Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: garment

84 Investigation of Garment Fit Using Virtual Try-On Technology

Authors: Kristina Ancutiene, Agne Lage, Ada Gulbiniene

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Virtual garment fitting has gotten considerable attention for researchers currently. Virtual try-on technologies provide the opportunity to check garment fit using various fabrics and sizes. Differences in fabric mechanical properties produce differences in garment fit. This research aimed to investigate the virtual garment fit concerning the fabric's mechanical properties by determining distance ease between the body and the garment. In this research, virtual women mannequin was covered with straight fit virtual dress stitched in Modaris 3D (CAD Lectra). Garment fitting was investigated using seven cotton/cotton blended plain weave fabrics. Ease allowance value at bust, waist and hip girths in 2D basic patterns was changed uniformly from 0 cm to 8 cm. The values of distance ease in 3D virtual garments at the three main girths were investigated. Distance ease distribution in the virtual garment was investigated also. It was defined that by increasing of 2D patterns ease allowance, 3D garment distance ease changes proportionally but differently using various fabrics. Correlation analysis between 3D garment ease and mechanical properties showed that tensile strain in weft direction had the strongest relation.

Keywords: 3D CAD, distance ease, fabric, garment fit, virtual try-on

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
83 Automatic Measurement of Garment Sizes Using Deep Learning

Authors: Maulik Parmar, Sumeet Sandhu

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The online fashion industry experiences high product return rates. Many returns are because of size/fit mismatches -the size scale on labels can vary across brands, the size parameters may not capture all fit measurements, or the product may have manufacturing defects. Warehouse quality check of garment sizes can be semi-automated to improve speed and accuracy. This paper presents an approach for automatically measuring garment sizes from a single image of the garment -using Deep Learning to learn garment keypoints. The paper focuses on the waist size measurement of jeans and can be easily extended to other garment types and measurements. Experimental results show that this approach can greatly improve the speed and accuracy of today’s manual measurement process.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, deep learning, distortion, garment measurements, image warping, keypoints

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
82 Comparative Analysis of Real and Virtual Garment Fit

Authors: Kristina Ancutiene

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The goal of this research is to perform comparative analysis between the virtual fit of the woman's dress and the fit on a real person. The dress fitting was done using mechanical and structural parameters of the 100 % linen fabric and using Modaris_3D_Fit software (CAD Lectra). The dress was also sawn after which garment fit differences of real and virtual dress was researched. Four respondents whose figures were similar were used to evaluate the ease and strain deformations of the real and virtual dress. The scores that were given by the respondents wearing the real dress were compared to the ease and strain results that were given by the software. The main result was that respondents feel similar to the virtual stretch deformations but their ease feeling is not always matching the virtual ones. The results may be influenced by psychological factors and different understanding about purpose of garment.

Keywords: virtual garment, 3D CAD, garment fit, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
81 Quality Approaches for Mass-Produced Fashion: A Study in Malaysian Garment Manufacturing

Authors: N. J. M. Yusof, T. Sabir, J. McLoughlin

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Garment manufacturing industry involves sequential processes that are subjected to uncontrollable variations. The industry depends on the skill of labour in handling the varieties of fabrics and accessories, machines, and also a complicated sewing operation. Due to these reasons, garment manufacturers created systems to monitor and control the product’s quality regularly by conducting quality approaches to minimize variation. The aims of this research were to ascertain the quality approaches deployed by Malaysian garment manufacturers in three key areas-quality systems and tools; quality control and types of inspection; sampling procedures chosen for garment inspection. The focus of this research also aimed to distinguish quality approaches used by companies that supplied the finished garments to both domestic and international markets. The feedback from each of company’s representatives was obtained using the online survey, which comprised of five sections and 44 questions on the organizational profile and quality approaches used in the garment industry. The results revealed that almost all companies had established their own mechanism of process control by conducting a series of quality inspection for daily production either it was formally been set up or vice versa. Quality inspection was the predominant quality control activity in the garment manufacturing and the level of complexity of these activities was substantially dictated by the customers. AQL-based sampling was utilized by companies dealing with the export market, whilst almost all the companies that only concentrated on the domestic market were comfortable using their own sampling procedures for garment inspection. This research provides an insight into the implementation of quality approaches that were perceived as important and useful in the garment manufacturing sector, which is truly labour-intensive.

Keywords: garment manufacturing, quality approaches, quality control, inspection, Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL), sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
80 Health Hazards in SME Garment Industries in India

Authors: Pranab Kumar Goswami

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According to WHO, over 1000 million people worldwide are employed in small-scale industries. The ‘garment’ industry’ is one such industry in developing countries. These garment SMEs are mostly run by private establishments in the unorganized sector to avoid legal obligations of OSH provisions. The OSH standards are very poor and even basic health and safety provisions are not provided in such units. The study has been conducted in India among workers employed in the ‘garment’ industry with the objectives to analyze the types and extent of occupational health hazards of the garment workers and to assess the relationship of sociodemographic and occupational factors with various health hazards. The survey method, the tabular method followed by applying simple statistical technique, has been taken into account to analyze the data collected from three SME garment industries in Delhi (India-Asia). The study was conducted in Delhi from August-2019 to October-2020. A random sampling of 70 workers from three factories has been chosen for this study. The study shows that most of the workers were males (82%) and were in the 18-50 age group (78%), with none below 18 years of age. It was found that 26% of the workers were illiterate and most of them belonged to poor socioeconomic status. The study revealed that the nature of the hazards in garment industries in India is mostly physical and mechanical. We found that musculoskeletal problems (54%) were the commonest health problem. The body areas commonly affected were neck, low back, hand, wrist, finger, and shoulder. If garment workers’ health is affected by occupational hazards, it will impact on national health and economic growth of developing countries. Health is a joint responsibility of both government and employing authority.

Keywords: garment, MSD, health hazard, social factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
79 Application of a Hybrid QFD-FEA Methodology for Nigerian Garment Designs

Authors: Adepeju A. Opaleye, Adekunle Kolawole, Muyiwa A. Opaleye

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Consumers’ perceived quality of imported product has been an impediment to business in the Nigeria garment industry. To improve patronage of made- in-Nigeria designs, the first step is to understand what the consumer expects, then proffer ways to meet this expectation through product redesign or improvement of the garment production process. The purpose of this study is to investigate drivers of consumers’ value for typical Nigerian garment design (NGD). An integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and functional, expressive and aesthetic (FEA) Consumer Needs methodology helps to minimize incorrect understanding of potential consumer’s requirements in mass customized garments. Six themes emerged as drivers of consumer’s satisfaction: (1) Style variety (2) Dimensions (3) Finishing (4) Fabric quality (5) Garment Durability and (6) Aesthetics. Existing designs found to lead foreign designs in terms of its acceptance for informal events, style variety and fit. The latter may be linked to its mode of acquisition. A conceptual model of NGD acceptance in the context of consumer’s inherent characteristics, social and the business environment is proposed.

Keywords: Perceived quality, Garment design, Quality function deployment, FEA Model , Mass customisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
78 Evolution of Economic Urban Spaces: Barcelona's Trafalgar Garment District, 1940-2017

Authors: Rafael Vicente Salar

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Cities are steadily transforming their productive systems based on value-adding strategies, with the aim of becoming more competitive in a globalized economy. This fact is reflected in inner urban spaces which are increasingly accommodating new economic activities related to knowledge, culture, creativity, and tourism, to the detriment of traditional activities. This is the case of the Trafalgar Garment District (TGD), located in Barcelona´s Eixample Dret neighborhood, an economic urban space historically devoted to the garment wholesale trade. This district is currently experiencing the transformation of its traditional economic specialization. In the last 50 years, external and internal factors have caused, firstly, the disintegration of the Catalonian garment regional cluster. This has resulted in the closure of the majority of metropolitan garment workshops. Secondly, this has also caused either the disappearance of wholesale firms or their relocation to more suitable spaces in the metropolitan area. Specifically, the TGD's economic restructuration is related to the attraction of firms related to the lodging industry and the new economy. In addition, some of the wholesale businesses are adopting new management strategies in order to remain in the TGD. These initiatives are thought to allow them, on one hand, to upgrade their products and, on the other, to reconfigure their internal organization in order to be more competitive.

Keywords: Barcelona, garment district, new economy, tourism, garmen wholesale trade

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
77 Softener Washes Affecting the Shrinkage and Appearance of Knitted Garments

Authors: Ezza Nasir, Babar Ramzan

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Silicon washes on altered knitted fabrics will provide diverse shrinkage trends. The expectation on shrinkage for various apparel products are also changed. However, the effect of shrinkage in garment is still ambiguous. As a result, analysis of shrinkage after different concentrations of silicon washes can provide a more realistic study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the shrinkage with commercial sewing threads in knitted fabric. Study focuses on the effect of different washes on garment measurement and to study the effect of washes on fabric shrinkage. Four different types of knitted fabric were sewn with same length and width measurements. To study the effect of softener washes on shrinkage of garment through subjective ranking, there were critical dimensions for measurements done on body length and width garment appearance and shrinkage.

Keywords: shrinkage, dimensions, knitted fabric, silicon

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
76 The Happy Workplace Program Promoting Health Literate Workplace in Thai Garment Industry

Authors: Kwanmuang Kaeodumkoeng, Jumnian Junhasobhaga

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This action research on the happy workplace program (HWP) promoting health literate workplace (HLW) in Thai Garment Industry Companies aimed to categorize activities promoting HLW and results of HWP in the Thai garment industry. Thirteen program reports purposely selected from sampled companies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and content analysis. The results showed that the end of the program, the significant higher levels of work skills, life skills, and factors promoting happy workplace were found compared to before the program in all 13 companies. The activities and results of the HWP could be categorized in five steps of implementing an HWP, compared with the attributes of HLW were composed of 1) Leadership promotion; 2) Preparing workforce; 3) Planning, evaluating, and improving; 4) Communicating effectively; and 5) Designing easy to use materials and ensuring easy access.

Keywords: happy workplace program, health literate workplace, garment industry, indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
75 Analysis of Supply Chain Complexity Sub-Dimensions for Garment Industry

Authors: Niyanta Mehra, Aakriti Khurania, Kshitij Rastogi, S. K. Garg

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There is plenty of literature available that accounts for complexity management in a supply chain. A major fraction of this literature considers a large number of parameters in order to devise management techniques. However, multiple such parameters do not directly affect the result, and incorporating these can make the analyses overly complicated. Most of the causes of supply chain inefficiencies are due to the interconnectedness and interdependencies in the structure, processes, and environment of the supply chains. The level of complexity varies across industries in terms of intensity and ease of management. After a review of the literature related to complexities in supply chains, the paper attempts to build a framework to study the relative significance of these complexities. This paper aims to identify critical complexities for the garment industry. Understanding and controlling these complexities open avenues for better supply chain management and also assist decision-makers in the garment industry in formulating risk mitigation strategies.

Keywords: complexity dimensions, garment industry, supply chain complexity, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
74 Influence of Stress Relaxation and Hysteresis Effect for Pressure Garment Design

Authors: Chia-Wen Yeh, Ting-Sheng Lin, Chih-Han Chang

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Pressure garment has been used to prevent and treat the hypertrophic scars following serious burns since 1970s. The use of pressure garment is believed to hasten the maturation process and decrease the highness of scars. Pressure garment is custom made by reducing circumferential measurement of the patient by 10%~20%, called Reduction Factor. However the exact reducing value used depends on the subjective judgment of the therapist and the feeling of patients throughout the try and error process. The Laplace Law can be applied to calculate the pressure from the dimension of the pressure garment by the circumferential measurements of the patients and the tension profile of the fabrics. The tension profile currently obtained neglects the stress relaxation and hysteresis effect within most elastic fabrics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the tension attenuation, from stress relaxation and hysteresis effect of the fabrics. Samples of pressure garment were obtained from Sunshine Foundation Organization, a nonprofit organization for burn patients in Taiwan. The wall tension profile of pressure garments were measured on a material testing system. Specimens were extended to 10% of the original length, held for 1 hour for the influence of the stress relaxation effect to take place. Then, specimens were extended to 15% of the original length for 10 seconds, then reduced to 10% to simulate donning movement for the influence of the hysteresis effect to take place. The load history was recorded. The stress relaxation effect is obvious from the load curves. The wall tension is decreased by 8.5%~10% after 60mins of holding. The hysteresis effect is obvious from the load curves. The wall tension is increased slightly, then decreased by 1.5%~2.5% and lower than stress relaxation results after 60mins of holding. The wall tension attenuation of the fabric exists due to stress relaxation and hysteresis effect. The influence of hysteresis is more than stress relaxation. These effect should be considered in order to design and evaluate the pressure of pressure garment more accurately.

Keywords: hypertrophic scars, hysteresis, pressure garment, stress relaxation

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
73 Prevalence and Occupational Factors Associated with Low Back Pain among the Female Garment Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

Authors: Fazle Rabbi, Mashuda Khanom Tithi, Tasnim Mirza, Sanjida Rowshan Anannya, Ahmed Hossain

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Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the common health problems among the garment workers that causes workers absenteeism from the work. The purpose of the study is to identify the association between occupational factors and LBP among the female garment workers in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 487 female garment workers from three compliant garment factories of Bangladesh. Face-to-face interview on four different LBP measures along with questions on socio-demographic, occupational, and physical factors were used to collect the data. Result: The prevalence rates for LBP lasts for at least one day during the last six months, chronic pain, intense pain, and seeking medical care for LBP were found 63.04%, 38.60%, 13.76%, and 18.89%, respectively among the female garments workers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that duration of employment (>5 years), regular weight bearing and extended weekly working hours (>48 hours) are positively associated with LBP. Besides, age, BMI, family income, marital status and number of children are also found positively associated with the LBP measures. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP among female garment workers in Bangladesh is found high. The duration of employment (>5 years), regular weight bearing and extended weekly working hours (>48 hours) play a significant role in developing LBP among the female workers. Factories need to consider training programs on the appropriate technique of weight bearing. It is also important to conduct regular screening programs to identify LBP, especially with married, overweight/obese and older age group to reduce the occurrence of LBP.

Keywords: Bangladesh, garment workers, low back pain, occupational health

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
72 Studying the Implementation of 5S System in Egyptian Garment Enterprises

Authors: K. M. Seddik

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This paper explores the implementation of 5S elements in the Egyptian garment enterprises. The paper depended on a survey questionnaire (established from Summit Business Solutions, New York) and observations to collect data from the respondents. The observations are based on the on-site visits and interviews with the managers, supervisors and labors. The enterprises divided into three groups according to the nature activity. The first group of enterprises encompassed 49.52% of the total samples, the second and third group of enterprises represented 50.48% The results of this research indicated to the influence of the nature activity in implementing 5S systems and conclude that sustain is a difficult element which involve encourage workers for developing and practicing a highly discipline. In addition the results demonstrate that although the enterprises may achieve a higher executing of 5S elements but it may realize a low coherence in implementation.

Keywords: 5S elements, garment enterprises, implementation, lean manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
71 Changing Patterns of Marriage and Sexual Relations among Young Single Female Workers in Garment Factories in Gazipur, Bangladesh

Authors: Runa Laila

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In Bangladesh, migration and employment opportunities in the ready-made garment factories presented an alternative to early and arranged-marriage to many young women from the countryside. Although the positive impact of young women’s labour migration and employment in the garment industry on economic independence, increased negotiation power, and enhancement of self-esteem have been well documented, impact of employment on sexual norms and practices remained under-researched. This ethnographic study comprising of an in-depth interview of 21 single young women working in various garment factories in Gazipur, Dhaka, explores the implication of work on sexual norms and practices. This study found young single garment workers experience a range of consensual and coercive sexual relations. The mixed-sex work environment in the garment manufacturing industry and private housing arrangements provide young single women opportunities to develop romantic and sexual relationships in the transient urban space, which was more restricted in the rural areas. The use of mobile phones further aids lovers to meet in amusement parks, friends’ houses, or residential hotels beyond the gaze of colleagues and neighbors. Due to sexual double standard, men’s sexual advantage is seen as natural and accepted, while women are being blamed as immoral for being engaged in pre-marital sex. Although self-choice marriage and premarital relations reported to be common among garment workers, stigma related to premarital sex lead young single women to resort to secret abortion practices. Married men also use power position to lure women in a subordinate position in coerce sexual relations, putting their reproductive and psychological health at risk. To improve sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of young female garment workers, it is important to understand these changing sexual practices which otherwise remain taboo in public health discourses.

Keywords: female migration, ready-made garment, reproductive health, sexual practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
70 Human Rights Abuse in the Garment Factory in Bekasi Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

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Although the Indonesian human rights protection has increased in recent years, but human rights violations still occur in the industrial sector. Crimes against human rights continue to occur and go unnoticed in spite of the government's legislation on human rights, employment law in addition to an international treaty that has been ratified by Indonesia. The increasing number of garment companies in Bekasi, also give rise to increased human rights violations since the government does not have a commitment to protect it. The Indonesian government and industry owners should pay attention to and protect the human rights of workers and treat them accordingly. This paper will review the human rights violations experienced by workers at garment factories in the context of the law, as well as ideas to improve the protection of workers' rights.

Keywords: human rights protection, human rights violations, workers’ rights, justice, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
69 Enhancing Traditional Saudi Designs Pattern Cutting to Integrate Them Into Current Clothing Offers

Authors: Faizah Almalki, Simeon Gill, Steve G. Hayes, Lisa Taylor

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A core element of cultural identity is the traditional costumes that provide insight into the heritage that has been acquired over time. This heritage is apparent in the use of colour, the styles and the functions of the clothing and it also reflects the skills of those who created the items and the time taken to produce them. Modern flat pattern drafting methods for making garment patterns are simple in comparison to the relatively laborious traditional approaches that would require personal interaction with the wearer throughout the production process. The current study reflects on the main elements of the pattern cutting system and how this has evolved in Saudi Arabia to affect the design of the Sawan garment. Analysis of the traditional methods for constructing Sawan garments was undertaken through observation of the practice and the garments and consulting documented guidance. This provided a foundation through which to explore how modern technology can be applied to improve the process. In this research, modern methods are proposed for producing traditional Saudi garments more efficiently while retaining elements of the conventional style and design. The current study has documented the vital aspects of Sawan garment style. The result showed that the method had been used to take the body measurements and pattern making was elementary and offered simple geometric shape and the Sawan garment is composed of four pieces. Consequently, this research allows for classical pattern shapes to be embedded in garments now worn in Saudi Arabia and for the continuation of cultural heritage.

Keywords: traditional Sawan garment technique, modern pattern cutting technique, the shape of the garment and software, Lectra Modaris

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
68 A Study Problem and Needs Compare the Held of the Garment Industries in Nonthaburi and Bangkok Area

Authors: Thepnarintra Praphanphat

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The purposes of this study were to investigate garment industry’s condition, problems, and need for assistance. The population of the study was 504 managers or managing directors of garment establishments finished apparel industrial manager and permission of the Department of Industrial Works 28, Ministry of Industry until January 1, 2012. In determining the sample size with the opening of the Taro Yamane finished at 95% confidence level is ± 5% deviation was 224 managers. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. Percentage, frequency, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, and LSD were used to analyze the data. It was found that most establishments were of a large size, operated in a form of limited company for more than 15 years most of which produced garments for working women. All investment was made by Thai people. The products were made to order and distributed domestically and internationally. The total sale of the year 2010, 2011, and 2012 was almost the same. With respect to the problems of operating the business, the study indicated, as a whole, by- aspects, and by-items, that they were at a high level. The comparison of the level of problems of operating garment business as classified by general condition showed that problems occurring in business of different sizes were, as a whole, not different. In taking aspects into consideration, it was found that the level of problem in relation to production was different; medium establishments had more problems in production than those of small and large sizes. According to the by-items analysis, five problems were found different; namely, problems concerning employees, machine maintenance, number of designers, and price competition. Such problems in the medium establishments were at a higher level than those in the small and large establishments. Regarding business age, the examination yielded no differences as a whole, by-aspects, and by-items. The statistical significance level of this study was set at .05.

Keywords: garment industry, garment, fashion, competitive enhancement project

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
67 Neural Style Transfer for Image-Based Garment Interchange through Multi-Person Human Views

Authors: Hajer Ghodhbani, Mohamed Neji, Adel M. Alimi

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The generation of photorealistic images of human appearances under the guidance of body pose enables a wide range of applications, including virtual fitting and style synthesis. Several advances have been made in this direction using image-based deep learning generation approaches. The issue with these methods is that they produce significant aberrations in the final output, such as blurring of fine details, unrealistic distortions of body parts and clothes, and extreme texture alterations. Our work falls within this objective by proposing a system able to realize the garment transfer between different images of persons by overcoming all these issues. To realize this objective, fundamental steps were achieved. Firstly, we used an adversarial conditioning network to deal with pose and appearance separately, create a human shape image with precise control over pose, and align the target garment with appropriate body parts in the human image. As a second step, we introduced a neural approach for style transfer that can differentiate and merge content and style of editing images. The contribution of our work compared with existing methods is its ability to transfer all the garment items between different views of a person by using segmentation pre-processing with preserving a high quality of generated results. We designed architecture with distinct levels to ensure the style transfer between different target poses.

Keywords: style transfer, pose control, segmentation, garment interchange

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66 Social Problems and Gender Wage Gap Faced by Working Women in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Narjis Kahtoon

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The issue of the wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem has been a significant research problem for several decades. Whereas lots of have explored reasons for the persistence of an inequality in the wages of male and female, none has successfully explained away the entire differentiation. The wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem of working women is a global issue. Although inequality in political and economic and social make-up of countries all over the world, the gender wage discrimination, and social constraint is present. The aim of the research is to examine the gender wage discrimination and social constraint from an international perspective and to determine whether any pattern exists among cultural dimensions of a country and the man and women remuneration gap in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan. Population growth rate is significant indicator used to explain the change in population and play a crucial point in the economic development of a country. In Pakistan, readymade garment sector consists of small, medium and large sized firms. With an estimated 30 percent of the workforce in textile- Garment is females’. Readymade garment industry is a labor intensive industry and relies on the skills of individual workers and provides highest value addition in the textile sector. In the Garment sector, female workers are concentrated in poorly paid, labor-intensive down-stream production (readymade garments, linen, towels, etc.), while male workers dominate capital- intensive (ginning, spinning and weaving) processes. Gender wage discrimination and social constraint are reality in Pakistan Labor Market. This research allows us not only to properly detect the size of gender wage discrimination and social constraint but to also fully understand its consequences in readymade garment sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, research will evaluated this measure for the three main clusters like Lahore, Karachi, and Faisalabad. These data contain complete details of male and female workers and supervisors in the readymade garment sector of Pakistan. These sources of information provide a unique opportunity to reanalyze the previous finding in the literature. The regression analysis focused on the standard 'Mincerian' earning equation and estimates it separately by gender, the research will also imply the cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede (2001) to profile a country’s cultural status and compare those cultural dimensions to the wage inequalities. Readymade garment of Pakistan is one of the important sectors since its products have huge demand at home and abroad. These researches will a major influence on the measures undertaken to design a public policy regarding wage discrimination and social constraint in readymade garment sector of Pakistan.

Keywords: gender wage differentials, decomposition, garment, cultural

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
65 Drape Simulation by Commercial Software and Subjective Assessment of Virtual Drape

Authors: Evrim Buyukaslan, Simona Jevsnik, Fatma Kalaoglu

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Simulation of fabrics is more difficult than any other simulation due to complex mechanics of fabrics. Most of the virtual garment simulation software use mass-spring model and incorporate fabric mechanics into simulation models. The accuracy and fidelity of these virtual garment simulation software is a question mark. Drape is a subjective phenomenon and evaluation of drape has been studied since 1950’s. On the other hand, fabric and garment simulation is relatively new. Understanding drape perception of subjects when looking at fabric simulations is critical as virtual try-on becomes more of an issue by enhanced online apparel sales. Projected future of online apparel retailing is that users may view their avatars and try-on the garment on their avatars in the virtual environment. It is a well-known fact that users will not be eager to accept this innovative technology unless it is realistic enough. Therefore, it is essential to understand what users see when they are displaying fabrics in a virtual environment. Are they able to distinguish the differences between various fabrics in virtual environment? The purpose of this study is to investigate human perception when looking at a virtual fabric and determine the most visually noticeable drape parameter. To this end, five different fabrics are mechanically tested, and their drape simulations are generated by commercial garment simulation software (Optitex®). The simulation images are processed by an image analysis software to calculate drape parameters namely; drape coefficient, node severity, and peak angles. A questionnaire is developed to evaluate drape properties subjectively in a virtual environment. Drape simulation images are shown to 27 subjects and asked to rank the samples according to their questioned drape property. The answers are compared to the calculated drape parameters. The results show that subjects are quite sensitive to drape coefficient changes while they are not very sensitive to changes in node dimensions and node distributions.

Keywords: drape simulation, drape evaluation, fabric mechanics, virtual fabric

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64 Efficiency Analysis of Trader in Thailand and Laos Border Trade: Case Study of Textile and Garment Products

Authors: Varutorn Tulnawat, Padcharee Phasuk

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This paper investigates the issue of China’s dumping on border trade between Thailand and Laos. From the pass mostly, the border trade goods are traditional textile and garment mainly served locals and tourists which majority of traders is of small and medium size. In the present day the competition is fierce, the volume of trade has expanded far beyond its original intent. The major competitors in Thai-Laos border trade are China, Vietnam and also South Korea. This research measures and compares the efficiency and ability to survive the onslaught of Thai and Laos firm along Thailand (Nong Kai province) and Laos (Vientiane) border. Two attack strategies are observed, price cutting and incense such as full facilitation for big volume order. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied to data surveyed from 90 Thai and Laos entrepreneurs. The expected results are the proportion of efficiency and inefficiency firms. Points of inefficiency and suggested improvement are also discussed.

Keywords: border trade, dea, textile, garment

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
63 Clustering Locations of Textile and Garment Industries to Compare with the Future Industrial Cluster in Thailand

Authors: Kanogkan Leerojanaprapa

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Textile and garment industry is used to a major exporting industry of Thailand. According to lacking of the nation's price-competitiveness by stopping the EU's GSP (Generalised Scheme of Preferences) and ‘Nationwide Minimum Wage Policy’ that Thailand’s employers must pay all employees at least 300 baht (about $10) a day, the supply chains of the Thai textile and garment industry is affected and need to be reformed. Therefore, either Thai textile or garment industry will be existed or not would be concerned. This is also challenged for the government to decide which industries should be promoted the future industries of Thailand. Recently Thai government launch The Cluster-based Special Economic Development Zones Policy for promoting business cluster (effect on September 16, 2015). They define a cluster as the concentration of interconnected businesses and related institutions that operate within the same geographic areas and textiles and garment is one of target industrial clusters and 9 provinces are targeted (Bangkok, Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Ratchaburi, Samut Sakhon, Chonburi, Chachoengsao, Prachinburi, and Sa Kaeo). The cluster zone are defined to link west-east corridor connected to manufacturing source in Cambodia and Mynmar to Bangkok where are promoted to be design, sourcing, and trading hub. The Thai government will provide tax and non-tax incentives for targeted industries within the clusters and expects these businesses are scattered to where they can get the most benefit which will identify future industrial cluster. This research will show the difference between the current cluster and future cluster following the target provinces of the textile and garment. The current cluster is analysed from secondary data. The four characteristics of the numbers of plants in Spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles, Manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel, Manufacture of knitted and crocheted fabrics, and Manufacture of other textiles, not elsewhere classified in particular 77 provinces (in total) are clustered by K-means cluster analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. In addition, the cluster can be confirmed and showed which variables contribute the most to defined cluster solution with ANOVA test. The results of analysis can identify 22 provinces (which the textile or garment plants are located) into 3 clusters. Plants in cluster 1 tend to be large numbers of plants which is only Bangkok, Next plants in cluster 2 tend to be moderate numbers of plants which are Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon and Nakhon Pathom. Finally plants in cluster 3 tend to be little numbers of plants which are other 18 provinces. The same methodology can be implemented in other industries for future study.

Keywords: ANOVA, hierarchical cluster analysis, industrial clusters, K -means cluster analysis, textile and garment industry

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62 Concept of Using an Indicator to Describe the Quality of Fit of Clothing to the Body Using a 3D Scanner and CAD System

Authors: Monika Balach, Iwona Frydrych, Agnieszka Cichocka

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The objective of this research is to develop an algorithm, taking into account material type and body type that will describe the fabric properties and quality of fit of a garment to the body. One of the objectives of this research is to develop a new algorithm to simulate cloth draping within CAD/CAM software. Existing virtual fitting does not accurately simulate fabric draping behaviour. Part of the research into virtual fitting will focus on the mechanical properties of fabrics. Material behaviour depends on many factors including fibre, yarn, manufacturing process, fabric weight, textile finish, etc. For this study, several different fabric types with very different mechanical properties will be selected and evaluated for all of the above fabric characteristics. These fabrics include woven thick cotton fabric which is stiff and non-bending, woven with elastic content, which is elastic and bends on the body. Within the virtual simulation, the following mechanical properties can be specified: shear, bending, weight, thickness, and friction. To help calculate these properties, the KES system (Kawabata) can be used. This system was originally developed to calculate the mechanical properties of fabric. In this research, the author will focus on three properties: bending, shear, and roughness. This study will consider current research using the KES system to understand and simulate fabric folding on the virtual body. Testing will help to determine which material properties have the largest impact on the fit of the garment. By developing an algorithm which factors in body type, material type, and clothing function, it will be possible to determine how a specific type of clothing made from a particular type of material will fit on a specific body shape and size. A fit indicator will display areas of stress on the garment such as shoulders, chest waist, hips. From this data, CAD/CAM software can be used to develop garments that fit with a very high degree of accuracy. This research, therefore, aims to provide an innovative solution for garment fitting which will aid in the manufacture of clothing. This research will help the clothing industry by cutting the cost of the clothing manufacturing process and also reduce the cost spent on fitting. The manufacturing process can be made more efficient by virtual fitting of the garment before the real clothing sample is made. Fitting software could be integrated into clothing retailer websites allowing customers to enter their biometric data and determine how the particular garment and material type would fit their body.

Keywords: 3D scanning, fabric mechanical properties, quality of fit, virtual fitting

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61 Assessment of the Impact of Social Compliance Certification on Abolition of Forced Labour and Discrimination in the Garment Manufacturing Units in Bengaluru: A Perspective of Women Sewing Operators

Authors: Jonalee Das Bajpai, Sandeep Shastri

Abstract:

The Indian Textile and Garment Industry is one of the major contributors to the country’s economy. This industry is also one of the largest labour intensive industries after agriculture and livestock. This Indian garment industry caters to both the domestic and international market. Although this industry comes under the purview of Indian Labour Laws and other voluntary work place standards yet, this industry is often criticized for the undue exploitation of the workers. This paper explored the status of forced labour and discrimination at work place in the garment manufacturing units in Bengaluru. This study is conducted from the perspective of women sewing operators as majority of operators in Bengaluru are women. The research also explored to study the impact of social compliance certification in abolishing forced labour and discrimination at work place. Objectives of the Research: 1. To study the impact of 'Social Compliance Certification' on abolition of forced labour among the women workforce. 2. To study the impact of 'Social Compliance Certification' on abolition of discrimination at workplace among the women workforce. Sample Size and Data Collection Techniques: The main backbone of the data which is the primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire attempted to explore the extent of prevalence of forced labour and discrimination against women workers from the perspective of women workers themselves. The sample size for the same was 600 (n) women sewing operators from the garment industry with minimum one year of work experience. Three hundred samples were selected from units with Social Compliance Certification like SA8000, WRAP, BSCI, ETI and so on. Other three hundred samples were selected from units without Social Compliance Certification. Out of these three hundred samples, one hundred and fifty samples were selected from units with Buyer’s Code of Conduct and another one hundred and fifty were from domestic units that do not come under the purview of any such certification. The responses of the survey were further authenticated through on sight visit and personal interactions. Comparative analysis of the workplace environment between units with Social Compliance certification, units with Buyer’s Code of Conduct and domestic units that do not come under the purview of any such voluntary workplace environment enabled to analyze the impact of Social Compliance certification on abolition of workplace environment and discrimination at workplace. Correlation analysis has been conducted to measure the relationship between impact of forced labour and discrimination at workplace on the level of job satisfaction. The result displayed that abolition of forced labour and abolition of discrimination at workplace have a higher level of job satisfaction among the women workers.

Keywords: discrimination, garment industry, forced labour, social compliance certification

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60 Fabric Drapemeter Development towards the Analysis of Its Behavior in 3-D Design

Authors: Aida Sheeta, M. Nashat Fors, Sherwet El Gholmy, Marwa Issa

Abstract:

Globalization has raised the customer preferences not only towards the high-quality garments but also the right fitting, comfort and aesthetic apparels. This only can be accomplished by the good interaction between fabric mechanical and physical properties as well as the required style. Consequently, this paper provides an integrated review of the fabric drape terminology because it is considered as an essential feature in which the fabric can form folds with the help of the gravity. Moreover, an instrument has been fabricated in order to analyze the static and dynamic drape behaviors using different fabric types. In addition, the obtained results find out the parameters affecting the drape coefficient using digital image processing for various kind of commercial fabrics. This was found to be an essential first step in order to analyze the behavior of this fabric when it is fabricated in a certain 3-D garment design.

Keywords: cloth fitting, fabric drape nodes, garment silhouette, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
59 High Performance Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) Using ThermoCore

Authors: Venkat Kamavaram, Ravi Pare

Abstract:

Modern warfighters experience extreme environmental conditions in many of their operational and training activities. In temperatures exceeding 95°F, the body’s temperature regulation can no longer cool through convection and radiation. In this case, the only cooling mechanism is evaporation. However, evaporative cooling is often compromised by excessive humidity. Natural cooling mechanisms can be further compromised by clothing and protective gear, which trap hot air and moisture close to the body. Creating an efficient heat extraction apparel system that is also lightweight without hindering dexterity or mobility of personnel working in extreme temperatures is a difficult technical challenge and one that needs to be addressed to increase the probability for the future success of the US military. To address this challenge, Oceanit Laboratories, Inc. has developed and patented a Liquid Cooled Garment (LCG) more effective than any on the market today. Oceanit’s LCG is a form-fitting garment with a network of thermally conductive tubes that extracts body heat and can be worn under all authorized and chemical/biological protective clothing. Oceanit specifically designed and developed ThermoCore®, a thermally conductive polymer, for use in this apparel, optimizing the product for thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, manufacturability, and performance temperatures. Thermal Manikin tests were conducted in accordance with the ASTM test method, ASTM F2371, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Heat Removal Rate of Personal Cooling Systems Using a Sweating Heated Manikin, in an environmental chamber using a 20-zone sweating thermal manikin. Manikin test results have shown that Oceanit’s LCG provides significantly higher heat extraction under the same environmental conditions than the currently fielded Environmental Control Vest (ECV) while at the same time reducing the weight. Oceanit’s LCG vests performed nearly 30% better in extracting body heat while weighing 15% less than the ECV. There are NO cooling garments in the market that provide the same thermal extraction performance, form-factor, and reduced weight as Oceanit’s LCG. The two cooling garments that are commercially available and most commonly used are the Environmental Control Vest (ECV) and the Microclimate Cooling Garment (MCG).

Keywords: thermally conductive composite, tubing, garment design, form fitting vest, thermocore

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58 Variability in Contraception Choices and Abortion Rates among Female Garment Factory Workers in Urban and Rural Cambodia

Authors: Olalekan Olaluwoye, Joanne Williams, Elizabeth Hoban

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Background: Modern contraceptives are effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies and therefore the potential to reduce abortion rates. There is a need for information about how rates of contraceptive use and abortion vary across Cambodia and the relationship between the prevalence of modern contraception use and abortion rates. This study compares the use of contraception and abortion among female garment factory workers in rural and urban areas of Cambodia. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with 1701 women working in eleven garment factories in rural and urban areas of Cambodia. Sexual and reproductive health data were collected using Audio-Assisted Survey Interviews and analysed using STATA 14 software. Findings: Over 70% of the respondents were less than 30 years of age across both rural and urban settings and over 50% have only primary education, thus the study population was largely young women with limited education. A significantly higher proportion of the rural women earned over $200 in the previous month compared with their urban counterparts. The majority of the urban women (51.5%) were married, while single women (46.9%) made up the largest group working in the rural factories. A significantly larger proportion of women in the rural areas (83.9%) were sexually active compared to the urban women (50.9%). More women from the rural areas (41.4%) had been pregnant at some time compared with the urban population (37.7%). The use of any contraceptive method among sexually active women was significantly higher in the rural areas (80.1%) compared to the urban areas (65.7%) with p-value=0.000. However, among those women who used contraception, the prevalence of modern contraception use was slightly higher in the urban population (68.8% urban, 63.4% rural, p-value=0.1). For women who had a history of pregnancy the abortion prevalence was higher among rural women (43.8%) compared to their urban counterparts (37.7%). Regression analysis showed that after adjustment for the demographic variables (age, relationship status, income, education) only age and relationship status had a significant influence on the use of modern contraception.Single females who were sexually active and older women, who had potentially completed their families, were more likely to choose modern contraception. Conclusion: Although overall the use of contraception was higher among rural women, the use of modern contraception was higher among urban women.This finding may partly explain the higher rates of abortion among women in the rural areas as traditional contraception methods have higher failure rates and are more likely to result in an unplanned pregnancy.Despite the regional variation, the high rates of abortion across the country suggest there is a need for improve education on family planning among female garment factory workers in Cambodia.

Keywords: abortion, Cambodia, contraception, garment factory

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
57 Supply Chain Control and Inventory Management in Garment Industry

Authors: Nisa Nur Duman, Sümeyya Kiliç

Abstract:

In global competition conditions, survival of the plants by obtaining competitive advantage relies on the effective usage of existing sources. By this way, the plants can minimize their costs without losing their quality. They also take advantage took advantage on their competitors and enlarge customer portfolio by increasing profit margins. Changing structure of market and customer demands also change the structure of the competition between companies. Furthermore, competition is not only between the companies. By this manner, supply chain and supply chain management get importance by considering company performances. Companies that want to survive, search the ways of decreasing costs and the ways of meeting customer expectations. One of the important tools for reaching these goals is inventory managemet. The best inventory management system is meeting the demands by considering plant goals.

Keywords: Supply chain, inventory management, apparel sector, garment industry

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56 Seam Slippage of Light Woven Fabrics with Regards to Sewing Parameters

Authors: Mona Shawky, Khaled M. Elsheikh, Heba M. Darwish, Eman Abd El Elsamea

Abstract:

Seams are the basic component in the structure of any apparel. The seam quality of the garment is a term that indicates both the aesthetic and functional performance of the garment. Seam slippage is one of the important properties that determine garment performance. Lightweight fabrics are preferred for their aesthetic properties. Since seam slippage is one of the most occurable faults for woven garments, in this study, a design of experiment of the following sewing parameters (three levels of needle size, three levels of stitch density, three levels of the seam allowance, two levels of sewing thread count, and two fabric types) was used to obtain the effect of the interaction between different sewing parameters on-seam slippage force. Two lightweight polyester woven fabrics with different constructions were used with lock stitch 301 to perform this study. Regression equations which can predict seam slippage force in both warp and weft directions were concluded. It was found that fabric type has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force in the warp direction, while it has a significant negative effect on seam slippage force on weft direction. Also, the interaction between needle size and stitch density has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force on warp direction, while the interaction between stitch density and seam allowance has a negative effect on seam slippage force in the weft direction.

Keywords: needle size, regression equation, seam allowance, seam slippage, stitch density

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55 Study of Drape and Seam Strength of Fabric and Garment in Relation to Weave Design and Comparison of 2D and 3D Drape Properties

Authors: Shagufta Riaz, Ayesha Younus, Munir Ashraf, Tanveer Hussain

Abstract:

Aesthetic and performance are two most important considerations along with quality, durability, comfort and cost that affect the garment credibility. Fabric drape is perhaps the most important clothing characteristics that distinguishes fabric from the sheet, paper, steel or other film materials. It enables the fabric to mold itself under its own weight into desired and required shape when only part of it is directly sustained. The fabric has the ability to be crumpled charmingly in bent folds of single or double curvature due to its drapeability to produce a smooth flowing i.e. ‘the sinusoidal-type folds of a curtain or skirt’. Drape and seam strength are two parameters that are considered for aesthetic and performance of fabric for both apparel and home textiles. Until recently, no such study have been conducted in which effect of weave designs on drape and seam strength of fabric and garment is inspected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure seam strength and drape of fabric and garment objectively by changing weave designs and quality of the fabric. Also, the comparison of 2-D drape and 3-D drape was done to find whether a fabric behaves in same manner or differently when sewn and worn on the body. Four different cotton weave designs were developed and pr-treatment was done. 2-D Drape of the fabric was measured by drapemeter attached with digital camera and a supporting disc to hang the specimen on it. Drape coefficient value (DC %) has negative relation with drape. It is the ratio of draped sample’s projected shadow area to the area of undraped (flat) sample expressed as percentage. Similarly, 3-D drape was measured by hanging the A-line skirts for developed weave designs. BS 3356 standard test method was followed for bending length examination. It is related to the angle that the fabric makes with its horizontal axis. Seam strength was determined by following ASTM test standard. For sewn fabric, stitch density of seam was found by magnifying glass according to standard ASTM test method. In this research study, from the experimentation and evaluation it was investigated that drape and seam strength were significantly affected by change of weave design and quality of fabric (PPI & yarn count). Drapeability increased as the number of interlacement or contact point deceased between warp and weft yarns. As the weight of fabric, bending length, and density of fabric had indirect relationship with drapeability. We had concluded that 2-D drape was higher than 3-D drape even though the garment was made of the same fabric construction. Seam breakage strength decreased with decrease in picks density and yarn count.

Keywords: drape coefficient, fabric, seam strength, weave

Procedia PDF Downloads 187