Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8331

Search results for: ECG human identification

8331 Solving Crimes through DNA Methylation Analysis

Authors: Ajay Kumar Rana

Abstract:

Predicting human behaviour, discerning monozygotic twins or left over remnant tissues/fluids of a single human source remains a big challenge in forensic science. Recent advances in the field of DNA methylations which are broadly chemical hallmarks in response to environmental factors can certainly help to identify and discriminate various single-source DNA samples collected from the crime scenes. In this review, cytosine methylation of DNA has been methodologically discussed with its broad applications in many challenging forensic issues like body fluid identification, race/ethnicity identification, monozygotic twins dilemma, addiction or behavioural prediction, age prediction, or even authenticity of the human DNA. With the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques, blooming of DNA methylation datasets and together with standard molecular protocols, the prospect of investigating and solving the above issues and extracting the exact nature of the truth for reconstructing the crime scene events would be undoubtedly helpful in defending and solving the critical crime cases.

Keywords: DNA methylation, differentially methylated regions, human identification, forensics

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8330 A Palmprint Identification System Based Multi-Layer Perceptron

Authors: David P. Tantua, Abdulkader Helwan

Abstract:

Biometrics has been recently used for the human identification systems using the biological traits such as the fingerprints and iris scanning. Identification systems based biometrics show great efficiency and accuracy in such human identification applications. However, these types of systems are so far based on some image processing techniques only, which may decrease the efficiency of such applications. Thus, this paper aims to develop a human palmprint identification system using multi-layer perceptron neural network which has the capability to learn using a backpropagation learning algorithms. The developed system uses images obtained from a public database available on the internet (CASIA). The processing system is as follows: image filtering using median filter, image adjustment, image skeletonizing, edge detection using canny operator to extract features, clear unwanted components of the image. The second phase is to feed those processed images into a neural network classifier which will adaptively learn and create a class for each different image. 100 different images are used for training the system. Since this is an identification system, it should be tested with the same images. Therefore, the same 100 images are used for testing it, and any image out of the training set should be unrecognized. The experimental results shows that this developed system has a great accuracy 100% and it can be implemented in real life applications.

Keywords: biometrics, biological traits, multi-layer perceptron neural network, image skeletonizing, edge detection using canny operator

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8329 An Interaction between Human and Animal through the Death Experience

Authors: Mindaugas Kazlauskas

Abstract:

In this paper, it is presupposed that the description of the relationship between animal and human should begin with a description of the direct experience of the animal and how, in this experience, the human experiences itself (a self awareness mode). A human is concerned first and foremost with himself as a human through the experience of another as an animal. The questionsare: In the encounter with an animal, how is the animal constituted in the acts of human experience? How does human-animal interaction influence human behavioral patterns, and how does the human identifies itself in this interaction? The paper will present the results of interpretative phenomenological descriptions (IPA) of the relationship between human and animal in the face of death phenomenon through the experience of pet owners who lost their beloved companions and hunters, veterinatians, and farmers who face animal death. The results of IPA analysis reveal different relations such as the identification with an animal, the alienation experience, the experience of resistance, and an experience of detachment. Within these themes, IPA qualitative research results will be presented by highlighting patterns of human behavior, following Friedrich Schlachermacher's hermeneutics methodological principles, and reflecting on changes in value and attitude within society during daily interaction with the animal.

Keywords: animal human interaction, phenomenology, philosophy, death phenomenon

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8328 ECG Based Reliable User Identification Using Deep Learning

Authors: R. N. Begum, Ambalika Sharma, G. K. Singh

Abstract:

Identity theft has serious ramifications beyond data and personal information loss. This necessitates the implementation of robust and efficient user identification systems. Therefore, automatic biometric recognition systems are the need of the hour, and ECG-based systems are unquestionably the best choice due to their appealing inherent characteristics. The CNNs are the recent state-of-the-art techniques for ECG-based user identification systems. However, the results obtained are significantly below standards, and the situation worsens as the number of users and types of heartbeats in the dataset grows. As a result, this study proposes a highly accurate and resilient ECG-based person identification system using CNN's dense learning framework. The proposed research explores explicitly the calibre of dense CNNs in the field of ECG-based human recognition. The study tests four different configurations of dense CNN which are trained on a dataset of recordings collected from eight popular ECG databases. With the highest FAR of 0.04 percent and the highest FRR of 5%, the best performing network achieved an identification accuracy of 99.94 percent. The best network is also tested with various train/test split ratios. The findings show that DenseNets are not only extremely reliable but also highly efficient. Thus, they might also be implemented in real-time ECG-based human recognition systems.

Keywords: Biometrics, Dense Networks, Identification Rate, Train/Test split ratio

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8327 Analysis of Expert Possibilities While Identifying Human Teeth

Authors: Saule Mussabekova

Abstract:

Forensic investigation of human teeth plays an important role in detection of crime, particularly in cases of personal identification of dead bodies changed by putrefactive processes or skeletonized bodies as well as when finding bodies of unknown persons. 152 teeth have been investigated; 85 of them belonged to men and 67 belonged to women taken from alive people of different age. Teeth have been investigated after extraction. Two types of teeth have been investigated: teeth without integrity violation of dental crown and teeth with different degrees of its violation. Additionally, 517 teeth have been investigated that were collected from dead bodies, 252 of which belonged to women and 265 belonged to men, whatever the cause of death with death limitation from 1 month to 20 years. Isohemagglutinating serums and Coliclons of different series have been used for the research of tooth-group specificity by serological methods according to the AB0 system. Standard protocols of different techniques have been used for DNA purification from teeth (by reagent Chelex 100 produced by Bio-Rad using reagent kit 'DNA IQTM System' produced by Promega company (USA) and using columns 'QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit' produced by Qiagen company). Results of comparative forensic investigation of human teeth using serological and molecular genetic methods have shown that use of serological methods for forensic identification is sensible only in cases of preselection prior to the next molecular genetic investigation as well as in cases of impossibility of corresponding genetic investigation for different objective reasons. A number of advantages of methods of molecular genetics in the dental investigation have been marked, particularly in putrefactive changes, in personal identification. Key moments of modern condition of personal identification have been reflected according to dental state. Prospective directions of advance preparation of material have been emphasized for identification of teeth in forensic practice.

Keywords: dental state, forensic identification, molecular genetic analysis, teeth

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8326 Gender Identification Using Digital Forensics

Authors: Vinod C. Nayak

Abstract:

In day-to-day forensic practice, identification is always a difficult task. Availability of anti-mortem and postmortem records plays a major rule in facilitating this tough task. However, the advent of digital forensic is a boon for forensic experts. This study has made use of digital forensics to establish identity by radiological dimensions of maxillary sinus using workstation software. The findings suggest a significant association between maxillary sinus dimensions and human gender. The author will be discussing the methods and results of the study in this e-poster.

Keywords: digital forensics, identification, maxillary sinus, radiology

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8325 Human Skin Identification Using a Specific mRNA Marker at Different Storage Durations

Authors: Abla A. Ali, Heba A. Abd El Razik, Nadia A. Kotb, Amany A. Bayoumi, Laila A. Rashed

Abstract:

The detection of human skin through mRNA-based profiling is a very useful tool for forensic investigations. The aim of this study was definitive identification of human skin at different time intervals using an mRNA marker late cornified envelope gene 1C. Ten middle-aged healthy volunteers of both sexes were recruited for this study. Skin samples controlled with blood samples were taken from the candidates to test for the presence of our targeted mRNA marker. Samples were kept at dry dark conditions to be tested at different time intervals (24 hours, one week, three weeks and four weeks) for detection and relative quantification of the targeted marker by RT PCR. The targeted marker could not be detected in blood samples. The targeted marker showed the highest mean value after 24 hours (11.90 ± 2.42) and the lowest mean value (7.56 ± 2.56) after three weeks. No marker could be detected at four weeks. This study verified the high specificity and sensitivity of mRNA marker in the skin at different storage times up to three weeks under the study conditions.

Keywords: human skin, late cornified envelope gene 1C, mRNA marker, time intervals

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8324 Lateral Cephalometric Radiograph to Determine Sex in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Paulus Maulana

Abstract:

Forensic identification is to help investigators determine a person's identity. Personal identification is often a problem in civil and criminal cases. Orthodontists like all other dental professionals can play a major role by maintaining lateral cephalogram and thus providing important or vital information or can clues to the legal authorities in order to help them in their search. Radiographic lateral cephalometry is a measurement method which focused on the anatomical points of human lateral skull. Sex determination is one of the most important aspects of the personal identification in forensic. Lateral cephalogram is a valuable tool in identification of sex as reveal morphological details of the skull on single radiograph. This present study evaluates the role of lateral cephalogram in identification of sex that parameters of lateral cephalogram are linear measurement and angle measurement. The linear measurements are N-S ( Anterior cranial length), Sna-Snp (Palatal plane length), Me-Go (menton-gonion), N-Sna ( Midfacial anterior height ), Sna-Me (Lower anterior face height), Co-Gn (total mandibular length). The angle measurements are SNA, SNB, ANB, Gonial, Interincical, and facial.

Keywords: lateral cephalometry, cephalogram, sex, forensic, parameter

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8323 Forensic Comparison of Facial Images for Human Identification

Authors: D. P. Gangwar

Abstract:

Identification of human through facial images has got great importance in forensic science. The video recordings, CCTV footage, passports, driver licenses and other related documents are invariably sent to the laboratory for comparison of the questioned photographs as well as video recordings with suspected photographs/recordings to prove the identity of a person. More than 300 questioned and 300 control photographs received in actual crime cases, received from various investigation agencies, have been compared by me so far using various familiar analysis and comparison techniques such as Holistic comparison, Morphological analysis, Photo-anthropometry and superimposition. On the basis of findings obtained during the examination huge photo exhibits, a realistic and comprehensive technique has been proposed which could be very useful for forensic.

Keywords: CCTV Images, facial features, photo-anthropometry, superimposition

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8322 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

Abstract:

The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human trafficking, human security, human rights, corruption, organized crime

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8321 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee

Abstract:

Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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8320 Meaningfulness of Right to Life in Holy Quran

Authors: Masoud Raei, Mohammadmahdi Sadeghi

Abstract:

The right to life as the most essential right in human rights issues and in the first group has devoted a special place to itself. Attention to this right and its domain and its reflection in civil rights is one of the most important axis of the rights to life issues. Issues discussed concerning this matter in public law with regard to its status in human rights are the determination of government’s duty toward identification; application and guarantee of this right. The constitutions of countries have chosen different approaches towards the identification of this right and also its limits and boundaries, determining the territory of governments for citizens. The reason for such a difference is the question arising in this regard. It is claimed that without the determination of meaningfulness of the right to life, it is not possible to provide a clear response to this question. The goal of this paper is to justify its theoretical framework from the view of meaningfulness of right to life relying on Quranic verses with a conceptual approach towards the right to life so that the relationship between government and citizens with regard to right to life is determined. Through a comparative study, it is possible to attain significant differences between the teachings of the Holy Quran and human rights documents. The method of this paper is a descriptive-analytic approach relying on interpretation books on Holy Quran.

Keywords: meaningfulness, objectivism, separatism, right to life

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8319 Uniqueness of Fingerprint Biometrics to Human Dynasty: A Review

Authors: Siddharatha Sharma

Abstract:

With the advent of technology and machines, the role of biometrics in society is taking an important place for secured living. Security issues are the major concern in today’s world and continue to grow in intensity and complexity. Biometrics based recognition, which involves precise measurement of the characteristics of living beings, is not a new method. Fingerprints are being used for several years by law enforcement and forensic agencies to identify the culprits and apprehend them. Biometrics is based on four basic principles i.e. (i) uniqueness, (ii) accuracy, (iii) permanency and (iv) peculiarity. In today’s world fingerprints are the most popular and unique biometrics method claiming a social benefit in the government sponsored programs. A remarkable example of the same is UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) in India. In case of fingerprint biometrics the matching accuracy is very high. It has been observed empirically that even the identical twins also do not have similar prints. With the passage of time there has been an immense progress in the techniques of sensing computational speed, operating environment and the storage capabilities and it has become more user convenient. Only a small fraction of the population may be unsuitable for automatic identification because of genetic factors, aging, environmental or occupational reasons for example workers who have cuts and bruises on their hands which keep fingerprints changing. Fingerprints are limited to human beings only because of the presence of volar skin with corrugated ridges which are unique to this species. Fingerprint biometrics has proved to be a high level authentication system for identification of the human beings. Though it has limitations, for example it may be inefficient and ineffective if ridges of finger(s) or palm are moist authentication becomes difficult. This paper would focus on uniqueness of fingerprints to the human beings in comparison to other living beings and review the advancement in emerging technologies and their limitations.

Keywords: fingerprinting, biometrics, human beings, authentication

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8318 Forensic Challenges in Source Device Identification for Digital Videos

Authors: Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Suleman Khan

Abstract:

Video source device identification has become a problem of concern in numerous domains especially in multimedia security and digital investigation. This is because videos are now used as evidence in legal proceedings. Source device identification aim at identifying the source of digital devices using the content they produced. However, due to affordable processing tools and the influx in digital content generating devices, source device identification is still a major problem within the digital forensic community. In this paper, we discuss source device identification for digital videos by identifying techniques that were proposed in the literature for model or specific device identification. This is aimed at identifying salient open challenges for future research.

Keywords: video forgery, source camcorder, device identification, forgery detection

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8317 Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks

Authors: Tsu-Wang Shen, Shan-Chun Chang, Chih-Hsien Wang, Te-Chao Fang

Abstract:

For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.

Keywords: high-intensity heart rate, heart rate resistant, ECG human identification, decision based artificial neural network

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8316 Identification of Dynamic Friction Model for High-Precision Motion Control

Authors: Martin Goubej, Tomas Popule, Alois Krejci

Abstract:

This paper deals with experimental identification of mechanical systems with nonlinear friction characteristics. Dynamic LuGre friction model is adopted and a systematic approach to parameter identification of both linear and nonlinear subsystems is given. The identification procedure consists of three subsequent experiments which deal with the individual parts of plant dynamics. The proposed method is experimentally verified on an industrial-grade robotic manipulator. Model fidelity is compared with the results achieved with a static friction model.

Keywords: mechanical friction, LuGre model, friction identification, motion control

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8315 Identification of Nonlinear Systems Structured by Hammerstein-Wiener Model

Authors: A. Brouri, F. Giri, A. Mkhida, A. Elkarkri, M. L. Chhibat

Abstract:

Standard Hammerstein-Wiener models consist of a linear subsystem sandwiched by two memoryless nonlinearities. Presently, the linear subsystem is allowed to be parametric or not, continuous- or discrete-time. The input and output nonlinearities are polynomial and may be noninvertible. A two-stage identification method is developed such the parameters of all nonlinear elements are estimated first using the Kozen-Landau polynomial decomposition algorithm. The obtained estimates are then based upon in the identification of the linear subsystem, making use of suitable pre-ad post-compensators.

Keywords: nonlinear system identification, Hammerstein-Wiener systems, frequency identification, polynomial decomposition

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8314 Improved Rare Species Identification Using Focal Loss Based Deep Learning Models

Authors: Chad Goldsworthy, B. Rajeswari Matam

Abstract:

The use of deep learning for species identification in camera trap images has revolutionised our ability to study, conserve and monitor species in a highly efficient and unobtrusive manner, with state-of-the-art models achieving accuracies surpassing the accuracy of manual human classification. The high imbalance of camera trap datasets, however, results in poor accuracies for minority (rare or endangered) species due to their relative insignificance to the overall model accuracy. This paper investigates the use of Focal Loss, in comparison to the traditional Cross Entropy Loss function, to improve the identification of minority species in the “255 Bird Species” dataset from Kaggle. The results show that, although Focal Loss slightly decreased the accuracy of the majority species, it was able to increase the F1-score by 0.06 and improve the identification of the bottom two, five and ten (minority) species by 37.5%, 15.7% and 10.8%, respectively, as well as resulting in an improved overall accuracy of 2.96%.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, data imbalance, deep learning, focal loss, species classification, wildlife conservation

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8313 The Inclusive Human Trafficking Checklist: A Dialectical Measurement Methodology

Authors: Maria C. Almario, Pam Remer, Jeff Resse, Kathy Moran, Linda Theander Adam

Abstract:

The identification of victims of human trafficking and consequential service provision is characterized by a significant disconnection between the estimated prevalence of this issue and the number of cases identified. This poses as tremendous problem for human rights advocates as it prevents data collection, information sharing, allocation of resources and opportunities for international dialogues. The current paper introduces the Inclusive Human Trafficking Checklist (IHTC) as a measurement methodology with theoretical underpinnings derived from dialectic theory. The presence of human trafficking in a person’s life is conceptualized as a dynamic and dialectic interaction between vulnerability and exploitation. The current papers explores the operationalization of exploitation and vulnerability, evaluates the metric qualities of the instrument, evaluates whether there are differences in assessment based on the participant’s profession, level of knowledge, and training, and assesses if users of the instrument perceive it as useful. A total of 201 participants were asked to rate three vignettes predetermined by experts to qualify as a either human trafficking case or not. The participants were placed in three conditions: business as usual, utilization of the IHTC with and without training. The results revealed a statistically significant level of agreement between the expert’s diagnostic and the application of the IHTC with an improvement of 40% on identification when compared with the business as usual condition While there was an improvement in identification in the group with training, the difference was found to have a small effect size. Participants who utilized the IHTC showed an increased ability to identify elements of identity-based vulnerabilities as well as elements of fraud, which according to the results, are distinctive variables in cases of human trafficking. In terms of the perceived utility, the results revealed higher mean scores for the groups utilizing the IHTC when compared to the business as usual condition. These findings suggest that the IHTC improves appropriate identification of cases and that it is perceived as a useful instrument. The application of the IHTC as a multidisciplinary instrumentation that can be utilized in legal and human services settings is discussed as a pivotal piece of helping victims restore their sense of dignity, and advocate for legal, physical and psychological reparations. It is noteworthy that this study was conducted with a sample in the United States and later re-tested in Colombia. The implications of the instrument for treatment conceptualization and intervention in human trafficking cases are discussed as opportunities for enhancement of victim well-being, restoration engagement and activism. With the idea that what is personal is also political, we believe that the careful observation and data collection in specific cases can inform new areas of human rights activism.

Keywords: exploitation, human trafficking, measurement, vulnerability, screening

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8312 Trusting the Eyes: The Changing Landscape of Eyewitness Testimony

Authors: Manveen Singh

Abstract:

Since the very advent of law enforcement, eyewitness testimony has played a pivotal role in identifying, arresting and convicting suspects. Reliant heavily on the accuracy of human memory, nothing seems to carry more weight with the judiciary than the testimony of an actual witness. The acceptance of eyewitness testimony as a substantive piece of evidence lies embedded in the assumption that the human mind is adept at recording and storing events. Research though, has proven otherwise. Having carried out extensive study in the field of eyewitness testimony for the past 40 years, psychologists have concluded that human memory is fragile and needs to be treated carefully. The question that arises then, is how reliable is eyewitness testimony? The credibility of eyewitness testimony, simply put, depends on several factors leaving it reliable at times while not so much at others. This is further substantiated by the fact that as per scientific research, over 75 percent of all eyewitness testimonies may stand in error; quite a few of these cases resulting in life sentences. Although the advancement of scientific techniques, especially DNA testing, helped overturn many of these eyewitness testimony-based convictions, yet eyewitness identifications continue to form the backbone of most police investigations and courtroom decisions till date. What then is the solution to this long standing concern regarding the accuracy of eyewitness accounts? The present paper shall analyze the linkage between human memory and eyewitness identification as well as look at the various factors governing the credibility of eyewitness testimonies. Furthermore, it shall elaborate upon some best practices developed over the years to help reduce mistaken identifications. Thus, in the process, trace out the changing landscape of eyewitness testimony amidst the evolution of DNA and trace evidence.

Keywords: DNA, eyewitness, identification, testimony, evidence

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8311 Human Identification Using Local Roughness Patterns in Heartbeat Signal

Authors: Md. Khayrul Bashar, Md. Saiful Islam, Kimiko Yamashita, Yano Midori

Abstract:

Despite having some progress in human authentication, conventional biometrics (e.g., facial features, fingerprints, retinal scans, gait, voice patterns) are not robust against falsification because they are neither confidential nor secret to an individual. As a non-invasive tool, electrocardiogram (ECG) has recently shown a great potential in human recognition due to its unique rhythms characterizing the variability of human heart structures (chest geometry, sizes, and positions). Moreover, ECG has a real-time vitality characteristic that signifies the live signs, which ensure legitimate individual to be identified. However, the detection accuracy of the current ECG-based methods is not sufficient due to a high variability of the individual’s heartbeats at a different instance of time. These variations may occur due to muscle flexure, the change of mental or emotional states, and the change of sensor positions or long-term baseline shift during the recording of ECG signal. In this study, a new method is proposed for human identification, which is based on the extraction of the local roughness of ECG heartbeat signals. First ECG signal is preprocessed using a second order band-pass Butterworth filter having cut-off frequencies of 0.00025 and 0.04. A number of local binary patterns are then extracted by applying a moving neighborhood window along the ECG signal. At each instant of the ECG signal, the pattern is formed by comparing the ECG intensities at neighboring time points with the central intensity in the moving window. Then, binary weights are multiplied with the pattern to come up with the local roughness description of the signal. Finally, histograms are constructed that describe the heartbeat signals of individual subjects in the database. One advantage of the proposed feature is that it does not depend on the accuracy of detecting QRS complex, unlike the conventional methods. Supervised recognition methods are then designed using minimum distance to mean and Bayesian classifiers to identify authentic human subjects. An experiment with sixty (60) ECG signals from sixty adult subjects from National Metrology Institute of Germany (NMIG) - PTB database, showed that the proposed new method is promising compared to a conventional interval and amplitude feature-based method.

Keywords: human identification, ECG biometrics, local roughness patterns, supervised classification

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8310 Structural Damage Detection Using Sensors Optimally Located

Authors: Carlos Alberto Riveros, Edwin Fabián García, Javier Enrique Rivero

Abstract:

The measured data obtained from sensors in continuous monitoring of civil structures are mainly used for modal identification and damage detection. Therefore when modal identification analysis is carried out the quality in the identification of the modes will highly influence the damage detection results. It is also widely recognized that the usefulness of the measured data used for modal identification and damage detection is significantly influenced by the number and locations of sensors. The objective of this study is the numerical implementation of two widely known optimum sensor placement methods in beam-like structures

Keywords: optimum sensor placement, structural damage detection, modal identification, beam-like structures.

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8309 Self-Tuning Robot Control Based on Subspace Identification

Authors: Mathias Marquardt, Peter Dünow, Sandra Baßler

Abstract:

The paper describes the use of subspace based identification methods for auto tuning of a state space control system. The plant is an unstable but self balancing transport robot. Because of the unstable character of the process it has to be identified from closed loop input-output data. Based on the identified model a state space controller combined with an observer is calculated. The subspace identification algorithm and the controller design procedure is combined to a auto tuning method. The capability of the approach was verified in a simulation experiments under different process conditions.

Keywords: auto tuning, balanced robot, closed loop identification, subspace identification

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8308 Distributed Perceptually Important Point Identification for Time Series Data Mining

Authors: Tak-Chung Fu, Ying-Kit Hung, Fu-Lai Chung

Abstract:

In the field of time series data mining, the concept of the Perceptually Important Point (PIP) identification process is first introduced in 2001. This process originally works for financial time series pattern matching and it is then found suitable for time series dimensionality reduction and representation. Its strength is on preserving the overall shape of the time series by identifying the salient points in it. With the rise of Big Data, time series data contributes a major proportion, especially on the data which generates by sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. According to the nature of PIP identification and the successful cases, it is worth to further explore the opportunity to apply PIP in time series ‘Big Data’. However, the performance of PIP identification is always considered as the limitation when dealing with ‘Big’ time series data. In this paper, two distributed versions of PIP identification based on the Specialized Binary (SB) Tree are proposed. The proposed approaches solve the bottleneck when running the PIP identification process in a standalone computer. Improvement in term of speed is obtained by the distributed versions.

Keywords: distributed computing, performance analysis, Perceptually Important Point identification, time series data mining

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8307 Genetic Algorithms for Parameter Identification of DC Motor ARMAX Model and Optimal Control

Authors: A. Mansouri, F. Krim

Abstract:

This paper presents two techniques for DC motor parameters identification. We propose a numerical method using the adaptive extensive recursive least squares (AERLS) algorithm for real time parameters estimation. This algorithm, based on minimization of quadratic criterion, is realized in simulation for parameters identification of DC motor autoregressive moving average with extra inputs (ARMAX). As advanced technique, we use genetic algorithms (GA) identification with biased estimation for high dynamic performance speed regulation. DC motors are extensively used in variable speed drives, for robot and solar panel trajectory control. GA effectiveness is derived through comparison of the two approaches.

Keywords: ARMAX model, DC motor, AERLS, GA, optimization, parameter identification, PID speed regulation

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8306 Machine Learning Based Gender Identification of Authors of Entry Programs

Authors: Go Woon Kwak, Siyoung Jun, Soyun Maeng, Haeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Entry is an education platform used in South Korea, created to help students learn to program, in which they can learn to code while playing. Using the online version of the entry, teachers can easily assign programming homework to the student and the students can make programs simply by linking programming blocks. However, the programs may be made by others, so that the authors of the programs should be identified. In this paper, as the first step toward author identification of entry programs, we present an artificial neural network based classification approach to identify genders of authors of a program written in an entry. A neural network has been trained from labeled training data that we have collected. Our result in progress, although preliminary, shows that the proposed approach could be feasible to be applied to the online version of entry for gender identification of authors. As future work, we will first use a machine learning technique for age identification of entry programs, which would be the second step toward the author identification.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, author identification, deep neural network, gender identification, machine learning

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8305 Methodology for the Integration of Object Identification Processes in Handling and Logistic Systems

Authors: L. Kiefer, C. Richter, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The uprising complexity in production systems due to an increasing amount of variants up to customer innovated products leads to requirements that hierarchical control systems are not able to fulfil. Therefore, factory planners can install autonomous manufacturing systems. The fundamental requirement for an autonomous control is the identification of objects within production systems. In this approach an attribute-based identification is focused for avoiding dose-dependent identification costs. Instead of using an identification mark (ID) like a radio frequency identification (RFID)-Tag, an object type is directly identified by its attributes. To facilitate that it’s recommended to include the identification and the corresponding sensors within handling processes, which connect all manufacturing processes and therefore ensure a high identification rate and reduce blind spots. The presented methodology reduces the individual effort to integrate identification processes in handling systems. First, suitable object attributes and sensor systems for object identification in a production environment are defined. By categorising these sensor systems as well as handling systems, it is possible to match them universal within a compatibility matrix. Based on that compatibility further requirements like identification time are analysed, which decide whether the combination of handling and sensor system is well suited for parallel handling and identification within an autonomous control. By analysing a list of more than thousand possible attributes, first investigations have shown, that five main characteristics (weight, form, colour, amount, and position of subattributes as drillings) are sufficient for an integrable identification. This knowledge limits the variety of identification systems and leads to a manageable complexity within the selection process. Besides the procedure, several tools, as an example a sensor pool are presented. These tools include the generated specific expert knowledge and simplify the selection. The primary tool is a pool of preconfigured identification processes depending on the chosen combination of sensor and handling device. By following the defined procedure and using the created tools, even laypeople out of other scientific fields can choose an appropriate combination of handling devices and sensors which enable parallel handling and identification.

Keywords: agent systems, autonomous control, handling systems, identification

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8304 Water Quality Management Based on Hydrodynamic Approach, Landuse, and Human Intervention in Wulan Delta Central Java Indonesia: Problems Identification and Review

Authors: Lintang Nur Fadlillah, Muh Aris Marfai, M. Widyastuti

Abstract:

Delta is dynamics area which is influenced by marine and river. Increasing human population in coastal area and the need of life exert pressure in delta that provides various resources. Wulan Delta is one of active Delta in Central Java, Indonesia. It has been experienced multiple pressures because of natural factors and human factors. In order to provide scientific solution and to analyze the main driving force in river delta, we collected several evidences based on news, papers, and publications related to Wulan Delta. This paper presents a review and problems identification in Wulan Delta, based on hydrodynamic approach, land use, and human activities which influenced water quality in the delta. A comprehensive overview is needed to address best policies under local communities and government. The analysis based on driving forces which affect delta estuary and river mouth. Natural factor in particular hydrodynamic influenced by tides, waves, runoff, and sediment transport. However, hydrodynamic affecting mixing process in river estuaries. The main problem is human intervention in land which is land use exchange leads to several problems such us decreasing water quality. Almost 90% of delta has been transformed into fish pond by local communities. Yet, they have not apply any water management to treat waste water before flush it to the sea and estuary. To understand the environmental condition, we need to assess water quality of river delta. The assessment based on land use as non-point source pollution. In Wulan Delta there are no industries. The land use in Wulan Delta consist of fish pond, settlement, and agriculture. The samples must represent the land use, to estimate which land use are most influence in river delta pollution. The hydrodynamic condition such as high tides and runoff must be considered, because it will affect the mixing process and water quality as well. To determine the samples site, we need to involve local community, in order to give insight into them. Furthermore, based on this review and problem identification, recommendations and strategies for water management are formulated.

Keywords: delta, land use, water quality, management, hydrodynamics

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8303 Review of State Anti-Trafficking Laws in the United States of America and Their Success in Combating Human Trafficking and Protecting the Victims

Authors: Andrea Marcela Morales Reyes

Abstract:

In the year 2000, the federal government of the United States of America enacted anti-trafficking legislation to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect the victims. Since then, all 50 states have followed the federal government's example by enacting state-level anti-trafficking legislation. In order to fight human trafficking in the United States, it is paramount that this legislation is not only comprehensively enacted but also enforced. This study reviewed the anti-trafficking laws enacted in each of the 50 states and investigated the success of such laws by reporting the number of trafficking related prosecutions, cases identified, and victims protected. This study reviewed human trafficking reports issued by nonprofits, and state and federal level agencies. An increase in the number of cases investigated since the state laws have been passed reflects a moderate success in the fight against human trafficking in the U.S. This review also found that although every state has passed anti-trafficking legislation, many still lack a comprehensive approach to combat human trafficking; some states lack key provisions to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect it victims. This, along with the lack of enforcement of the anti-trafficking plans included in each of the state legislations, has meant that the human trafficking cases investigated in fiscal year 2016 are not near the estimated numbers; which in turn suggests that this crime is still greatly unaccounted for. This study concludes that although important steps have been taken at the national and state level to combat human trafficking, the identification and prosecution of human trafficking cases still proves challenging in the United States.

Keywords: enforcement of laws, human trafficking, anti-trafficking legislation, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
8302 Frequency Identification of Wiener-Hammerstein Systems

Authors: Brouri Adil, Giri Fouad

Abstract:

The problem of identifying Wiener-Hammerstein systems is addressed in the presence of two linear subsystems of structure totally unknown. Presently, the nonlinear element is allowed to be noninvertible. The system identification problem is dealt by developing a two-stage frequency identification method such a set of points of the nonlinearity are estimated first. Then, the frequency gains of the two linear subsystems are determined at a number of frequencies. The method involves Fourier series decomposition and only requires periodic excitation signals. All involved estimators are shown to be consistent.

Keywords: Wiener-Hammerstein systems, Fourier series expansions, frequency identification, automation science

Procedia PDF Downloads 444