Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 224

Search results for: prognosis

224 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan

Abstract:

The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

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223 Lymphatic Microvessel Density as a Prognostic Factor in Endometrial Carcinoma

Authors: Noha E. Hassan

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Little is known regarding the influence of lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) on prognosis in endometrial cancer. Prospective study was done in tertiary education and research hospital (Shatby Alexandria university hospital) on sixty patients presented with endometrial carcinoma underwent complete surgical staging. Our aim was to assess the intratumoral and peritumoral Lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) of endometrial carcinomas identified by immunohistochemical staining using an antibody against podoplanin and to investigate their association with classical clinicopathological factors and prognosis. The result shows that high LMVD was associated with endometroid type of tumors, lesser myometrial, adnexal, cervical and peritoneal infiltration, lower tumor grade and stage and lesser recurrent cases. There is lower lymph node involvement among cases with high intratumoral LMVD and cases of high peritumoral LMVD; that reach statistical significance only among cases of high intratumoral LMVD. No association was seen between LMVD and lymphovascular space invasion. On the other hand, low LMVD was associated with poor outcome. Finally, we can conclude that increased LMVD is associated with favorable prognosis in endometrial cancer patients.

Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, lymphatic microvessel, microvessel density, prognosis

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222 Prediction of Survival Rate after Gastrointestinal Surgery Based on The New Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM Score) With Neural Network Classification Method

Authors: Ayu Nabila Kusuma Pradana, Aprinaldi Jasa Mantau, Tomohiko Akahoshi

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The incidence of Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) following gastrointestinal surgery has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to determine the factors that can predict the prognosis of DIC. This study will investigate the factors that may influence the outcome of DIC in patients after gastrointestinal surgery. Eighty-one patients were admitted to the intensive care unit after gastrointestinal surgery in Kyushu University Hospital from 2003 to 2021. Acute DIC scores were estimated using the new Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) score from before and after surgery from day 1, day 3, and day 7. Acute DIC scores will be compared with The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, platelet count, lactate level, and a variety of biochemical parameters. This study applied machine learning algorithms to predict the prognosis of DIC after gastrointestinal surgery. The results of this study are expected to be used as an indicator for evaluating patient prognosis so that it can increase life expectancy and reduce mortality from cases of DIC patients after gastrointestinal surgery.

Keywords: the survival rate, gastrointestinal surgery, JAAM score, neural network, machine learning, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

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221 The Impact of Prior Cancer History on the Prognosis of Salivary Gland Cancer Patients: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database

Authors: Junhong Li, Danni Cheng, Yaxin Luo, Xiaowei Yi, Ke Qiu, Wendu Pang, Minzi Mao, Yufang Rao, Yao Song, Jianjun Ren, Yu Zhao

Abstract:

Background: The number of multiple cancer patients was increasing, and the impact of prior cancer history on salivary gland cancer patients remains unclear. Methods: Clinical, demographic and pathological information on salivary gland cancer patients were retrospectively collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2017, and the characteristics and prognosis between patients with a prior cancer and those without prior caner were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional regression models were used for the analysis of prognosis. A risk score model was established to exam the impact of treatment on patients with a prior cancer in different risk groups. Results: A total of 9098 salivary gland cancer patients were identified, and 1635 of them had a prior cancer history. Salivary gland cancer patients with prior cancer had worse survival compared with those without a prior cancer (p<0.001). Patients with a different type of first cancer had a distinct prognosis (p<0.001), and longer latent time was associated with better survival (p=0.006) in the univariate model, although both became nonsignificant in the multivariate model. Salivary gland cancer patients with a prior cancer were divided into low-risk (n= 321), intermediate-risk (n=223), and high-risk (n=62) groups and the results showed that patients at high risk could benefit from surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, and those at intermediate risk could benefit from surgery. Conclusion: Prior cancer history had an adverse impact on the survival of salivary gland cancer patients, and individualized treatment should be seriously considered for them.

Keywords: prior cancer history, prognosis, salivary gland cancer, SEER

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220 Evaluation of P16, Human Papillomavirus Capsid Protein L1 and Ki67 in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions: Potential Utility in Diagnosis and Prognosis

Authors: Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy

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Background: Cervical dysplasia, which is potentially precancerous, has increased in young women. Detection of cervical is important for reducing morbidity and mortality in cervical cancer. This study analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of p16, HPV L1 capsid protein and Ki67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and correlates them with lesion grade to develop a set of markers for diagnosis and detect the prognosis of cervical cancer precursors. Methods: 75 specimens were analyzed including 15 cases CIN 1, 28 CIN 2, 20 CIN 3, and 12 cervical squamous carcinoma, besides 10 normal cervical tissues. They were stained for p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for each marker. Results: p16 expression increased during the progression from CIN 1 to carcinoma. HPV L1 positivity was detected in CIN 2 and decreased gradually as the CIN grade increased but disappear in carcinoma. Strong Ki-67 expression was observed with high grades CIN and carcinoma. p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 were sensitive but with variable specificity in detecting CIN lesions. Conclusions: p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 are useful set of markers in establishing the risk of high-grade CIN. They complete each other to reach accurate diagnosis and prognosis.

Keywords: p16, HPV L1, Ki67, CIN, cervical carcinoma

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219 Communication of Expected Survival Time to Cancer Patients: How It Is Done and How It Should Be Done

Authors: Geir Kirkebøen

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Most patients with serious diagnoses want to know their prognosis, in particular their expected survival time. As part of the informed consent process, physicians are legally obligated to communicate such information to patients. However, there is no established (evidence based) ‘best practice’ for how to do this. The two questions explored in this study are: How do physicians communicate expected survival time to patients, and how should it be done? We explored the first, descriptive question in a study with Norwegian oncologists as participants. The study had a scenario and a survey part. In the scenario part, the doctors should imagine that a patient, recently diagnosed with a serious cancer diagnosis, has asked them: ‘How long can I expect to live with such a diagnosis? I want an honest answer from you!’ The doctors should assume that the diagnosis is certain, and that from an extensive recent study they had optimal statistical knowledge, described in detail as a right-skewed survival curve, about how long such patients with this kind of diagnosis could be expected to live. The main finding was that very few of the oncologists would explain to the patient the variation in survival time as described by the survival curve. The majority would not give the patient an answer at all. Of those who gave an answer, the typical answer was that survival time varies a lot, that it is hard to say in a specific case, that we will come back to it later etc. The survey part of the study clearly indicates that the main reason why the oncologists would not deliver the mortality prognosis was discomfort with its uncertainty. The scenario part of the study confirmed this finding. The majority of the oncologists explicitly used the uncertainty, the variation in survival time, as a reason to not give the patient an answer. Many studies show that patients want realistic information about their mortality prognosis, and that they should be given hope. The question then is how to communicate the uncertainty of the prognosis in a realistic and optimistic – hopeful – way. Based on psychological research, our hypothesis is that the best way to do this is by explicitly describing the variation in survival time, the (usually) right skewed survival curve of the prognosis, and emphasize to the patient the (small) possibility of being a ‘lucky outlier’. We tested this hypothesis in two scenario studies with lay people as participants. The data clearly show that people prefer to receive expected survival time as a median value together with explicit information about the survival curve’s right skewedness (e.g., concrete examples of ‘positive outliers’), and that communicating expected survival time this way not only provides people with hope, but also gives them a more realistic understanding compared with the typical way expected survival time is communicated. Our data indicate that it is not the existence of the uncertainty regarding the mortality prognosis that is the problem for patients, but how this uncertainty is, or is not, communicated and explained.

Keywords: cancer patients, decision psychology, doctor-patient communication, mortality prognosis

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218 Comparing Accuracy of Semantic and Radiomics Features in Prognosis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Mahya Naghipoor

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Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer type. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is the main reason which causes NSCLC. Computed tomography (CT) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancers because of low price and little invasion. Semantic analyses of qualitative CT features are based on visual evaluation by radiologist. However, the naked eye ability may not assess all image features. On the other hand, radiomics provides the opportunity of quantitative analyses for CT images features. The aim of this review study was comparing accuracy of semantic and radiomics features in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC. Methods: For this purpose, the keywords including: non-small cell lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, semantic, radiomics, feature, receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) and area under curve (AUC) were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar. Totally 29 papers were reviewed and the AUC of ROC analyses for semantic and radiomics features were compared. Results: The results showed that the reported AUC amounts for semantic features (ground glass opacity, shape, margins, lesion density and presence or absence of air bronchogram, emphysema and pleural effusion) were %41-%79. For radiomics features (kurtosis, skewness, entropy, texture, standard deviation (SD) and wavelet) the AUC values were found %50-%86. Conclusions: In conclusion, the accuracy of radiomics analysis is a little higher than semantic in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC.

Keywords: lung cancer, radiomics, computer tomography, mutation

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217 Low SPOP Expression and High MDM2 expression Are Associated with Tumor Progression and Predict Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Authors: Chang Liang, Weizhi Gong, Yan Zhang

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Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with a high mortality rate and poor prognosis worldwide. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) regulates the tumor suppressor p53, increasing cancer risk and accelerating tumor progression. Speckle-type POX virus and zinc finger protein (SPOP), a key of subunit of Cullin-Ring E3 ligase, inhibits tumor genesis and progression by the ubiquitination of its downstream substrates. This study aimed to clarify whether SPOP and MDM2 are mutually regulated in HCC and the correlation between SPOP and MDM2 and the prognosis of HCC patients. Methods: First, the expression of SPOP and MDM2 in HCC tissues were detected by TCGA database. Then, 53 paired samples of HCC tumor and adjacent tissues were collected to evaluate the expression of SPOP and MDM2 using immunohistochemistry. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze the relationship between clinicopathological features and the expression levels of SPOP and MDM2. In addition, Kaplan‒Meier curve analysis and log-rank test were used to investigate the effects of SPOP and MDM2 on the survival of HCC patients. Last, the Multivariate Cox proportional risk regression model analyzed whether the different expression levels of SPOP and MDM2 were independent risk factors for the prognosis of HCC patients. Results: Bioinformatics analysis revealed the low expression of SPOP and high expression of MDM2 were related to worse prognosis of HCC patients. The relationship between the expression of SPOP and MDM2 and tumor stem-like features showed an opposite trend. The immunohistochemistry showed the expression of SPOP protein was significantly downregulated while MDM2 protein significantly upregulated in HCC tissue compared to that in para-cancerous tissue. Tumors with low SPOP expression were related to worse T stage and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, but tumors with high MDM2 expression were related to worse T stage, M stage, and BCLC stage. Kaplan–Meier curves showed HCC patients with high SPOP expression and low MDM2 expression had better survival than those with low SPOP expression and high MDM2 expression (P < 0.05). A multivariate Cox proportional risk regression model confirmed that a high MDM2 expression level was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in HCC patients (P <0.05). Conclusion: The expression of SPOP protein was significantly downregulated, while the expression of MDM2 significantly upregulated in HCC. The low expression of SPOP and high expression. of MDM2 were associated with malignant progression and poor prognosis of HCC patients, indicating a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, murine double minute 2, speckle-type POX virus and zinc finger protein, ubiquitination

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216 Identification of Breast Anomalies Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and K-Nearest Neighbors

Authors: Ayyaz Hussain, Tariq Sadad

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Breast cancer (BC) is one of the widespread ailments among females globally. The early prognosis of BC can decrease the mortality rate. Exact findings of benign tumors can avoid unnecessary biopsies and further treatments of patients under investigation. However, due to variations in images, it is a tough job to isolate cancerous cases from normal and benign ones. The machine learning technique is widely employed in the classification of BC pattern and prognosis. In this research, a deep convolution neural network (DCNN) called AlexNet architecture is employed to get more discriminative features from breast tissues. To achieve higher accuracy, K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers are employed as a substitute for the softmax layer in deep learning. The proposed model is tested on a widely used breast image database called MIAS dataset for experimental purposes and achieved 99% accuracy.

Keywords: breast cancer, DCNN, KNN, mammography

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215 A Case Series on Isolated Lead aVR ST-Segment Elevation Clinical Significance and Outcome

Authors: Fae Princess Bermudez

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Background: One of the least significant leads on a 12-lead electrocardiogram is the augmented right lead (aVR), as it is not as specific compared to the other leads. In this case series, the value of lead aVR, which is more often than not ignored, is highlighted. Three cases of aVR ST segment elevation on 12-lead electrocardiogram are described, with the end outcome of demise of all three patients. The importance of immediate revascularization is described to improve prognosis in this group of patients. Objectives: This case series aims to primarily present under-reported cases of isolated aVR ST-segrment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), their course and outcome. More specific aims are to identify the criteria in determination of isolated aVR STEMI, know its clinical significance, and determine appropriate management for patients with this ECG finding. Method: A short review of previous studies, case reports, articles and guidelines from 2011-2016 was done. The author reviewed available literature, sorted out those that proved to be significant for the presented cases, and described them in conjunction with the aforementioned cases. Findings: Based on the limited information on these rare or under-reported cases, it was found that isolated aVR STEMI had a poorer prognosis that led to significant mortality and morbidity of patients. The significance of aVR ST-elevation was that of an occlusion of the left coronary artery or a severe three-vessel disease in the presence of an Acute Coronary Syndrome. Guidelines from American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation in 2013 already recognized ST-elevation of lead aVR in isolation as a STEMI; hence, recommended that patients with this particular ECG finding should undergo reperfusion strategies to improve prognosis. Conclusion: The indispensability of isolated aVR ST-segment elevation on ECG should alert physicians, especially Emergency physicians, to the high probability of Acute Coronary Syndrome with a very poor prognosis. If this group of patients is not promptly managed, demise may ensue, with cardiogenic shock as the most probable cause. With this electrocardiogram finding, physicians must be quick to make clinical decisions to increase chances of survival of this group of patients.

Keywords: AVR ST-elevation, diffuse ST-segment depression, left coronary artery infarction, myocardial infarction

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214 Effect of Leptin Gene Methylation on Colorectal Cancer Chemoresistance

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Nizar M. Mhaidat, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common tumors all over the world. Obesity, considered a risk factor of CRC, is characterized by a high level of secreted cytokines from adipose tissue. Among these inflammatory molecules, leptin is considered the key mediator for CRC cancer development and progression by activation of mitogenic and anti apoptotic signaling pathways. Gene expression can be significantly modulated by alterations in DNA methylation patterns. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of leptin gene methylation on CRC prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. The study involved 70 CRC tissue samples collected from King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) from which only 53 was analyzed because of bisulfate fragmentation and low yield of DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. A total of 22 blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers and enrolled as a control group. Leptin promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation specific PCR after bisulfate conversion. Results revealed that the incidence of leptin gene methylation was significantly higher in CRC patients in comparison to that of controls (P < 0.05). The correlation between patient’s demographics and leptin gene methylation was not significant (P < 0.05). However, a significant correlation between leptin gene methylation status and early cancer stages (I, II and III) was found in male but not in female (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between leptin promoter methylation and early tumor localization T1-2 (p < 0.05). The correlation between epigenetic regulation of leptin and chemosensitivity was not significant. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility to use leptin gene methylation as a biomarker for the evaluation of CRC prognosis and metastasis.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, obesity, leptin, DNA methylation, disease prognosis, bisulfate conversion, chemoresistance

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213 Oncogenic Functions of Long Non-Coding RNA XIST in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Targeting MiR-34a-5p

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li

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Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X inactivate-specific transcript (XIST) has been verified as an oncogenic gene in several human malignant tumors, and its dysregulation was closed associated with tumor initiation, development and progression. Nevertheless, whether the aberrant expression of XIST in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is corrected with malignancy, metastasis or prognosis has not been elaborated. Here, we discovered that XIST was up-regulated in NPC tissues and higher expression of XIST contributed to a markedly poorer survival time. In addition, multivariate analysis demonstrated XIST was an independent risk factor for prognosis. XIST over-expression enhanced, while XIST silencing hampered the cell growth in NPC. Additionally, mechanistic analysis revealed that XIST up-regulated the expression of miR-34a-5p targeted gene E2F3 through acting as a competitive ‘sponge’ of miR-34a-5p. Taking all into account, we concluded that XIST functioned as an oncogene in NPC through up-regulating E2F3 in part through ‘spongeing’ miR-34a-5p.

Keywords: X inactivate-specific transcript; hsa-miRNA-34a-5p, miR-34a-5p; E2F3, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, tumorigenesis

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212 The Many Faces of Cancer and Knowing When to Say Stop

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jh. Tan

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We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC) in an 84-year-old male on a background of high-grade, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. While NE tumours account for 1% to 5% of all cases of prostate cancer and scattered NE cells can be found in 10% to 100% of prostate adenocarcinomas, pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate is thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing NE differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease, and a worse prognosis.

Keywords: large cell neuroendocrine cancer, prostate cancer, refractory cancer, medical and health sciences

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211 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can

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It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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210 Autoimmune Diseases Associated with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: A Retrospective Study of 51 Patients

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Elhem Ben Jazia

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Introduction: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a cholestatic cholangitis of unknown etiology. It is frequently associated with autoimmune diseases, which explains their systematic screening. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and the type of autoimmune disorders associated with PBC and to assess their impact on the prognosis of the disease. Material and methods: It is a retrospective study over a period of 16 years (2000-2015) including all patients followed for PBC. In all these patients we have systematically researched: dysthyroidism (thyroid balance, antithyroid autoantibodies), type 1 diabetes, dry syndrome (ophthalmologic examination, Schirmer test and lip biopsy in case of Presence of suggestive clinical signs), celiac disease(celiac disease serology and duodenal biopsies) and dermatological involvement (clinical examination). Results: Fifty-one patients (50 women and one men) followed for PBC were collected. The Mean age was 54 years (37-77 years). Among these patients, 30 patients(58.8%) had at least one autoimmune disease associated with PBC. The discovery of these autoimmune diseases preceded the diagnosis of PBC in 8 cases (26.6%) and was concomitant, through systematic screening, in the remaining cases. Autoimmune hepatitis was found in 12 patients (40%), defining thus an overlap syndrome. Other diseases were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 10), dry syndrome (n = 7), Gougerot Sjogren syndrome (n=6), celiac disease (n = 3), insulin-dependent diabetes (n = 1), scleroderma (n = 1), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 1), Biermer Anemia (n=1) and Systemic erythematosus lupus (n=1). The two groups of patients with PBC with or without associated autoimmune disorders were comparable for bilirubin levels, Child-Pugh score, and response to treatment. Conclusion: In our series, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in PBC was 58.8%. These diseases were dominated by autoimmune hepatitis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Even if their association does not seem to alter the prognosis, screening should be systematic in order to institute an early and adequate management.

Keywords: autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, prognosis

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209 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi

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Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

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208 Uterine Cervical Cancer; Early Treatment Assessment with T2- And Diffusion-Weighted MRI

Authors: Susanne Fridsten, Kristina Hellman, Anders Sundin, Lennart Blomqvist

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Background: Patients diagnosed with locally advanced cervical carcinoma are treated with definitive concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. Treatment failure occurs in 30-50% of patients with very poor prognoses. The treatment is standardized with risk for both over-and undertreatment. Consequently, there is a great need for biomarkers able to predict therapy outcomes to allow for individualized treatment. Aim: To explore the role of T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for early prediction of therapy outcome and the optimal time point for assessment. Methods: A pilot study including 15 patients with cervical carcinoma stage IIB-IIIB (FIGO 2009) undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy. All patients underwent MRI four times, at baseline, 3 weeks, 5 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment started. Tumour size, size change (∆size), visibility on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and change of ADC (∆ADC) at the different time points were recorded. Results: 7/15 patients relapsed during the study period, referred to as "poor prognosis", PP, and the remaining eight patients are referred to "good prognosis", GP. The tumor size was larger at all time points for PP than for GP. The ∆size between any of the four-time points was the same for PP and GP patients. The sensitivity and specificity to predict prognostic group depending on a remaining tumor on DWI were highest at 5 weeks and 83% (5/6) and 63% (5/8), respectively. The combination of tumor size at baseline and remaining tumor on DWI at 5 weeks in ROC analysis reached an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83. After 12 weeks, no remaining tumor was seen on DWI among patients with GP, as opposed to 2/7 PP patients. Adding ADC to the tumor size measurements did not improve the predictive value at any time point. Conclusion: A large tumor at baseline MRI combined with a remaining tumor on DWI at 5 weeks predicted a poor prognosis.

Keywords: chemoradiotherapy, diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, uterine cervical carcinoma

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207 Dynamic Simulation for Surface Wear Prognosis of the Main Bearings in the Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Yanyan Zhang, Ziyu Diao, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan

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The wear character of the main bearing is one of the critical indicators for the overhaul of an internal combustion engine, and the aim of this paper is to reveal the dynamic wear mechanism of the main bearings. A numerical simulation model combined multi-body dynamic equations of the engine, the average Reynolds equations of the bearing lubricant, asperity contact and wear model of the joint surfaces were established under typical operating conditions. The wear results were verified by experimental data, and then the influence of operating conditions, bearing clearance and cylinder pressure on the wear character of selected main bearings were analyzed. The results show that the contribution degree of different working conditions on the wear profile and depth of each bearing is obviously different, and the increase of joint clearance or cylinder pressure will accelerate the wear. The numerical model presented can be used to wear prognosis for joints and provide guidance for optimization design of sliding bearings.

Keywords: dynamic simulation, multi-body dynamics, sliding bearing, surface wear

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206 Multimodal Integration of EEG, fMRI and Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Principal Component Analysis for Prognosis in Coma Patients

Authors: Denis Jordan, Daniel Golkowski, Mathias Lukas, Katharina Merz, Caroline Mlynarcik, Max Maurer, Valentin Riedl, Stefan Foerster, Eberhard F. Kochs, Andreas Bender, Ruediger Ilg

Abstract:

Introduction: So far, clinical assessments that rely on behavioral responses to differentiate coma states or even predict outcome in coma patients are unreliable, e.g. because of some patients’ motor disabilities. The present study was aimed to provide prognosis in coma patients using markers from electroencephalogram (EEG), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Unsuperwised principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multimodal integration of markers. Methods: Approved by the local ethics committee of the Technical University of Munich (Germany) 20 patients (aged 18-89) with severe brain damage were acquired through intensive care units at the Klinikum rechts der Isar in Munich and at the Therapiezentrum Burgau (Germany). At the day of EEG/fMRI/PET measurement (date I) patients (<3.5 month in coma) were grouped in the minimal conscious state (MCS) or vegetative state (VS) on the basis of their clinical presentation (coma recovery scale-revised, CRS-R). Follow-up assessment (date II) was also based on CRS-R in a period of 8 to 24 month after date I. At date I, 63 channel EEG (Brain Products, Gilching, Germany) was recorded outside the scanner, and subsequently simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI was acquired on an integrated Siemens Biograph mMR 3T scanner (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen Germany). Power spectral densities, permutation entropy (PE) and symbolic transfer entropy (STE) were calculated in/between frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital EEG channels. PE and STE are based on symbolic time series analysis and were already introduced as robust markers separating wakefulness from unconsciousness in EEG during general anesthesia. While PE quantifies the regularity structure of the neighboring order of signal values (a surrogate of cortical information processing), STE reflects information transfer between two signals (a surrogate of directed connectivity in cortical networks). fMRI was carried out using SPM12 (Wellcome Trust Center for Neuroimaging, University of London, UK). Functional images were realigned, segmented, normalized and smoothed. PET was acquired for 45 minutes in list-mode. For absolute quantification of brain’s glucose consumption rate in FDG-PET, kinetic modelling was performed with Patlak’s plot method. BOLD signal intensity in fMRI and glucose uptake in PET was calculated in 8 distinct cortical areas. PCA was performed over all markers from EEG/fMRI/PET. Prognosis (persistent VS and deceased patients vs. recovery to MCS/awake from date I to date II) was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) including bootstrap confidence intervals (CI, *: p<0.05). Results: Prognosis was reliably indicated by the first component of PCA (AUC=0.99*, CI=0.92-1.00) showing a higher AUC when compared to the best single markers (EEG: AUC<0.96*, fMRI: AUC<0.86*, PET: AUC<0.60). CRS-R did not show prediction (AUC=0.51, CI=0.29-0.78). Conclusion: In a multimodal analysis of EEG/fMRI/PET in coma patients, PCA lead to a reliable prognosis. The impact of this result is evident, as clinical estimates of prognosis are inapt at time and could be supported by quantitative biomarkers from EEG, fMRI and PET. Due to the small sample size, further investigations are required, in particular allowing superwised learning instead of the basic approach of unsuperwised PCA.

Keywords: coma states and prognosis, electroencephalogram, entropy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, machine learning, positron emission tomography, principal component analysis

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205 Integrating Computational Modeling and Analysis with in Vivo Observations for Enhanced Hemodynamics Diagnostics and Prognosis

Authors: Shreyas S. Hegde, Anindya Deb, Suresh Nagesh

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Computational bio-mechanics is developing rapidly as a non-invasive tool to assist the medical fraternity to help in both diagnosis and prognosis of human body related issues such as injuries, cardio-vascular dysfunction, atherosclerotic plaque etc. Any system that would help either properly diagnose such problems or assist prognosis would be a boon to the doctors and medical society in general. Recently a lot of work is being focused in this direction which includes but not limited to various finite element analysis related to dental implants, skull injuries, orthopedic problems involving bones and joints etc. Such numerical solutions are helping medical practitioners to come up with alternate solutions for such problems and in most cases have also reduced the trauma on the patients. Some work also has been done in the area related to the use of computational fluid mechanics to understand the flow of blood through the human body, an area of hemodynamics. Since cardio-vascular diseases are one of the main causes of loss of human life, understanding of the blood flow with and without constraints (such as blockages), providing alternate methods of prognosis and further solutions to take care of issues related to blood flow would help save valuable life of such patients. This project is an attempt to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to solve specific problems related to hemodynamics. The hemodynamics simulation is used to gain a better understanding of functional, diagnostic and theoretical aspects of the blood flow. Due to the fact that many fundamental issues of the blood flow, like phenomena associated with pressure and viscous forces fields, are still not fully understood or entirely described through mathematical formulations the characterization of blood flow is still a challenging task. The computational modeling of the blood flow and mechanical interactions that strongly affect the blood flow patterns, based on medical data and imaging represent the most accurate analysis of the blood flow complex behavior. In this project the mathematical modeling of the blood flow in the arteries in the presence of successive blockages has been analyzed using CFD technique. Different cases of blockages in terms of percentages have been modeled using commercial software CATIA V5R20 and simulated using commercial software ANSYS 15.0 to study the effect of varying wall shear stress (WSS) values and also other parameters like the effect of increase in Reynolds number. The concept of fluid structure interaction (FSI) has been used to solve such problems. The model simulation results were validated using in vivo measurement data from existing literature

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, hemodynamics, blood flow, results validation, arteries

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204 Prognosis of Patients with COVID-19 and Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Elizabeth Behrens, Anne Timmermann, Alexander Yerkan, Joshua Thomas, Deborah Katz, Agne Paner, Melissa Larson, Shivi Jain, Seo-Hyun Kim, Celalettin Ustun, Ankur Varma, Parameswaran Venugopal, Jamile Shammo

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Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) causes persistent concern for poor outcomes in vulnerable populations. Patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) have been found to have higher COVID-19 case fatality rates compared to those without malignancy. While cytopenias are common in patients with HM, especially in those undergoing chemotherapy treatment, hemoglobin (Hgb) and platelet count have not yet been studied, to our best knowledge, as potential prognostic indicators for patients with HM and COVID-19. The goal of this study is to identify factors that may increase the risk of mortality in patients with HM and COVID-19. In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, 65 patients with HM and laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were identified between March 2020 and January 2021. Information on demographics, laboratory data the day of COVID-19 diagnosis, and prognosis was extracted from the electronic medical record (EMR), chart reviewed, and analyzed using the statistical software SAS version 9.4. Chi-square testing was used for categorical variable analyses. Risk factors associated with mortality were established by logistic regression models. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (37%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (20%), and plasma cell dyscrasia (15%) were the most common HM. Higher Hgb level upon COVID-19 diagnosis was related to decreased mortality, odd ratio=0.704 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.511-0.969; P = .0263). Platelet count the day of COVID-19 diagnosis was lower in patients who ultimately died (mean 127 ± 72K/uL, n=10) compared to patients who survived (mean 197 ±92K/uL, n=55) (P=.0258). Female sex was related to decreased mortality, odd ratio=0.143 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.026-0.785; P = .0353). There was no mortality difference between the patients who were on treatment for HM the day of COVID-19 diagnosis compared to those who were not (P=1.000). Lower Hgb and male sex are independent risk factors associated with increased mortality of HM patients with COVID-19. Clinicians should be especially attentive to patients with HM and COVID-19 who present with cytopenias. Larger multi-center studies are urgently needed to further investigate the impact of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and demographics on outcomes of patients with hematologic malignancies diagnosed with COVID-19.

Keywords: anemia, COVID-19, hematologic malignancy, prognosis

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203 The out of Proportion - Pulmonary Hypertension in Indians with Chronic Lung Disease

Authors: S. P. Chintan, A. M. Khoja, M. Modi, R. K. Chopra, S. Garde, D. Jain, O. Kajale

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Pulmonary Hypertension is a rare but debilitating disease that affects individuals of all ages and walks of life. As recent as 15 years ago, a patient diagnosed with PH was given an average survival rate of 2.8 years. Recent advances in treatment options have allowed patients to improve quality o and quantity of life. Initial screening for PH is through echocardiography with final diagnosis confirmed through right heart catheterization. PH is now considered to have five major classifications with subgroups among each. The mild to moderate PH is common in chronic lung diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and Interstitial lung disease. But very severe PH is noted in few cases. In COPD patients, PH is associated with an increased risk of severe exacerbations and a reduced life expectancy. Similarly, in patients with ILD, the presence of PH correlates with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to slow disease progression. We report here five cases of severe PH (Out of Proportion) of which four cases were of COPD and another one of IPF (UIP pattern). There echocardiography showed gross RA/RV dilatation, interventricular septum bulging to the left and mPAP of more than 100 mmHg in all the five cases. These patients were put on LTOT, pulmonary rehabilitation, combination pharmacotherapy of vasodilators and diuretics in continuation to the treatment of underlying disease. As these patients have grave prognosis close monitoring and follow up is required. Physicians associated with respiratory care and treating chronic lung disease should have knowledge in the diagnosis and management of patients with PH.

Keywords: COPD, pulmonary hypertension, chronic lung disease, India

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202 The Possibility of Using Somatosensory Evoked Potential(SSEP) as a Parameter for Cortical Vascular Dementia

Authors: Hyunsik Park

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As the rate of cerebrovascular disease increases in old populations, the prevalence rate of vascular dementia would be expected. Therefore, authors designed this study to find out the possibility of somatosensory evoked potentials(SSEP) as a parameter for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients. 21 patients who met the criteria for vascular dementia according to DSM-IV,ICD-10and NINDS-AIREN with the history of recent cognitive impairment, fluctuation progression, and neurologic deficit. We subdivided these patients into two groups; a mild dementia and a severe dementia groups by MMSE and CDR score; and analysed comparison between normal control group and patient control group who have been cerebrovascular attack(CVA) history without dementia by using N20 latency and amplitude of median nerve. In this study, mild dementia group showed significant differences on latency and amplitude with normal control group(p-value<0.05) except patient control group(p-value>0.05). Severe dementia group showed significant differences both normal control group and patient control group.(p-value<0.05, <001). Since no significant difference has founded between mild dementia group and patient control group, SSEP has limitation to use for early diagnosis test. However, the comparison between severe dementia group and others showed significant results which indicate SSEP can predict the prognosis of vascular dementia in cortical vascular dementia patients.

Keywords: SSEP, cortical vascular dementia, N20 latency, N20 amplitude

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201 Survival Outcomes Related to Treatment Modalities in Patients with Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Danni Cheng

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Purpose:Surgicallyinclusive treatment(SIT)isthemajor treatment fororopharyngealsquamouscellcarcinoma (OPSCC) in Eastern countries, while nonsurgical treatments(NSTs) are the priority treatment in Western countries. The preferred treatmentsforOPSCC patients remaindebated. Methods:Atotalof 153 consecutive OPSCC casesdiagnosed between 2009 and 2019inWCH, and 15,400 OPSCC cases from SEER database (2000-2017) were obtained. Clinical characteristics, treatments, and survival outcomes were retrospectively collected. We conductedKaplan-Meier curves univariate and multivariate analysis to compare the prognosis of OPSCC patients in WCH, SEER Asian, and SEER all ethnic population by different treatment modalities,HPVstatus, ages, and TNM stages. Results: The 5-year overall survival rate was 59% in WCH, 64% in the SEER all ethnic and 67% in SEER Asian group. In both univariate and multivariate analysis, SIT was observed as a consistent benefit factor for OPSCC patients in all three populations when classified by genders, tumor stages, and HPV status. Patients who underwent SIT had significantly better survival outcomes than those who received NSTsin WCH, SEER Asian, and SEER all ethnic groups. HPV positive status was the beneficial factor of OPSCC patients in all three groups. Besides, male patients had worse survival outcomes in both WCH and SEER Asian group, whereas male patients had better outcomes in the SEER all ethnic group. Conclusion: In contrast to nowadaysNSTs are the first-line therapiesfor OPSCC, our ten-year real-world data and SEER data indicated that OPSCC patients who underwent SIT had better prognosis than NSTs.

Keywords: OPSCC, survival outcome, SEER, treatment modalities

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200 Prognostic and Predictive Value of Tumor: Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Wooseok Byon, Eunyoung Kim, Junseong Kwon, Byung Joo Song, Chan Heun Park

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Background/Purpose: Previous preclinical and clinical data suggest that increased lymphocytic infiltration would be associated with good prognosis and benefit from immunogenic chemotherapy especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We investigated a single-center experience of TNBC and relationship with lymphocytic infiltration. Methods: From January 2004 to December 2012, at the Department of Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, we retrospectively reviewed 897 breast cancer patients-clinical outcomes, clinicopathological characteristics, breast cancer subtypes. And we reviewed lymphocytic infiltration of TNBC specimens by two pathologists. Statistical analysis of risk factors associated with recurrence was performed. Results: A total of 897 patients, 76 were TNBC (8.47%). Mean age of TNBC patients were 50.95 (SD10.42) years, mean follow-up periods was 40.06 months. We reviewed 49 slides, and there were 8 recurrent breast cancer patients (16.32%), and 4 patients were expired (8.16%). There were 9 lymphocytic predominant breast cancers (LPBC)-carcinomas with either intratumoral lymphocytes in >60% of tumor cell nests. 1 patient of LPBC was recurred and 8 were not. In multivariate logistic regression, the odds ratio of lymphocytic infiltration was 0.59 (p=0.643). Conclusion: In a single-center experience of TNBC, the lymphocytic infiltration in tumor cell nest might be a good trend on the prognosis but there was not statistically significant.

Keywords: tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, triple negative breast cancer, medical and health sciences

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199 A Cephalometric Superimposition of a Skeletal Class III Orthognathic Patient on Nasion-Sella Line

Authors: Albert Suryaprawira

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The Nasion-Sella Line (NSL) has been used for several years as a reference line in longitudinal growth study. Therefore this line is considered to be stable not only to evaluate treatment outcome and to predict relapse possibility but also to manage prognosis. This is a radiographic superimposition of an adult male aged 19 years who complained of difficulty in aesthetic, talking and chewing. Patient has a midface hypoplasia profile (concave). He was diagnosed to have a severe Skeletal Class III with Class III malocclusion, increased lower vertical height, and an anterior open bite. A pre-treatment cephalometric radiograph was taken to analyse the skeletal problem and to measure the amount of bone movement and the prediction soft tissue response. A panoramic radiograph was also taken to analyse bone quality, bone abnormality, third molar impaction, etc. Before the surgery, a pre-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to re-evaluate the plan and to settle the final amount of bone cut. After the surgery, a post-surgical cephalometric radiograph was taken to confirm the result with the plan. The superimposition using NSL as a reference line between those radiographs was performed to analyse the outcome. It is important to describe the amount of hard and soft tissue movement and to predict the possibility of relapse after the surgery. The patient also needs to understand all the surgical plan, outcome and relapse prevention. The surgical management included maxillary impaction and advancement of Le Fort I osteotomy. The evaluation using NSL as a reference was a very useful method in determining the outcome and prognosis.

Keywords: Nasion-Sella Line, midface hypoplasia, Le Fort 1, maxillary advancement

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198 Monoallelic and Biallelic Deletions of 13q14 in a Group of 36 CLL Patients Investigated by CGH Haematological Cancer and SNP Array (8x60K)

Authors: B. Grygalewicz, R. Woroniecka, J. Rygier, K. Borkowska, A. Labak, B. Nowakowska, B. Pienkowska-Grela

Abstract:

Introduction: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of adult leukemia in the Western world. Hemizygous and or homozygous loss at 13q14 occur in more than half of cases and constitute the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in CLL. It is believed that deletions 13q14 play a role in CLL pathogenesis. Two microRNA genes miR-15a and miR- 16-1 are targets of 13q14 deletions and plays a tumor suppressor role by targeting antiapoptotic BCL2 gene. Deletion size, as a single change detected in FISH analysis, has haprognostic significance. Patients with small deletions, without RB1 gene involvement, have the best prognosis and the longest overall survival time (OS 133 months). In patients with bigger deletion region, containing RB1 gene, prognosis drops to intermediate, like in patients with normal karyotype and without changes in FISH with overall survival 111 months. Aim: Precise delineation of 13q14 deletions regions in two groups of CLL patients, with mono- and biallelic deletions and qualifications of their prognostic significance. Methods: Detection of 13q14 deletions was performed by FISH analysis with CLL probe panel (D13S319, LAMP1, TP53, ATM, CEP-12). Accurate deletion size detection was performed by CGH Haematological Cancer and SNP array (8x60K). Results: Our investigated group of CLL patients with the 13q14 deletion, detected by FISH analysis, comprised two groups: 18 patients with monoallelic deletions and 18 patients with biallelic deletions. In FISH analysis, in the monoallelic group the range of cells with deletion, was 43% to 97%, while in biallelic group deletion was detected in 11% to 94% of cells. Microarray analysis revealed precise deletion regions. In the monoallelic group, the range of size was 348,12 Kb to 34,82 Mb, with median deletion size 7,93 Mb. In biallelic group discrepancy of total deletions, size was 135,27 Kb to 33,33 Mb, with median deletion size 2,52 Mb. The median size of smaller deletion regions on one copy chromosome 13 was 1,08 Mb while the average region of bigger deletion on the second chromosome 13 was 4,04 Mb. In the monoallelic group, in 8/18 deletion region covered RB1 gene. In the biallelic group, in 4/18 cases, revealed deletion on one copy of biallelic deletion and in 2/18 showed deletion of RB1 gene on both deleted 13q14 regions. All minimal deleted regions included miR-15a and miR-16-1 genes. Genetic results will be correlated with clinical data. Conclusions: Application of CGH microarrays technique in CLL allows accurately delineate the size of 13q14 deletion regions, what have a prognostic value. All deleted regions included miR15a and miR-16-1, what confirms the essential role of these genes in CLL pathogenesis. In our investigated groups of CLL patients with mono- and biallelic 13q14 deletions, patients with biallelic deletion presented smaller deletion sizes (2,52 Mb vs 7,93 Mb), what is connected with better prognosis.

Keywords: CLL, deletion 13q14, CGH microarrays, SNP array

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197 Predictive Factors of Prognosis in Acute Stroke Patients Receiving Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Shaoyi Lu

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Background: Traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat stroke, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is, however, no clear agreement about the optimal timing, population, efficacy, and predictive prognosis factors of traditional Chinese medicine supplemental therapy. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend. Key words: traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, Stroke, NIH stroke scale, Barthel index, predictive factor. Method: In this study, we used a retrospective analysis with data collection from stroke patients in Stroke Registry In Chang Gung Healthcare System (SRICHS). Stroke patients who received traditional Chinese medicine consultation in neurology ward of Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2014 were enrolled. Clinical profiles including the neurologic deficit, activities of daily living and other basic characteristics were analyzed. Through propensity score matching, we compared the NIHSS and Barthel index before and after the hospitalization, and applied with subgroup analysis, and adjusted by multivariate regression method. Results: Totally 115 stroke patients were enrolled with experiment group in 23 and control group in 92. The most important factor for prognosis prediction were the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Barthel index right before the hospitalization. Traditional Chinese medicine intervention had no statistically significant influence on the neurological deficit of acute stroke patients, and mild negative influence on daily activity performance of acute hemorrhagic stroke patient. Conclusion: Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine as a supplemental therapy for acute stroke patients was controversial. The reason for this phenomenon might be complex and require more research to comprehend.

Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, stroke, acupuncture

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196 The Role of Surgery to Remove the Primary Tumor in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

Authors: A. D. Zikiryahodjaev, L. V. Bolotina, A. S. Sukhotko

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Purpose. To evaluate the expediency and timeliness of performance of surgical treatment as a component of multi-therapy treatment of patients with stage IV breast cancers. Materials and Methods. This investigation comparatively analyzed the results of complex treatment with or without surgery in patients with metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed retrospectively treatment experience of 196 patients with generalized breast cancer in the department of oncology and breast reconstructive surgery of P.A. Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute from 2000 to 2012. The average age was (58±1,1) years. Invasive ductul carcinoma was verified in128 patients (65,3%), invasive lobular carcinoma-33 (16,8%), complex form - 19 (9,7%). Complex palliative care involving drug and radiation therapies was performed in two patient groups. The first group includes 124 patients who underwent surgical intervention as complex treatment, the second group includes 72 patients with only medical therapy. Standard systemic therapy was given to all patients. Results. Overall, 3-and 5-year survival in fist group was 43,8 and 21%, in second - 15,1 and 9,3% respectively [p=0,00002 log-rank]. Median survival in patients with surgical treatment composed 32 months, in patients with only systemic therapy-21. The factors having influencing an influence on the prognosis and the quality of life outcomes for of patients with generalized breast cancer were are also studied: hormone-dependent tumor, Her2/neu hyper-expression, reproductive function status (age, menopause existence). Conclusion.Removing primary breast tumor in patients with generalized breast cancer improve long-term outcomes. Three- and five-year survival increased by 28,7 and 16,3% respectively, and median survival–for 11 months. These patients may benefit from resection of the breast tumor. One explanation for the effect of this resection is that reducing the tumor load influences metastatic growth.

Keywords: breast cancer, combination therapy, factors of prognosis, primary tumor

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195 Hyponatremia in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Authors: Emna Ketata, Wafa Farhat

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Introduction: Hyponatremia is defined by a blood sodium level of ≤ 136 mmol/L; it is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the emergency room. This was explained by transit disorders, including diarrhea and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion). Pneumonia can cause dyspnea, stress-causing SIADH and digestive symptoms (diarrhea and vomiting). Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the link between pneumonia and hyponatremia as a predictor of patient’s prognosis and intra-hospital mortality. Methodology: This is a prospective observational study over a period of 3 years in the emergency department. Inclusion :patients (age > 14 years), with clinical signs in favor of pneumonia. Natremia was measured. Natremia was classified as mild to moderate with a blood sodium level between 121 and 135 mmol/L and as severe with a blood sodium level ≤ 120 mmol/L. Results: This study showed an average serum sodium value of 135 mmol/L (range 114–159 mmol/L) in these patients. Hyponatremia was observed in 123 patients (43.6%), 115 patients (97,8%) had mild to moderate hyponatremia and 2,8% had severe hyponatremia. The mean age was 65±17 years with a sex ratio of 1.05. The main reason for consultation in patients with hyponatremia was cough in 58 patients (47.2%), and digestive symptoms were present in 25 patients (20.3. An altered state of consciousness was observed in 11 patients (3%). Patients with hyponatremia had greater heart rate (p=0.02),white blood cell count (p=0.009) , plasmatic lactate (p=0.002) and higher rate of pneumonia recurrence (p=0.001) .In addition, 80% of them have a positive CURB65 score (>=2). hyponatremia had higher rates of use of oxygen therapy compared to patients with normo-natremia (54% vs. 45%). The analytical study showed that hyponatremia is significantly associated with intra-hospital mortality with( p=0.01), severe hyponatremia p=0.04. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is a predictor of mortality and worse prognosis. Recognition of the pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatremia in pneumonia will probably allow better management of it.

Keywords: oxygenotherapy, mortality, recurrence, positif curb65

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