Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: pedagogies

62 Introducing Transcending Pedagogies

Authors: Wajeehah Aayeshah, Joy Higgs

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The term “transcending pedagogies” has been created to refer to teaching and learning strategies that transcend the mode of student enrolment, the needs of different students, and different learning spaces. The value of such pedagogies in the current arena when learning spaces, technologies and preferences are more volatile than ever before, is a key focus of this paper. The paper will examine current and emerging pedagogies that transcend the learning spaces and enrollment modes of on campus, distance, virtual and workplace learning contexts. A further point of interest is how academics in professional and higher education settings interpret and implement pedagogies in the current global conversation space and re-creation of higher education. This study questioned how the notion and practice of transcending pedagogies enables us to re-imagine and reshape university curricula. It explored the nature of teaching and learning spaces and those professional and higher education (current and emerging) pedagogies that can be implemented across these spaces. We set out to identify how transcending pedagogies can assist students in learning to deal with complexity, uncertainty and change in the practice worlds and better appeal to students who are making decisions on where to enrol. The data for this study was collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups with academics and policy makers within academia.

Keywords: Transcending Pedagogies, teaching and learning strategies, learning spaces, pedagogies

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61 Mobile Device Applications in Physical Education: Investigating New Pedagogical Possibilities

Authors: Danica Vidotto

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Digital technology is continuing to disrupt and challenge local conventions of teaching and education. As mobile devices continue to make their way into contemporary classrooms, educators need new pedagogies incorporating information communication technology to help reform the learning environment. In physical education, however, this can seem controversial as physical inactivity is often related to an excess of screen-time. This qualitative research project is an investigation on how physical educators use mobile device applications (apps) in their pedagogy and to what end. A comprehensive literature review is included to examine and engage current academic research of new pedagogies and technology, and their relevance to physical activity. Data were collected through five semi-structured interviews resulting in three overarching themes; i) changing pedagogies in physical education; ii) the perceived benefits and experienced challenges of using apps; and iii) apps, physical activity, and physical education. This study concludes with a discussion of the findings engaging the literature, discussing the implications of findings, and recommendations for future research.

Keywords: applications (apps), mobile devices, new pedagogies, physical education

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60 Role of English Language Teachers in Fostering the Culture of Peace in ELT Contexts: A Literature Review

Authors: Maliheh Rezaei

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As demand for learning English as the global language remains high, scholars are increasingly encouraged to explore the potential of this medium for creating hegemony and positive changes in human communities. This makes English Language teachers the potential agents of positive change who play a major role in fostering the culture of peace in their classes. The purpose of this literature review was thus evaluating the implementation of peace pedagogies by English language teachers. More specifically, it addressed a) the role and characteristics of English language teachers as peace agents and b) the pedagogies that they used to construct the culture of peace. Literature review was used, and several inclusion criteria were applied. Only papers published in English, which contained the keywords of English language teaching (ELT) and other related terms and acronyms such as teaching English to speakers of other languages, and teaching English as a second/foreign language as well as peace, peace education, and similar derivatives such ‘peacebuilding’ in their title and/or abstract were included in this review. Moreover, only papers that dealt with the actual implementation of peace education theories were investigated. Findings highlighted that most English language teachers relied on pedagogies adopted from social justice, global citizenship, and positive psychology. They specifically aimed to foster positive human traits such as resilience, empathy, and reflection that were also believed to play an important role in peacebuilding efforts. Nevertheless, the role of English language teachers in educating for peace was found to be peripheral. The main challenge to incorporate the tenets of peace education was the shortage of English language teachers who were skilled and qualified enough to incorporate and promote the culture of peace in their classes. This literature review presents the body of research that has linked peace education to ELT; therefore, it informs language teachers about the potential roles they have in creating a peaceful and sustainable future. It also presents them with more effective pedagogies and practices to successfully integrate peace-related activities in their classes.

Keywords: English language teachers, English language teaching, culture of peace, peace pedagogies

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59 Role of Teachers in Fostering the Culture of Peace in Higher Education Context: A Literature Review

Authors: Maliheh Rezaei

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Peace education has been introduced into many higher educational contexts by designing different programs, expecting to result in constructive changes, specifically in post-conflict countries. Teachers are the potential agents of positive change who play a major role in fostering the culture of peace in their classes. The purpose of this literature review was thus to evaluate the implementation of peace pedagogies by teachers in the context of higher education. More specifically, it addressed a) the role and characteristics of teachers and b) the pedagogies that they used to construct the culture of peace. The systematic literature review was used and several inclusion criteria were applied. Only papers published in English, which contained the keywords of university, higher education, peace, peace education, and similar derivatives such as ‘peacebuilding’ in their title and/or abstract, were included in this review. Moreover, only papers that dealt with the actual implementation of peace education theories were investigated. Findings highlighted that most teachers relied on pedagogies adopted from social justice, global citizenship, and positive psychology practices aiming to foster positive human traits such as resilience, empathy and reflection that were also believed to play an important role in peacebuilding efforts. Nevertheless, the incorporation of peace remained peripheral. The main challenge to incorporate the tenets of peace education was the shortage of teachers who were skilled and qualified enough to incorporate and promote the culture of peace in their classes. This literature review presents the body of research that has linked peace education to Higher Education. Therefore, it informs teachers about the potential roles they have in creating a peaceful and sustainable future. It also presents them with more effective pedagogies and practices to successfully integrate peace-related activities in Higher Education.

Keywords: culture of peace, higher education, teacher, pedogogy

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58 A Surrealist Play of Associations: Neoliberalism, Critical Pedagogy and Surrealism in Secondary English Language Arts

Authors: Stephanie Ho

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This project utilizes principles derived from the Surrealist movement to prioritize creative and critical thinking in secondary English Language Arts (ELA). The implementation of Surrealist-style pedagogies within an ELA classroom will be rooted in critical, radical pedagogy, which addresses the injustices caused by economic-oriented educational systems. The use of critical pedagogy will enable the subversive artistic and political aims of Surrealism to be transmitted to a classroom context. Through aesthetic reading strategies, appreciative questioning and dialogue, students will actively critique the power dynamics which structure (and often restrict) their lives. Within the ELA domain, cost-effective approaches often replace the actual “arts” of ELA. This research will therefore explore how Surrealist-oriented pedagogies could restore imaginative freedom and deconstruct conceptual barriers (normative standards, curricular constraints, and status quo power relations) in secondary ELA. This research will also examine how Surrealism can be used as a political and pedagogical model to treat societal problems mirrored in ELA classrooms. The stakeholders are teachers, as they experience constant pressure within their practices. Similarly, students encounter rigorous, results-based pressures. These dynamics contribute to feelings of powerlessness, thus reinforcing a formulaic model of ELA. The ELA curriculum has potential to create laboratories for critical discussion and active movement towards social change. This proposed research strategy of Surrealist-oriented pedagogies could enable students to experiment with social issues and develop senses of agency and voice that reflect awareness of contemporary society while simultaneously building their ELA skills.

Keywords: arts-informed pedagogies, language arts, literature, surrealism

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57 Topics of Blockchain Technology to Teach at Community College

Authors: Penn P. Wu, Jeannie Jo

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Blockchain technology has rapidly gained popularity in industry. This paper attempts to assist academia to answer four questions. First, should community colleges begin offering education to nurture blockchain-literate students for the job market? Second, what are the appropriate topical areas to cover? Third, should it be an individual course? And forth, should it be a technical or management course? This paper starts with identifying the knowledge domains of blockchain technology and the topical areas each domain has, and continues with placing them in appropriate academic territories (Computer Sciences vs. Business) and subjects (programming, management, marketing, and laws), and then develops an evaluation model to determine the appropriate topical area for community colleges to teach. The evaluation is based on seven factors: maturity of technology, impacts on management, real-world applications, subject classification, knowledge prerequisites, textbook readiness, and recommended pedagogies. The evaluation results point to an interesting direction that offering an introductory course is an ideal option to guide students through the learning journey of what blockchain is and how it applies to business. Such an introductory course does not need to engage students in the discussions of mathematics and sciences that make blockchain technologies possible. While it is inevitable to brief technical topics to help students build a solid knowledge foundation of blockchain technologies, community colleges should avoid offering students a course centered on the discussion of developing blockchain applications.

Keywords: blockchain, pedagogies, blockchain technologies, blockchain course, blockchain pedagogies

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56 Identifying Physiological Markers That Are Sensitive to Cognitive Load in Preschoolers

Authors: Priyashri Kamlesh Sridhar, Suranga Nanayakkara

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Current frameworks in assessment follow lesson delivery and rely heavily on test performance or teacher’s observations. This, however, neglects the underlying cognitive load during the learning process. Identifying the pivotal points when the load occurs helps design effective pedagogies and tools that respond to learners’ cognitive state. There has been limited research on quantifying cognitive load in preschoolers, real-time. In this study, we recorded electrodermal activity and heart rate variability (HRV) from 10 kindergarteners performing executive function tasks and Johnson Woodcock test of cognitive abilities. Preliminary findings suggest that there are indeed sensitive task-dependent markers in skin conductance (number of SCRs and average amplitude of SCRs) and HRV (mean heart rate and low frequency component) captured during the learning process.

Keywords: early childhood, learning, methodologies, pedagogies

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55 Knowing Where the Learning is a Shift from Summative to Formative Assessment

Authors: Eric Ho

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Pedagogical approaches in Asia nowadays are imported from the West. In Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC), however, there is a dichotomy between the perceived benefits of Western pedagogies and the real classroom practices in Chinese societies. The success of Hong Kong students in large-scale international assessments has proved that both the strengths of both Western pedagogies and CHC educational approaches should be integrated for the sake of the students. University students aim to equip themselves with employability skills upon graduation. Formative assessments allow students to receive detailed, positive, and timely feedback and they can identify their strengths and weaknesses before they start working. However, there remains a question of whether university year 1 students who come from an examination-driven secondary education background are ready to respond to more formative assessments. The findings show that year 1 students are less concerned about competition in the university and more open to new teaching approaches that will allow them to improve as professionals in their major study areas.

Keywords: formative assessment, higher education, learning styles, Confucian heritage cultures

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54 Bridging Binaries: Exploring Students' Conceptions of Good Teaching within Teacher-Centered and Learner-Centered Pedagogies of Their Teachers in Disadvantaged Public Schools in the Philippines

Authors: Julie Lucille H. Del Valle

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To improve its public school education, the Philippines took a radical curriculum reform in 2012, by launching the K-to-12 program which not only added two years to its basic education but also mandated for a replacement of traditional teaching with learner-centered pedagogy, an instruction whose western underpinnings suggest improving student achievement, thus, making pedagogies in the country more or less similar with those in Europe and USA. This policy, however, placed learner-centered pedagogy in a binary opposition against teacher-centered instruction, creating a simplistic dichotomy between good and bad teaching. It is in this dichotomy that this study seeks to explore, using Critical Pedagogy of the Place as the lens, in understanding what constitutes good teaching across a range of learner-centered and teacher-centered pedagogies in the context of public schools in disadvantaged communities. Furthermore, this paper examines how pedagogical homogeneity, arguably influenced by dominant global imperatives with economic agenda – often referred as economisation of education – not only thins out local identities as structures of global schooling become increasingly similar but also limits the concept of good teaching to student outcomes and corporate employability. This paper draws from qualitative research on students, thus addressing the gap created by studies on good teaching which looked mainly into the perceptions of teachers and administrators, while overlooking those of students whose voices must be considered in the formulation of inclusive policies that advocate for true education reform. Using ethnographic methods including student focus groups, classroom observations, and teacher interviews, responses from students of disadvantaged schools reveal that good teaching includes both learner-centered and teacher-centered practices that incorporate ‘academic caring’ which sustains their motivation to achieve in school despite the challenging learning environments. The combination of these two pedagogies equips students with life-long skills necessary to gain equal access to sustainable economic opportunities in their local communities.

Keywords: critical pedagogy of the place, good teaching, learner-centered pedagogy, placed-based instruction

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53 Educational Video Capsules for Fostering Teachers Creativity

Authors: Martha Salinas, Valkyria Bernal

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Creativity is a possible response to the profound social, economic, and global changes society is living and education is the source to develop this kind of capacity. However, institutional pressures often prevent teachers from engaging in creative teaching practices and make innovation not the main curricular focus when building learning scenarios and experiences. This study proposes and validates the use of a prototype of Educative Video – Capsules from the perspective of teacher training, presenting the different stages of design, the content plan, as well as the influences of its components and characteristics from the perspective of creativity. The paper presents literature findings of the factors that influence the innovative behavior of teachers, the beliefs of teachers about creativity and its nature, as well as the creative pedagogies that have generated better results. The results show that the disposition of teachers towards creative pedagogies improves significantly with the use of a tool that is based on the principles of microlearning and is developed in a non-academic, autonomous, and non-imposed family environment as traditional teacher training processes usually occur.

Keywords: educational innovation, resistance to innovation, creativity, creative pedagogy

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52 Developing and Enacting a Model for Institutional Implementation of the Humanizing Pedagogy: Case Study of Nelson Mandela University

Authors: Mukhtar Raban

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As part of Nelson Mandela University’s journey of repositioning its learning and teaching agenda, the university adopted and foregrounded a humanizing pedagogy-aligning with institutional goals of critically transforming the academic project. The university established the Humanizing Pedagogy Praxis and Research Niche (HPPRN) as a centralized hub for coordinating institutional work exploring and advancing humanizing pedagogies and tasked the unit with developing and enacting a model for humanizing pedagogy exploration. This investigation endeavored to report on the development and enactment of a model that sought to institutionalize a humanizing pedagogy at a South African university. Having followed a qualitative approach, the investigation presents the case study of Nelson Mandela University’s HPPRN and the model it subsequently established and enacted for the advancement towards a more common institutional understanding, interpretation and application of the humanizing pedagogy. The study adopted an interpretive lens for analysis, complementing the qualitative approach of the investigation. The primary challenge that confronted the HPPRN was the development of a ‘living model’ that had to complement existing institutional initiatives while accommodating a renewed spirit of critical reflection, innovation and research of continued and new humanizing pedagogical exploration and applications. The study found that the explicit consideration of tenets of humanizing and critical pedagogies in underpinning and framing the HPPRN Model contributed to the sense of ‘lived’ humanizing pedagogy experiences during enactment. The multi-leveled inclusion of critical reflection in the development and enactment stages was found to further the processes of praxis employed at the university, which is integral to the advancement of humanizing and critical pedagogies. The development and implementation of a model that seeks to institutionalize the humanizing pedagogy at a university rely not only on sound theoretical conceptualization but also on the ‘richness of becoming more human’ explicitly expressed and encountered in praxes and application.

Keywords: humanizing pedagogy, critical pedagogy, institutional implementation, praxis

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51 Complex Learning Tasks and Their Impact on Cognitive Engagement for Undergraduate Engineering Students

Authors: Anastassis Kozanitis, Diane Leduc, Alain Stockless

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This paper presents preliminary results from a two-year funded research program looking to analyze and understand the relationship between high cognitive engagement, higher order cognitive processes employed in situations of complex learning tasks, and the use of active learning pedagogies in engineering undergraduate programs. A mixed method approach was used to gauge student engagement and their cognitive processes when accomplishing complex tasks. Quantitative data collected from the self-report cognitive engagement scale shows that deep learning approach is positively correlated with high levels of complex learning tasks and the level of student engagement, in the context of classroom active learning pedagogies. Qualitative analyses of in depth face-to-face interviews reveal insights into the mechanisms influencing students’ cognitive processes when confronted with open-ended problem resolution. Findings also support evidence that students will adjust their level of cognitive engagement according to the specific didactic environment.

Keywords: cognitive engagement, deep and shallow strategies, engineering programs, higher order cognitive processes

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50 Transforming Gender Norms through Play: Qualitative Findings from Primary Schools in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique

Authors: Geetanjali Gill

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International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and development assistance donors have been implementing education projects in Sub-Saharan Africa and the global South that respond to gender-based inequities and that attempt to transform socio-cultural norms for greater gender equality in schools and communities. These efforts are in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal number four, quality education, and goal number five, gender equality. Some INGOs and donors have also championed the use of play-based pedagogies for improved and more gender equal education outcomes. The study used the qualitative methods of life history interviews and focus groups to gauge social norm change amongst male and female adolescents, families, and teachers in primary schools that have been using gender-responsive play-based pedagogies in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique. School administrators and project managers from the INGO Right to Play International were consulted in the selection of two primary schools per country (in both rural and urban contexts), as well as the selection of ten male and ten female students in grades four to six in each school, using specific parameters of social norm adherence. The parents (or guardians) and grandparents of four male and four female students in each school who were determined to be ‘outliers’ in their adherence to social norms were also interviewed. Additionally, sex-specific focus groups were held with thirty-six teachers. The study found that gender-responsive play-based pedagogies positively impactedsocio-cultural norms that shape gender relations amongst adolescents, their families, and teachers. Female and male students who spoke about their beliefs about gender equality in the roles and educational and career aspirations of men/boys and women/girls made linkages to the play-based pedagogies and approaches used by their teachers. Also, the parents and grandparents of these students were aware of generational differences in gender norms, and many were accepting of changed gender norms. Teachers who were effectively implementing gender-responsive play-based pedagogies in their classrooms spoke about changes to their own gender norms and how they were able to influence the gender norms of parents and community members. Life history interviews were found to be well-suited for the examination of changes to socio-cultural norms and gender relations. However, an appropriate framing of questions and topics specific to each target group was instrumental for the collection of data on socio-cultural norms and gender. The findings of this study can spur further academic inquiry of linkages between gender norms and education outcomes. The findings are also relevant for the work of INGOs and donors in the global South and for the development of gender-responsive education policies and programs.

Keywords: education, gender equality, ghana, international development, life histories, mozambique, rwanda, socio-cultural norms, sub-saharan africa, qualitative research

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49 Renovating Language Laboratories for Pedagogical and Technological Advancements in the New Era

Authors: Paul Lam, Chi Him Chan, Alan Tse

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Language laboratories have been widely used in language learning, starting in the middle of the last century as one of the earliest forms of educational technology. They are designed to assist students’ language learning with technological innovations. Traditional language laboratories provide individual workstations that allow students to access multimedia language resources. In this type of facility, students can train their listening and speaking abilities, and teachers can also assess the performance of an individual student. Although such a setting promotes a student-centered pedagogy by encouraging students to work at their own pace and according to their own needs, it still favours a traditional, behaviourist language learning pedagogy which focuses on repetitive drilling. The change of pedagogies poses challenges to both the teachers and the facilities. The peer-learning pedagogy advocates that language learning should focus on the social aspect, which emphasizes the importance of everyday communication in language learning. The self-access, individual workstation language laboratories may not be able to provide the flexibility for interaction in the new pedagogies. Modern advancement in technology is another factor that drove our language laboratory renovation. In particular, mobile and wireless technology enabled the use of smaller and more flexible devices, making possible much clever use of space. The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) renovated nine existing language laboratories to provide lighter and more advanced equipment, movable tables, and round desks. These facilities allow more flexibility and encourage students’ interaction. It is believed that the renovated language laboratories can serve different peer learning activities and thus support peer-learning pedagogies in language teaching and learning. A survey has been conducted to collect comments from the teachers who have used the renovated language laboratories and received forty-four response. The teachers’ comments reveal that they experienced different challenges in using the renovated language laboratories, and there is a need to provide guidance to teachers during the technological and pedagogical transition. For example, teachers need instruction on using the newly installed devices such as touch-monitor and visualizer. They also need advice on planning new teaching and learning activities. Nevertheless, teachers appreciated that the renovated language laboratories are flexible and provide more spaces for different learning activities.

Keywords: language laboratories, language learning, peer-learning, student interaction

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48 A Study of Faculty Development Programs in India to Assist Pedagogy and Curriculum Development

Authors: Chhavi Rana, Sanjay K Jain

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All sides of every education debate agree that quality learning happens when knowledgeable, caring teachers use sound pedagogy. Many deliberations of pedagogy make the fault of considering it as principally being about teaching. There has been lot of research about how to build a positive climate for learning, improve student curiosity, and enhance classroom association. However, these things can only be facilitated when teachers are equipped with better teaching techniques that use sound and accurate pedagogy. Pedagogy is the science and art of education. Its aims range from the full development of the human being to skills acquisition. In India, a project named Mission 10 x has been started by an esteemed IT Corporation Wipro as a faculty development programme (FDP) that particularly focus on elements that facilitated teachers in developing curriculum and new pedagogies that can lead to improvement in student engagement. This paper presents a study of these FDPs and examines (1) the parameters that help teachers in building new pedagogies (2) the extent to which appropriate usage of pedagogy is improved after the conduct of Mission 10 x FDPs, and (3) whether institutions differ in terms of their ability to convert usage of improved pedagogy into academic performance via these FDPs. The sample consisted of 2,236 students at 6 four-year engineering colleges and universities that completed several FDPs during 2012-2014. Many measures of usage of better pedagogy were linked positively with such FDPs, although some of the relationships were weak in strength. The results suggest that the usage of pedagogy were more benefited after conducting these FDPs and application of novel approaches in conducting classes.

Keywords: student engagement, critical thinking; achievement, student learning, pedagogy

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47 Transformational Entrepreneurship: Exploring Pedagogy in Tertiary Education

Authors: S. Karmokar

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Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing interest in the topic of entrepreneurship education as it is seen in many countries as a way of enhancing the enterprise culture and promote capability building among community. There is also rapid growth of emerging technologies across the globe and forced entrepreneurs to searching for a new model of economic growth. There are two movements that are dominating and creating waves, Technology Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurship. An increasing number of entrepreneurs are awakening to the possibility of combining the scalable tools and methodology of Technology Entrepreneurship with the value system of Social Entrepreneurship–‘Transformational Entrepreneurship’. To do this transitional educational institute’s need to figure out how to unite the scalable tools of Technology Entrepreneurship with the moral ethos of Social Entrepreneurship. The traditional entrepreneurship education model is wedded to top-down instructive approaches, that is widely used in management education have led to passive educational model. Despite the effort, disruptive’ pedagogies are rare in higher education; they remain underused and often marginalized. High impact and transformational entrepreneurship education and training require universities to adopt new practices and revise current, traditional ways of working. This is a conceptual research paper exploring the potential and growth of transformational entrepreneurship, investigating links between social entrepreneurship. Based on empirical studies and theoretical approaches, this paper outlines some educational approach for both academics and educational institutes to deliver emerging transformational entrepreneurship in tertiary education. The paper presents recommendations for tertiary educators to inform the designing of teaching practices, revise current delivery methods and encourage students to fulfill their potential as entrepreneurs.

Keywords: educational pedagogies, emerging technologies, social entrepreneurship, transformational entrepreneurship

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46 History and Its Significance in Modern Visual Graphic: Its Niche with Respect to India

Authors: Hemang Madhusudan Anglay, Akash Gaur

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Value of visual perception in today’s context is vulnerable. Visual Graphic broadly and conveniently expresses culture, language and science of art that satisfactorily is a mould to cast various expressions. It is one of the essential parts of communication design which relatively can be used to approach the above areas of expressions. In between the receptors and interpreters, there is an expanse of comprehension and cliché in relation to the use of Visual Graphics. There are pedagogies, commodification and honest reflections where Visual Graphic is a common area of interest. The traditional receptors amidst the dilemma of this very situation find themselves in the pool of media, medium and interactions. Followed by a very vague interpretation the entire circle of communication becomes a question of comprehension vs cliché. Residing in the same ‘eco-system’ these communities who make pedagogies and multiply its reflections sometimes with honesty and sometimes on commercial values tend to function differently. With the advent of technology, which is a virtual space allows the user to access various forms of content. This diminishes the core characteristics and creates a vacuum even though it satisfies the user. The symbolic interpretation of visual form and structure is transmitted in a culture by the means of contemporary media. Starting from a very individualistic approach, today it is beyond Print & Electronic media. The expected outcome will be a study of Ahmedabad City, situated in the Gujarat State of India. It is identity with respect to socio-cultural as well as economic changes. The methodology will include process to understand the evolution and narratives behind it that will encompass diverse community, its reflection and it will sum up the salient features of communication through combination of visual and graphic that is relevant in Indian context trading its values to global scenario.

Keywords: communication, culture, graphic, visual

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45 An Assessment of Digital Platforms, Student Online Learning, Teaching Pedagogies, Research and Training at Kenya College of Accounting University

Authors: Jasmine Renner, Alice Njuguna

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The booming technological revolution is driving a change in the mode of delivery systems especially for e-learning and distance learning in higher education. The report and findings of the study; an assessment of digital platforms, student online learning, teaching pedagogies, research and training at Kenya College of Accounting University (hereinafter 'KCA') was undertaken as a joint collaboration project between the Carnegie African Diaspora Fellowship and input from the staff, students and faculty at KCA University. The participants in this assessment/research met for selected days during a six-week period during which, one-one consultations, surveys, questionnaires, foci groups, training, and seminars were conducted to ascertain 'online learning and teaching, curriculum development, research and training at KCA.' The project was organized into an eight-week project workflow with each week culminating in project activities designed to assess digital online teaching and learning at KCA. The project also included the training of distance learning instructors at KCA and the evaluation of KCA’s distance platforms and programs. Additionally, through a curriculum audit and redesign, the project sought to enhance the curriculum development activities related to of distance learning at KCA. The findings of this assessment/research represent the systematic deliberate process of gathering, analyzing and using data collected from DL students, DL staff and lecturers and a librarian personnel in charge of online learning resources and access at KCA. We engaged in one-on-one interviews and discussions with staff, students, and faculty and collated the findings to inform practices that are effective in the ongoing design and development of eLearning earning at KCA University. Overall findings of the project led to the following recommendations. First, there is a need to address infrastructural challenges that led to poor internet connectivity for online learning, training needs and content development for faculty and staff. Second, there is a need to manage cultural impediments within KCA; for example fears of vital change from one platform to another for effectiveness and Institutional goodwill as a vital promise of effective online learning. Third, at a practical and short-term level, the following recommendations based on systematic findings of the research conducted were as follows: there is a need for the following to be adopted at KCA University to promote the effective adoption of online learning: a) an eLearning compatible faculty lab, b) revision of policy to include an eLearn strategy or strategic management, c) faculty and staff recognitions engaged in the process of training for the adoption and implementation of eLearning and d) adequate website resources on eLearning. The report and findings represent a comprehensive approach to a systematic assessment of online teaching and learning, research and training at KCA.

Keywords: e-learning, digital platforms, student online learning, online teaching pedagogies

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44 Bringing Feminist Critical Pedagogy to the ESP Higher Education Classes: Feasibility & Challenges

Authors: Samira Essabari

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What, unfortunately, governs the Moroccan educational philosophy and policy today is a concerning neoliberal discourse with its obsession with market logics and individualism. Critical education has been advocated to resist the neoliberal hegemony since it holds the promise to reclaim the social function of education. Significantly, the mounting forms of sexism and discrimination against women combined with hegemonic educational practices are jeopardizing the social function of teaching and learning, hence the relevance of feminist critical pedagogy. A substantial body of research worldwide has explored the ways in which feminist pedagogy can develop feminist consciousness and examine power relations in different educational contexts. In Morocco, however, the feasibility of feminist pedagogy has not been researched despite the overwhelming interest in gender issues in different educational settings. The research on critical pedagogies in Morocco remains very promising. Yet, most studies were conducted in contexts which are already engaged with issues of theory, discourse, and discourse analysis. The field of ESP ( English for Specific Purposes) is pragmatic by nature, and priority in research has been given to questions that adhere to the mainstream concerns of need analysis and study skills and ignore issues of power, gender power relations, and intersectional forms of oppression. To address these gaps in the existing literature, this participatory action research seeks to investigate the feasibility of Feminist pedagogy in ESP higher education and how it can foster feminist critical consciousness among ESP students without compromising their language learning needs. The findings of this research will contribute to research on critical applied linguistics and critical ESP more specifically and add to the practice of critical pedagogies in Moroccan higher education by providing in-depth insights into the enablers and barriers to the implementation of feminist critical pedagogy, which is still feeling its way into the educational scene in Morocco.

Keywords: feminist pedagogy, critical pedagogy, power relations, gender, ESP, intersectionality

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43 Codifying the Creative Self: Conflicts of Theory and Content in Creative Writing

Authors: Danielle L. Iamarino

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This paper explores the embattled territory of academic creative writing—and most focally, the use of critical theory in the teaching and structuring of creative practice. It places creative writing in contemporary social, cultural, and otherwise anthropological contexts, and evaluates conventional creative writing pedagogies based on how well they serve the updated needs of increasingly diverse student congregations. With continued emphasis on student-centered learning, this paper compares theoretical to practical applications of discipline-specific knowledge, examining and critiquing theory in terms of its relevance, accessibility, and whether or not it is both actionable and beneficial in the creative writing classroom.

Keywords: creative writing, literary theory, content, pedagogy, workshop, teaching

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42 Intercultural Competencies as a Means to Rethink the Pedagogies of Diversity in Latin America

Authors: Marcelo Jose Cabarcas Ortega, Lissette Herrera, Juan Carlos Lemus Stave

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This work makes a rather theoretical reflection on a pedagogical response against the coloniality of knowledge and power. The purpose here is to reflect on the challenges and opportunities it opens up in the educational field. No doubt, ours derived in a more abstract than concrete reflection. The quest, nevertheless, to stimulate the interest in a non-violent, non-contemptuous education able to balance, improves and if necessary, transforms the relationships that have made it a space of privilege and exclusion. We all know the school has found itself in need of rethinking diversity while developing awareness of its own role in reproducing inequality. Intercultural education may provide an answer to that hurry when fostering critical awareness and dialogue.

Keywords: decoloniality, coloniality of power, diversity, interculturality

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41 Library Support for the Intellectually Disabled: Book Clubs and Universal Design

Authors: Matthew Conner, Leah Plocharczyk

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This study examines the role of academic libraries in support of the intellectually disabled (ID) in post-secondary education. With the growing public awareness of the ID, there has been recognition of their need for post-secondary educational opportunities. This was an unforeseen result for a population that has been associated with elementary levels of education, yet the reasons are compelling. After aging out of the school system, the ID need and deserve educational and social support as much as anyone. Moreover, the commitment to diversity in higher education rings hollow if this group is excluded. Yet, challenges remain to integrating the ID into a college curriculum. This presentation focuses on the role of academic libraries. Neglecting this vital resource for the support of the ID is not to be thought of, yet the library’s contribution is not clear. Library collections presume reading ability and libraries already struggle to meet their traditional goals with the resources available. This presentation examines how academic libraries can support post-secondary ID. For context, the presentation first examines the state of post-secondary education for the ID with an analysis of data on the United States compiled by the ThinkCollege! Project. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical analysis will show regional and methodological trends in post-secondary support of the ID which currently lack any significant involvement by college libraries. Then, the presentation analyzes a case study of a book club at the Florida Atlantic University (FAU) libraries which has run for several years. Issues such as the selection of books, effective pedagogies, and evaluation procedures will be examined. The study has found that the instruction pedagogies used by libraries can be extended through concepts of Universal Learning Design (ULD) to effectively engage the ID. In particular, student-centered, participatory methodologies that accommodate different learning styles have proven to be especially useful. The choice of text is complex and determined not only by reading ability but familiarity of subject and features of the ID’s developmental trajectory. The selection of text is not only a necessity but also promises to give insight into the ID. Assessment remains a complex and unresolved subject, but the voluntary, sustained, and enthusiastic attendance of the ID is an undeniable indicator. The study finds that, through the traditional library vehicle of the book club, academic libraries can support ID students through training in both reading and socialization, two major goals of their post-secondary education.

Keywords: academic libraries, intellectual disability, literacy, post-secondary education

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40 Emerging Technologies in Distance Education

Authors: Eunice H. Li

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This paper discusses and analyses a small portion of the literature that has been reviewed for research work in Distance Education (DE) pedagogies that I am currently undertaking. It begins by presenting a brief overview of Taylor's (2001) five-generation models of Distance Education. The focus of the discussion will be on the 5th generation, Intelligent Flexible Learning Model. For this generation, educational and other institutions make portal access and interactive multi-media (IMM) an integral part of their operations. The paper then takes a brief look at current trends in technologies – for example smart-watch wearable technology such as Apple Watch. The emergent trends in technologies carry many new features. These are compared to former DE generational features. Also compared is the time span that has elapsed between the generations that are referred to in Taylor's model. This paper is a work in progress. The paper therefore welcome new insights, comparisons and critique of the issues discussed.

Keywords: distance education, e-learning technologies, pedagogy, generational models

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39 Reconsidering Curriculum: Educational Responses for Peace-Building in and outside the Classroom

Authors: S. Roman

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This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with three Canadian educators to examine peace-based pedagogies used in varied teaching contexts and the degree to which the teaching strategies implemented were aligned with goals of peace-keeping, peace-making or peace-building in the classroom. In this research, the teachers’ peace-oriented pedagogy was influenced by various strands of peace education theory, and as such shaped their conceptualization of ‘peace’. The study’s result shows that when educators implemented government-mandated curriculum, they worked around it and/or added content that increased opportunities for democratic peacebuilding. In addition, all three teachers also strengthened their peace-oriented practice by incorporating conflict resolution skills in and outside the classroom to augment a common social-justice oriented goal for peace-making and peace-keeping and made various distinctions around the conditions necessary for peace-building.

Keywords: citizenship, peace-building education, peace-building curriculum, pedagogy

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38 Reflection on Using Bar Model Method in Learning and Teaching Primary Mathematics: A Hong Kong Case Study

Authors: Chui Ka Shing

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This case study research attempts to examine the use of the Bar Model Method approach in learning and teaching mathematics in a primary school in Hong Kong. The objectives of the study are to find out to what extent (a) the Bar Model Method approach enhances the construction of students’ mathematics concepts, and (b) the school-based mathematics curriculum development with adopting the Bar Model Method approach. This case study illuminates the effectiveness of using the Bar Model Method to solve mathematics problems from Primary 1 to Primary 6. Some effective pedagogies and assessments were developed to strengthen the use of the Bar Model Method across year levels. Suggestions including school-based curriculum development for using Bar Model Method and further study were discussed.

Keywords: bar model method, curriculum development, mathematics education, problem solving

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37 Teaching Vietnamese as the Official Language for Indigenous Preschool Children in Lai Chau, Vietnam: Exploring Teachers' Beliefs about Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Thao Thi Vu, Libby Lee-Hammond, Andrew McConney

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In Vietnam, the Vietnamese language is normally used as the language of instruction. The dominance of this language places children who have a different first language such as Indigenous children at a disadvantage when commencing school. This study explores preschool teachers’ beliefs about second language acquisition in Lai Chau provinces where is typical of highland provinces of Vietnam and the proportion of Indigenous minority groups in high. Data were collected from surveys with both closed-end questions and opened-end questions. The participants in this study were more than 200 public preschool teachers who come from eight different districts in Lai Chau. An analysis of quantitative data survey is presented to indicate several practical implications, such as the connection between teachers’ knowledge background that gained from their pre-service and in-service teacher education programs regarding second language teaching for Indigenous children and their practice. It also explains some factors that influence teachers’ beliefs and perspective about Indigenous children and pedagogies in their classes.

Keywords: indigenous children, learning Vietnamese, preschool, teachers’ beliefs

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36 A Taxonomy of Professional Engineering Attributes for Tackling Global Humanitarian Challenges

Authors: Georgia Kremmyda, Angelos Georgoulas, Yiannis Koumpouros, James T. Mottram

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There is a growing interest in enhancing the creativity and problem-solving ability of engineering students by expanding their engagement to complex, interdisciplinary problems such as environmental issues, resilience to man-made and natural disasters, global health matters, water needs, increased energy demands, and other global humanitarian challenges. Tackling societal challenges requires knowledgeable and erudite engineers who can handle, combine, transform and create innovative, affordable and sustainable solutions. This view simultaneously complements and challenges current conceptions of an emerging educational movement that, almost without exception, are underpinned by calls for competitive economic growth and technological development. This article reveals a taxonomy of humanitarian attributes to be enabled to professional engineers, through reformed curricula and innovative pedagogies, which once implemented and integrated efficiently in higher engineering education, they will provide students and educators with opportunities to explore interdependencies and connections between resources, sustainable design, societal needs, and the natural environment and to critically engage with implicit and explicit facets of disciplinary identity. The research involves carrying out a study on (a) current practices, best practices and barriers in knowledge organisation, content, and hierarchy in graduate engineering programmes, (b) best practices associated with teaching and research in engineering education around the world, (c) opportunities inherent in general reforms of graduate engineering education and inherent in integrating the humanitarian context throughout engineering education programmes, and, (d) an overarching taxonomy of professional attributes for tackling humanitarian challenges. Research methods involve state-of-the-art literature review on engineering education and pedagogy to resource thematic findings on current status in engineering education worldwide, and qualitative research through three practice dialogue workshops, run in Asia (Vietnam, Indonesia and Bangladesh) involving a variety of national, international and local stakeholders (industries; NGOs, governmental organisations). Findings from this study provide evidence on: (a) what are the professional engineering attributes (skills, experience, knowledge) needed for tackling humanitarian challenges; (b) how we can integrate other disciplines and professions to engineering while defining the professional attributes of engineers who are capable of tackling humanitarian challenges. The attributes will be linked to those discipline(s) and profession(s) that are more likely to enforce the attributes (removing the assumption that engineering education as it stands at the moment can provide all attributes), and; (c) how these attributes shall be supplied; what kind of pedagogies or training shall take place beyond current practices. Acknowledgment: The study is currently in progress and is being undertaken in the framework of the project ENHANCE - ENabling Humanitarian Attributes for Nurturing Community-based Engineering (project No: 598502-EEP-1-2018-1-UK-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP (2018-2582/001-001), funded by the Erasmus + KA2 Cooperation for innovation and the exchange of good practices – Capacity building in the field of Higher Education.

Keywords: professional engineering attributes, engineering education, taxonomy, humanitarian challenges, humanitarian engineering

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35 Gender Discrepancies in Current Pedagogical and Curricular Practices in EFL Higher Education Settings

Authors: Hamad Aldosari

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of sexism, or gender discrepancies, in current pedagogical and curricular practices in EFL learning higher education settings. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of both course contents and pedagogies in Saudi higher education institutions are to be discussed with reference to female/male topic presentation in dialogs and reading passages, sex-based activity types, stereotyped sex roles and the masculine generic conceptions of male superiority subliminally related in EFL curriculum and pedagogical practices, as well as the causes and effects of segregated language education practices in Saudi Arabia from a holistic vantage point of analysis. Analysis findings show that language educational practices including educational settings and segregation are gender-biased in attitude, but with regard to curriculum, sexism has not been traced. Findings also show that sexism is rampant due to socio-cultural aspects of language education rather than to religious reasons: a finding that seems to mirror the institutionalized unfair sex discrimination to the disadvantage of women in the Arabian societies at large.

Keywords: genderism, sex segregation, Saudi Arabia, EFL

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34 Emotion Oriented Students' Opinioned Topic Detection for Course Reviews in Massive Open Online Course

Authors: Zhi Liu, Xian Peng, Monika Domanska, Lingyun Kang, Sannyuya Liu

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Massive Open education has become increasingly popular among worldwide learners. An increasing number of course reviews are being generated in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) platform, which offers an interactive feedback channel for learners to express opinions and feelings in learning. These reviews typically contain subjective emotion and topic information towards the courses. However, it is time-consuming to artificially detect these opinions. In this paper, we propose an emotion-oriented topic detection model to automatically detect the students’ opinioned aspects in course reviews. The known overall emotion orientation and emotional words in each review are used to guide the joint probabilistic modeling of emotion and aspects in reviews. Through the experiment on real-life review data, it is verified that the distribution of course-emotion-aspect can be calculated to capture the most significant opinioned topics in each course unit. This proposed technique helps in conducting intelligent learning analytics for teachers to improve pedagogies and for developers to promote user experiences.

Keywords: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), course reviews, topic model, emotion recognition, topical aspects

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33 Dialogic Approaches to Writing Pedagogy

Authors: Yael Leibovitch

Abstract:

Teaching academic writing is a source of concern for secondary schools. Many students struggle to meet the basic standards of literacy while teacher confidence in this arena remains low. These issues are compounded by the conventionally prescriptive character of writing instruction, which fails to engage student writers. At the same time, a growing body of research on dialogic teaching has highlighted the powerful role of talk in student learning. With the intent of enhancing pedagogical capability, this paper shares finding from a co-inquiry case study that investigated how teachers think about and negotiate classroom discourse to position students as effective academic writers and thinkers. Using a range of qualitative methods, this project closely documents the iterative collaboration of educators as they sought to create more opportunities for dialogic engagement. More specifically, it triangulates both teacher and student data regarding the efficacy of interdependent thinking and collaborative reasoning as organizing principals for literacy learning. Findings indicate that a dialogic teaching repertoire helps to develop the cognitive and metacognitive skills of adolescent writers. In addition, they underscore the importance of sustained professional collaboration to the uptake of new writing pedagogies.

Keywords: dialogic teaching, writing, teacher professional development, student literacy

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