Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: photoplethysmography

12 Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics

Authors: S. Botman, D. Borchevkin, V. Petrov, E. Bogdanov, M. Patrushev, N. Shusharina


In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. The monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device use BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which process it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, health monitoring systems, photoplethysmography, pulse wave, remote diagnostics

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11 An MrPPG Method for Face Anti-Spoofing

Authors: Lan Zhang, Cailing Zhang


In recent years, many face anti-spoofing algorithms have high detection accuracy when detecting 2D face anti-spoofing or 3D mask face anti-spoofing alone in the field of face anti-spoofing, but their detection performance is greatly reduced in multidimensional and cross-datasets tests. The rPPG method used for face anti-spoofing uses the unique vital information of real face to judge real faces and face anti-spoofing, so rPPG method has strong stability compared with other methods, but its detection rate of 2D face anti-spoofing needs to be improved. Therefore, in this paper, we improve an rPPG(Remote Photoplethysmography) method(MrPPG) for face anti-spoofing which through color space fusion, using the correlation of pulse signals between real face regions and background regions, and introducing the cyclic neural network (LSTM) method to improve accuracy in 2D face anti-spoofing. Meanwhile, the MrPPG also has high accuracy and good stability in face anti-spoofing of multi-dimensional and cross-data datasets. The improved method was validated on Replay-Attack, CASIA-FASD, Siw and HKBU_MARs_V2 datasets, the experimental results show that the performance and stability of the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is superior to many advanced algorithms.

Keywords: face anti-spoofing, face presentation attack detection, remote photoplethysmography, MrPPG

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10 Blood Volume Pulse Extraction for Non-Contact Photoplethysmography Measurement from Facial Images

Authors: Ki Moo Lim, Iman R. Tayibnapis


According to WHO estimation, 38 out of 56 million (68%) global deaths in 2012, were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To avert NCD, one of the solutions is early detection of diseases. In order to do that, we developed 'U-Healthcare Mirror', which is able to measure vital sign such as heart rate (HR) and respiration rate without any physical contact and consciousness. To measure HR in the mirror, we utilized digital camera. The camera records red, green, and blue (RGB) discoloration from user's facial image sequences. We extracted blood volume pulse (BVP) from the RGB discoloration because the discoloration of the facial skin is accordance with BVP. We used blind source separation (BSS) to extract BVP from the RGB discoloration and adaptive filters for removing noises. We utilized singular value decomposition (SVD) method to implement the BSS and the adaptive filters. HR was estimated from the obtained BVP. We did experiment for HR measurement by using our method and previous method that used independent component analysis (ICA) method. We compared both of them with HR measurement from commercial oximeter. The experiment was conducted under various distance between 30~110 cm and light intensity between 5~2000 lux. For each condition, we did measurement 7 times. The estimated HR showed 2.25 bpm of mean error and 0.73 of pearson correlation coefficient. The accuracy has improved compared to previous work. The optimal distance between the mirror and user for HR measurement was 50 cm with medium light intensity, around 550 lux.

Keywords: blood volume pulse, heart rate, photoplethysmography, independent component analysis

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9 Feature Location Restoration for Under-Sampled Photoplethysmogram Using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hangsik Shin


The purpose of this research is to restore the feature location of under-sampled photoplethysmogram using spline interpolation and to investigate feasibility for feature shape restoration. We obtained 10 kHz-sampled photoplethysmogram and decimated it to generate under-sampled dataset. Decimated dataset has 5 kHz, 2.5 k Hz, 1 kHz, 500 Hz, 250 Hz, 25 Hz and 10 Hz sampling frequency. To investigate the restoration performance, we interpolated under-sampled signals with 10 kHz, then compared feature locations with feature locations of 10 kHz sampled photoplethysmogram. Features were upper and lower peak of photplethysmography waveform. Result showed that time differences were dramatically decreased by interpolation. Location error was lesser than 1 ms in both feature types. In 10 Hz sampled cases, location error was also deceased a lot, however, they were still over 10 ms.

Keywords: peak detection, photoplethysmography, sampling, signal reconstruction

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8 A Portable Device for Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements

Authors: Chien-Lin Wang, Cha-Ling Ko, Tainsong Chen


Pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood flow provides important information of vessel property and blood pressure which can be used to assess cardiovascular disease. However, the above measurements need expensive equipment, such as Doppler ultrasound, MRI, angiography etc. The photoplethysmograph (PPG) signals are commonly utilized to detect blood volume changes. In this study, two infrared (IR) probes are designed and placed at a fixed distance from finger base and fingertip. An analog circuit with automatic gain adjustment is implemented to get the stable original PPG signals from above two IR probes. In order to obtain the time delay precisely between two PPG signals, we obtain the pulse transit time from the second derivative of the original PPG signals. To get a portable, wireless and low power consumption PWV measurement device, the low energy Bluetooth 4.0 (BLE) and the microprocessor (Cortex™-M3) are used in this study. The PWV is highly correlated with blood pressure. This portable device has potential to be used for continuous blood pressure monitoring.

Keywords: pulse wave velocity, photoplethysmography, portable device, biomedical engineering

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7 Capturing Stress States in Video Conferences by Photoplethysmographic Pulse Detection

Authors: Jarek Krajewski, David Daxberger


We propose a stress detection method based on RGB camera using heart rate detection, also known as Photoplethysmography Imaging (PPGI). This technique focuses on the measurement of the small changes in skin colour caused by blood perfusion. A stationary lab setting with simulated video conferences is chosen using constant light conditions and a sampling rate of 30 fps. The ground truth measurement of heart rate is conducted with a common PPG system. A novel approach for pulse peak detection is based on a machine learning based approach, applying brute force feature extraction for the prediction of heart rate pulses. The statistical analysis showed good agreement (correlation r = .79, p<0.05) between the reference heart rate system and the proposed method. Based on these findings, the proposed method could provide a reliable, low-cost, and contactless way for measuring HR parameters in daily-life environments.

Keywords: heart rate, PPGI, machine learning, brute force feature extraction

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6 Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation

Authors: Caje F. Pinto, Jivan S. Parab, Gourish M. Naik


This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Keywords: heart rate, NIOS II, oxygen saturation, photoplethysmography, soft-core, SOPC

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5 Introduction of Integrated Image Deep Learning Solution and How It Brought Laboratorial Level Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Results to Everyone

Authors: Zhuang Hou, Xiaolei Cao


The general public and medical professionals recognized the importance of accurately measuring and storing blood oxygen levels and heart rate during the COVID-19 pandemic. The demand for accurate contactless devices was motivated by the need for cross-infection reduction and the shortage of conventional oximeters, partially due to the global supply chain issue. This paper evaluated a contactless mini program HealthyPai’s heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurements compared with other wearable devices. In the HR study of 185 samples (81 in the laboratory environment, 104 in the real-life environment), the mean absolute error (MAE) ± standard deviation was 1.4827 ± 1.7452 in the lab, 6.9231 ± 5.6426 in the real-life setting. In the SpO2 study of 24 samples, the MAE ± standard deviation of the measurement was 1.0375 ± 0.7745. Our results validated that HealthyPai utilizing the Integrated Image Deep Learning Solution (IIDLS) framework, can accurately measure HR and SpO2, providing the test quality at least comparable to other FDA-approved wearable devices in the market and surpassing the consumer-grade and research-grade wearable standards.

Keywords: remote photoplethysmography, heart rate, oxygen saturation, contactless measurement, mini program

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4 Detection of Atrial Fibrillation Using Wearables via Attentional Two-Stream Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Huawei Bai, Jianguo Yao, Fellow, IEEE


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of heart arrhythmia and is closely associated with mortality and morbidity in heart failure, stroke, and coronary artery disease. The development of single spot optical sensors enables widespread photoplethysmography (PPG) screening, especially for AF, since it represents a more convenient and noninvasive approach. To our knowledge, most existing studies based on public and unbalanced datasets can barely handle the multiple noises sources in the real world and, also, lack interpretability. In this paper, we construct a large- scale PPG dataset using measurements collected from PPG wrist- watch devices worn by volunteers and propose an attention-based two-stream heterogeneous neural network (TSHNN). The first stream is a hybrid neural network consisting of a three-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) and two-layer attention- based bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) network to learn representations from temporally sampled signals. The second stream extracts latent representations from the PPG time-frequency spectrogram using a five-layer CNN. The outputs from both streams are fed into a fusion layer for the outcome. Visualization of the attention weights learned demonstrates the effectiveness of the attention mechanism against noise. The experimental results show that the TSHNN outperforms all the competitive baseline approaches and with 98.09% accuracy, achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Keywords: PPG wearables, atrial fibrillation, feature fusion, attention mechanism, hyber network

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3 Effects of Spectrotemporal Modulation of Music Profiles on Coherence of Cardiovascular Rhythms

Authors: I-Hui Hsieh, Yu-Hsuan Hu


The powerful effect of music is often associated with changes in physiological responses such as heart rate and respiration. Previous studies demonstrate that Mayer waves of blood pressure, the spontaneous rhythm occurring at 0.1 Hz, corresponds to a progressive crescendo of the musical phrase. However, music contain dynamic changes in temporal and spectral features. As such, it remains unclear which aspects of musical structures optimally affect synchronization of cardiovascular rhythms. This study investigates the independent contribution of spectral pattern, temporal pattern, and dissonance level on synchronization of cardiovascular rhythms. The regularity of acoustical patterns occurring at a periodic rhythm of 0.1 Hz is hypothesized to elicit the strongest coherence of cardiovascular rhythms. Music excerpts taken from twelve pieces of Western classical repertoire were modulated to contain varying degrees of pattern regularity of the acoustic envelope structure. Three levels of dissonance were manipulated by varying the harmonic structure of the accompanying chords. Electrocardiogram and photoplethysmography signals were recorded for 5 minutes of baseline and simultaneously while participants listen to music excerpts randomly presented over headphones in a sitting position. Participants were asked to indicate the pleasantness of each music excerpt by adjusting via a slider presented on screen. Analysis of the Fourier spectral power of blood pressure around 0.1 Hz showed a significant difference between music excerpts characterized by spectral and temporal pattern regularity compared to the same content in random pattern. Phase coherence between heart rate and blood pressure increased significantly during listening to spectrally-regular phrases compared to its matched control phrases. The degree of dissonance of the accompanying chord sequence correlated with level of coherence between heart rate and blood pressure. Results suggest that low-level auditory features of music can entrain coherence of autonomic physiological variables. These findings have potential implications for using music as a clinical and therapeutic intervention for regulating cardiovascular functions.

Keywords: cardiovascular rhythms, coherence, dissonance, pattern regularity

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2 Regression-Based Approach for Development of a Cuff-Less Non-Intrusive Cardiovascular Health Monitor

Authors: Pranav Gulati, Isha Sharma


Hypertension and hypotension are known to have repercussions on the health of an individual, with hypertension contributing to an increased probability of risk to cardiovascular diseases and hypotension resulting in syncope. This prompts the development of a non-invasive, non-intrusive, continuous and cuff-less blood pressure monitoring system to detect blood pressure variations and to identify individuals with acute and chronic heart ailments, but due to the unavailability of such devices for practical daily use, it becomes difficult to screen and subsequently regulate blood pressure. The complexities which hamper the steady monitoring of blood pressure comprises of the variations in physical characteristics from individual to individual and the postural differences at the site of monitoring. We propose to develop a continuous, comprehensive cardio-analysis tool, based on reflective photoplethysmography (PPG). The proposed device, in the form of an eyewear captures the PPG signal and estimates the systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a sensor positioned near the temporal artery. This system relies on regression models which are based on extraction of key points from a pair of PPG wavelets. The proposed system provides an edge over the existing wearables considering that it allows for uniform contact and pressure with the temporal site, in addition to minimal disturbance by movement. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithms enhance the integrity and quality of the extracted features by reducing unreliable data sets. We tested the system with 12 subjects of which 6 served as the training dataset. For this, we measured the blood pressure using a cuff based BP monitor (Omron HEM-8712) and at the same time recorded the PPG signal from our cardio-analysis tool. The complete test was conducted by using the cuff based blood pressure monitor on the left arm while the PPG signal was acquired from the temporal site on the left side of the head. This acquisition served as the training input for the regression model on the selected features. The other 6 subjects were used to validate the model by conducting the same test on them. Results show that the developed prototype can robustly acquire the PPG signal and can therefore be used to reliably predict blood pressure levels.

Keywords: blood pressure, photoplethysmograph, eyewear, physiological monitoring

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1 Assessment of Five Photoplethysmographic Methods for Estimating Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Akshay B. Pawar, Rohit Y. Parasnis


Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a widely used indicator of the regulation between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the cardiovascular system. Besides being non-invasive, it also has the potential to predict mortality in cases involving critical injuries. The gold standard method for determining HRV is based on the analysis of RR interval time series extracted from ECG signals. However, because it is much more convenient to obtain photoplethysmogramic (PPG) signals as compared to ECG signals (which require the attachment of several electrodes to the body), many researchers have used pulse cycle intervals instead of RR intervals to estimate HRV. They have also compared this method with the gold standard technique. Though most of their observations indicate a strong correlation between the two methods, recent studies show that in healthy subjects, except for a few parameters, the pulse-based method cannot be a surrogate for the standard RR interval- based method. Moreover, the former tends to overestimate short-term variability in heart rate. This calls for improvements in or alternatives to the pulse-cycle interval method. In this study, besides the systolic peak-peak interval method (PP method) that has been studied several times, four recent PPG-based techniques, namely the first derivative peak-peak interval method (P1D method), the second derivative peak-peak interval method (P2D method), the valley-valley interval method (VV method) and the tangent-intersection interval method (TI method) were compared with the gold standard technique. ECG and PPG signals were obtained from 10 young and healthy adults (consisting of both males and females) seated in the armchair position. In order to de-noise these signals and eliminate baseline drift, they were passed through certain digital filters. After filtering, the following HRV parameters were computed from PPG using each of the five methods and also from ECG using the gold standard method: time domain parameters (SDNN, pNN50 and RMSSD), frequency domain parameters (Very low-frequency power (VLF), Low-frequency power (LF), High-frequency power (HF) and Total power or “TP”). Besides, Poincaré plots were also plotted and their SD1/SD2 ratios determined. The resulting sets of parameters were compared with those yielded by the standard method using measures of statistical correlation (correlation coefficient) as well as statistical agreement (Bland-Altman plots). From the viewpoint of correlation, our results show that the best PPG-based methods for the determination of most parameters and Poincaré plots are the P2D method (shows more than 93% correlation with the standard method) and the PP method (mean correlation: 88%) whereas the TI, VV and P1D methods perform poorly (<70% correlation in most cases). However, our evaluation of statistical agreement using Bland-Altman plots shows that none of the five techniques agrees satisfactorily well with the gold standard method as far as time-domain parameters are concerned. In conclusion, excellent statistical correlation implies that certain PPG-based methods provide a good amount of information on the pattern of heart rate variation, whereas poor statistical agreement implies that PPG cannot completely replace ECG in the determination of HRV.

Keywords: photoplethysmography, heart rate variability, correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot

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