. As insect vectors, only thrips are capable of Tospoviruses transmission (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) affecting various crops. Currently, fifteen species of subfamily Thripinae (Thripidae) have been reported as vectors for tospoviruses. Frankliniella schultzei, which is reported as act as a vector for at least five tospovirses, have been suspected to be a species complex with more than one species. It is one of the historical unresolved issues where, two species namely, F. schultzei Trybom and F. sulphurea Schmutz were erected from South Africa and Srilanaka respectively. These two species were considered to be valid until 1968 when sulphurea was treated as colour morph (pale form) and synonymised under schultzei (dark form) However, these two have been considered as valid species by some of the thrips workers. Parallel studies have indicated that brown form of schultzei is a vector for tospoviruses while yellow form is a non-vector. However, recent studies have shown that yellow populations have also been documented as vectors. In view of all these facts, it is highly important to have a clear understanding whether these colour forms represent true species or merely different populations with different vector carrying capacities and whether there is some hidden diversity in 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex'. In this study, we aim to study the 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex' with molecular spectacles with DNA data from India and Australia and Africa. A total of fifty-five specimens was collected from diverse locations in India and Australia. We generated molecular data using partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (mtCOI) and 28S rRNA gene. For COI dataset, there were seventy-four sequences, out of which data on fifty-five was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. All the four different tree construction methods: neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, yielded the same tree topology and produced five cryptic species with high genetic divergence. For, rDNA, there were forty-five sequences, out of which data on thirty-nine was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. The four tree building methods yielded four cryptic species with high bootstrap support value/posterior probability. Here we could not retrieve one cryptic species from South Africa as we could not generate data on rDNA from South Africa and sequence for rDNA from African region were not available in the database. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (barcode index numbers, automatic barcode gap discovery, general mixed Yule-coalescent, and Poisson-tree-processes) also supported the phylogenetic data and produced 5 and 4 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) for mtCOI and 28S dataset respectively. These results of our study indicate the likelihood that F. sulphurea may be a valid species, however, more morphological and molecular data is required on specimens from type localities of these two species and comparison with type specimens.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, species complex, thrips, species delimitation

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6 Phylogenetic Relationships of Common Reef Fish Species in Vietnam

Authors: Dang Thuy Binh, Truong Thi Oanh, Le Phan Khanh Hung, Luong thi Tuong Vy

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One of the greatest environmental challenges facing Asia is the management and conservation of the marine biodiversity threaten by fisheries overexploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. To date, a few molecular taxonomical studies has been conducted on marine fauna in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to clarify the phylogeny of economic and ecological reef fish species in Vietnam Reef fish species covering Labridae, Scaridae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae, Acanthuridae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Mullidae, Balistidae, Pseudochromidae, Pinguipedidae, Fistulariidae, Holocentridae, Synodontidae, and Pomacentridae representing 28 genera were collected from South and Center, Vietnam. Combine with Genbank sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on 16S gene of mitochondrial DNA using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference approaches. The phylogram showed the well-resolved clades at genus and family level. Perciformes is the major order of reef fish species in Vietnam. The monophyly of Perciformes is not strongly supported as it was clustered in the same clade with Tetraodontiformes syngnathiformes and Beryciformes. Continue sampling of commercial fish species and classification based on morphology and genetics to build DNA barcoding of fish species in Vietnam is really necessary.

Keywords: reef fish, 16s rDNA, Vietnam, phylogeny

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5 Patient Service Improvement in Public Emergency Department Using Discrete Event Simulation

Authors: Dana Mohammed, Fatemah Abdullah, Hawraa Ali, Najat Al-Shaer, Rawan Al-Awadhi, , Magdy Helal

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We study the patient service performance at the emergency department of a major Kuwaiti public hospital, using discrete simulation and lean concepts. In addition to the common problems in such health care systems (over crowdedness, facilities planning and usage, scheduling and staffing, capacity planning) the emergency department suffered from several cultural and patient behavioural issues. Those contributed significantly to the system problems and constituted major obstacles in maintaining the performance in control. This led to overly long waiting times and the potential of delaying providing help to critical cases. We utilized the visual management tools to mitigate the impact of the patients’ behaviours and attitudes and improve the logistics inside the system. In addition a proposal is made to automate the date collection and communication within the department using RFID-based barcoding system. Discrete event simulation models were developed as decision support systems; to study the operational problems and assess achieved improvements. The simulation analysis resulted in cutting the patient delays to about 35% of their current values by reallocating and rescheduling the medical staff. Combined with the application of the visual management concepts, this provided the basis to improving patient service without any major investments.

Keywords: simulation, visual management, health care system, patient

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4 Nuclear Mitochondrial Pseudogenes in Anastrepha fraterculus Complex

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Ayyamperumal Jeyaprakash, Gary Steck, Jason Stanley, Leroy Whilby

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Exotic, invasive tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are a major threat to fruit and vegetable industries in the United States. The establishment of pest fruit fly in the agricultural industries and produce severe ecological and economic impacts on agricultural diversification and trade. Detection and identification of these agricultural pests in a timely manner will facilitate the possibility of eradication from newly invaded areas. Identification of larval stages to species level is difficult, but is required to determine pest loads and their pathways into the United States. The aim of this study is the New World genus, Anastrepha which includes pests of major economic importance. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were amplified from Anastrepha fraterculus specimens collected from South America (Ecuador and Peru). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the Anastrepha fraterculus complex at a molecular level. During phylogenetics analysis numerous nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) were discovered in different specimens. The numts are nonfunctional copies of the mtDNA present in the nucleus and are easily coamplified with the mitochondrial COI gene copy by using conserved universal primers. This is problematic for DNA Barcoding, which attempts to characterize all living organisms by using the COI gene. This study is significant for national quarantine use, as morphological diagnostics to separate larvae of the various members remain poorly developed.

Keywords: tephritid, Anastrepha fraterculus, COI, numts

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3 Enzymatic Repair Prior To DNA Barcoding, Aspirations, and Restraints

Authors: Maxime Merheb, Rachel Matar

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Retrieving ancient DNA sequences which in return permit the entire genome sequencing from fossils have extraordinarily improved in recent years, thanks to sequencing technology and other methodological advances. In any case, the quest to search for ancient DNA is still obstructed by the damage inflicted on DNA which accumulates after the death of a living organism. We can characterize this damage into three main categories: (i) Physical abnormalities such as strand breaks which lead to the presence of short DNA fragments. (ii) Modified bases (mainly cytosine deamination) which cause errors in the sequence due to an incorporation of a false nucleotide during DNA amplification. (iii) DNA modifications referred to as blocking lesions, will halt the PCR extension which in return will also affect the amplification and sequencing process. We can clearly see that the issues arising from breakage and coding errors were significantly decreased in recent years. Fast sequencing of short DNA fragments was empowered by platforms for high-throughput sequencing, most of the coding errors were uncovered to be the consequences of cytosine deamination which can be easily removed from the DNA using enzymatic treatment. The methodology to repair DNA sequences is still in development, it can be basically explained by the process of reintroducing cytosine rather than uracil. This technique is thus restricted to amplified DNA molecules. To eliminate any type of damage (particularly those that block PCR) is a process still pending the complete repair methodologies; DNA detection right after extraction is highly needed. Before using any resources into extensive, unreasonable and uncertain repair techniques, it is vital to distinguish between two possible hypotheses; (i) DNA is none existent to be amplified to begin with therefore completely un-repairable, (ii) the DNA is refractory to PCR and it is worth to be repaired and amplified. Hence, it is extremely important to develop a non-enzymatic technique to detect the most degraded DNA.

Keywords: ancient DNA, DNA barcodong, enzymatic repair, PCR

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2 Unfolding Global Biodiversity Patterns of Marine Planktonic Diatom Communities across the World's Oceans

Authors: Shruti Malviya, Chris Bowler

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Analysis of microbial eukaryotic diversity is fundamental to understanding ecosystems’ structure, biology, and ecology. Diatoms (Stramenopiles, Bacillariophyceae) are one of the most diverse and ecologically prominent groups of phytoplankton. This study was performed to enhance the understanding of global biodiversity patterns and structure of planktonic diatom communities across the world's oceans. We used the metabarcoding data set generated from the biological samples and associated environmental data collected during the Tara Oceans (2009-2013) global circumnavigation covering all major oceanic provinces. A total of ~18 million diatom V9-18S rDNA tags from 126 sampling stations, constituting 631 size-fractionated plankton communities were generated. Using ~250,000 unique diatom metabarcodes, the global diatom distribution and diversity across size classes, genus and ecological niches was assessed. Notably, our analysis revealed: (i) a new estimate of the total number of planktonic diatom species, (ii) a considerable unknown diversity and exceptionally high diversity in the open ocean, and (iii) complex diversity patterns across oceanic provinces. Also, co-occurrence of several ribotypes in locations separated by great geographic distances (equatorial stations) demonstrated a widespread but not ubiquitous distribution. This work provides a comprehensive perspective on diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s oceans and elaborates interconnections between associated theories and underlying drivers. It shows how meta-barcoding approaches can provide a framework to investigate environmental diversity at a global scale, which is deemed as an essential step in answering various ecological research questions. Consequently, this work also provides a reference point to explore how microbial communities will respond to environmental conditions.

Keywords: diatoms, Tara Oceans, biodiversity, metabarcoding

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1 Multilocus Phylogenetic Approach Reveals Informative DNA Barcodes for Studying Evolution and Taxonomy of Fusarium Fungi

Authors: Alexander A. Stakheev, Larisa V. Samokhvalova, Sergey K. Zavriev

Abstract:

Fusarium fungi are among the most devastating plant pathogens distributed all over the world. Significant reduction of grain yield and quality caused by Fusarium leads to multi-billion dollar annual losses to the world agricultural production. These organisms can also cause infections in immunocompromised persons and produce the wide range of mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone, which are hazardous to human and animal health. Identification of Fusarium fungi based on the morphology of spores and spore-forming structures, colony color and appearance on specific culture media is often very complicated due to the high similarity of these features for closely related species. Modern Fusarium taxonomy increasingly uses data of crossing experiments (biological species concept) and genetic polymorphism analysis (phylogenetic species concept). A number of novel Fusarium sibling species has been established using DNA barcoding techniques. Species recognition is best made with the combined phylogeny of intron-rich protein coding genes and ribosomal DNA sequences. However, the internal transcribed spacer of (ITS), which is considered to be universal DNA barcode for Fungi, is not suitable for genus Fusarium, because of its insufficient variability between closely related species and the presence of non-orthologous copies in the genome. Nowadays, the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1α) gene is the “gold standard” of Fusarium taxonomy, but the search for novel informative markers is still needed. In this study, we used two novel DNA markers, frataxin (FXN) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to discover phylogenetic relationships between Fusarium species. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of TEF1α, FXN, HSP90, as well as intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA (IGS), beta-tubulin (β-TUB) and phosphate permease (PHO) genes has been conducted for 120 isolates of 19 Fusarium species from different climatic zones of Russia and neighboring countries using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) algorithms. Our analyses revealed that FXN and HSP90 genes could be considered as informative phylogenetic markers, suitable for evolutionary and taxonomic studies of Fusarium genus. It has been shown that PHO gene possesses more variable (22 %) and parsimony informative (19 %) characters than other markers, including TEF1α (12 % and 9 %, correspondingly) when used for elucidating phylogenetic relationships between F. avenaceum and its closest relatives – F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum, F. torulosum. Application of novel DNA barcodes confirmed the fact that F. arthrosporioides do not represent a separate species but only a subspecies of F. avenaceum. Phylogeny based on partial PHO and FXN sequences revealed the presence of separate cluster of four F. avenaceum strains which were closer to F. torulosum than to major F. avenaceum clade. The strain F-846 from Moldova, morphologically identified as F. poae, formed a separate lineage in all the constructed dendrograms, and could potentially be considered as a separate species, but more information is needed to confirm this conclusion. Variable sites in PHO sequences were used for the first-time development of specific qPCR-based diagnostic assays for F. acuminatum and F. torulosum. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 15-29-02527).

Keywords: DNA barcode, fusarium, identification, phylogenetics, taxonomy

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