Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2834

Search results for: gender roles

2834 Being an Afghan Woman in Australia; Stereotypes, Gender Roles, and Adaption with New Context

Authors: Rojan Afrouz

Abstract:

Introduction: The immigration is a complex process of transitioning and transformation. Immigrants are more likely to come from the patriarchal and hierarchical society with traditional gender roles and women’s stereotypes. Changing the perception of women’s gender roles may result in challenges between women and their family and community. In this article, Afghan women’s perspectives on gender roles and stereotypes have been investigated as well as their experience of changes in the new context of Australia. Australian initiatives of challenging gender roles have provided the opportunities for Afghan women to emancipate from the traditional gender roles and pursue the value of gender equality. In this process, they may face many challenges in intersectional levels within their family, community and wider society which is a complex conflate of oppressive factors that may not be addressed easily and straightforward. Methods: This qualitative study has been conducted among Afghan women who have lived in Australia less than ten years. Semi-structured interviews either face to face or by phone have been used to collect data for this study. The interviews have been audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software has been used for data analysis. Findings: Many participants mentioned that they had been taught that a good Afghan woman is devoted, obedient and loyal to their family and community. They believed that for many Afghan families, Afghan women's natural place was inside the home as a housewife, mother, daughter involving so many responsibilities and expectation of making sacrifices. Many women stated that their attitudes toward gender roles and their feeling of being a woman had been changed since they came to Australia although the process of change for women was complex and diverse. Some had to deal with conflicts with their stereotypes, traditional gender roles as well as strong disagreement with their family and community. Conclusion: Moving to a different country with more gender equality is an opportunity for Afghan women to change their perceptions of gender roles and stereotypes. However, challenging traditional stereotypes and gender roles in the new context is a complex process comprising intersectional levels.

Keywords: stereotypes, gender role, immigration, Afghan women

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2833 Gender Role Attitudes and Work-Life Balance among Dual-Earner Couples: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Tipu Sultan

Abstract:

The proposed research intends to explore the gender role attitudes and work-life balance among dual-earner couples in Pakistan. With the increase of female labor force participation in Pakistan, the trend of dual-earner couples has been increased than ever before. This new trend of dual-earner families has significantly affected the personal life of dual-earner couples. Due to major change in household structures, the traditions and the routine activities are in continuous transition. Balancing work and family life is more complex in the patriarchal society of Pakistan because of the social expectations of gender roles. A dichotomous behavioral reflection is being observed in Pakistani society. The one group of people having an egalitarian attitude are supporting the new gender roles of females, whereas the other group of people having a traditional mindset is still in the favor of patriarchy. Therefore, gender roles are re-evaluated, and it would be more interesting to raise questions on the interplay of new gender roles and work-life balance among dual-earners. The semi-structured interview guide will be utilized to explore gender role attitudes, ideal and in-practice gender roles, experiences of work-life imbalances/balances, possible strategies to create a balance between work and family life among dual-earner couples.

Keywords: dual-earner couples, gender role attitudes, Pakistan, work-life balance

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2832 Marketing Implications and the Dynamics of Changing Gender Roles in Families

Authors: Kehinde Emmanuel Atanlusi

Abstract:

It is impossible to stifle the gust of social change as it makes its way through institutionalised hierarchies on its way to expressing itself. This advancement might also have repercussions for institutions, families, and politics, so modifying the norms and establishing new societal ideals. In the following paragraphs, it will explore how gender roles in the family have changed over time, how this has affected consumption, and how marketing has been influenced by these changes. It was decided to use the empirical research method, which led to several discoveries, one of which was that marketing in the pre-modern era was predicated on metanarratives and gender stereotypes. However, these aspects of marketing have undergone significant transformations in the post-modern era, which led to the formation of an assumption regarding what future marketing trends will be like. In spite of the fact that post-modern marketing methods have a number of drawbacks, it was suggested that these strategies be embraced and updated in the future in order to expand consumer bases and target audiences.

Keywords: Marketing, Gender Roles, Advertising, Decentralisation, Fragmentation

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2831 The Stereotypes of Female Roles in TV Drama of Taiwan and Japan

Authors: Ya Ting Tang

Abstract:

Social learning theory has told us that the cognitions of gender roles come from learning. Thus, the images of gender roles which media describes will shape our cognitions. Taiwan and Japan are both in the East Asian cultural Sphere, and more or less influenced by the traditional Chinese culture. But our social structure and changes must be different. Others, the study also concerns that, with the rise of female consciousness in society, whether the female stereotype in drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved. This research first uses content analysis to analyze drama of Taiwan and Japan in 2003 and 2013 on how to shape female roles. Then use text analysis to conduct a qualitative analysis. Result of this study showed that drama on how to depict women indeed have changed, women are no longer just talk about love, but can serve as president or doctor, and show its mettle in the workplace. In Japanese drama, the female roles have diverse occupation than Taiwanese drama, and not just a background character set. But in most Taiwanese drama, female roles are given a career, but it always put emphasis on women emotionally. To include, although the stereotype in the drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved, female will still be derided due to their ages, love or marriage situations. Taiwanese drama must depict the occupation of female more diverse and let the female roles have more space to play, rather than focusing on romance which women of any occupation can have.

Keywords: female images, stereotype, TV drama, gender roles

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2830 A Study of Gender Awareness among College Students in Delhi

Authors: Shailly Kumar

Abstract:

Gender is a social construction resulting in defining roles and responsibilities to carried out according to masculine and feminine traits. The main aim of the study was to explore gender awareness among college going students of Delhi. The objectives of studies were to find out (i) the understanding of term gender and roles and responsibilities associated with male and female as masculine and feminine traits in our society. (ii)Gender images representing the attributes and characteristics attached to particular gender. (iii) Gender discrimination prevailing among girls and boys in our society. (iv)Gender stereotypes resulting in gendering with respect to religion, culture, family and media. The sample of study consisted of 100 undergraduate college girl students. The findings of study stated that the students had this understanding that sex is a natural phenomenon and gender is socially constructed. Gender defines the roles and responsibilities among two sexes. On a gender image students concluded that males are represented as a powerful members of society showing physical strength and violence, force and society gave the power to men oppress and subjugate women in society that's why women are treated inferior and given secondary position in society. On gender discrimination, girl students stated that they faced discrimination at all level such as family, media ,education, workplace etc .There is strong prevailing gender stereotypes among girls and boys with respect to religious practices, choice of career ,preference of child etc. This study concluded that students were aware of gendered practices in various domains of life. The study helped to interpret the notions and perceptions of students towards gendering of social spaces and in their lives.

Keywords: gender, gender awareness, gender role, masculinity and feminity

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2829 Gender Roles in Modern Indian Marriages

Authors: Parul Bhandari

Abstract:

An image of a modern and progressive India garners the rhetoric of ‘choice’ marriages, gender egalitarian relationships, and search for ‘love’ in conjugal unions. Such an image especially resonates with the lives of young professionals, who, largely belonging to the middle class, consider themselves to be the global face India. While this rhetoric of ‘progress’ and ‘love’ is abounding in both Indian and non-Indian public discourses, it is imperative to scientifically analyse the veracity of these claims. This paper thus queries and problematises the notions of being modern and progressive, through the lens of gender roles as expected and desired in a process of matchmaking. The fieldwork conducted is based on qualitative methodology, involving in-depth interviews with 100 highly qualified professionals, (60 men and 40 women), between the age of 24-31, belonging to the Hindu religion and of varied castes and communities, who are residing in New Delhi, and are in the process of spouse-selection or have recently completed it. Further, an analysis of the structure and content of matrimonial websites, which have fast emerged as the new method of matchmaking, was also undertaken. The main finding of this paper is that gender asymmetries continue to determine a suitable match, whether in ‘arranged’ or ‘love’ marriages. This is demonstrated by analysing the expectations of gender roles and gender practices of both men and women, to construct an ideal of a ‘good match’. On the basis of the interviews and the content of matrimonial websites, the paper discusses the characteristics of a ‘suitable boy’ and a ‘suitable girl’, and the ways in which these are received (practiced or criticised) by the young men and women themselves. It is then concluded that though an ideal of ‘compatibility’ and love determines conjugal desires, traditional gender roles, that, for example, consider men as the primary breadwinner and women as responsible for the domestic sphere, continue to dictate urban Indian marriages.

Keywords: gender, India, marriage, middle class

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2828 Post-Structural Study of Gender in Shakespearean Othello from Butlerian Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Shakeel Rehman Hissam

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This study aims at analyzing gender in Othello by applying Judith Butler’s Post-Structural theory of gender and gender performance. The analysis of the play provides us context by which we can examine what kinds of effects the drama have on understanding of the researchers regarding gender identity. The study sets out to examine that, is there any evidence or ground in Shakespearean selected work which leads to challenge the patriarchal taken for granted prescribed roles of gender? This would be the focal point in study of Othello that actions and performances of characters determine their gender identity rather than their sexuality. It argues that gender of Shakespearean characters has no constant, fixed and structural impression. On the contrary, they undergo consistent variations in their behavior and performance which impart fluidity and volatility to them. The focal point of the present study is Butler’s prominent work; Gender Trouble: Feminism and subversion of Identity and her post structural theory of Gender performativity as the theoretical underpinning of the text. It analyzes the selected play in Post-Structural gender perspective. The gender-centric plot of the play is riddled with fluidity of gender. The most fascinating aspect of the play is the transformations of genders on the basis of performances by different characters and through these transformations; gender identity is revealed and determined. The study reconstructs the accepted gender norms by challenging the traditional concept of gender that is based on sexual differences of characters.

Keywords: post structural, gender, performativity, socio-cultural gender norms, binaries, Othello, Butler, identity

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2827 A Gender Sensitive Labour Policy for Gilgit Baltistan

Authors: Ayesha Obaid, Abdur Rehman Cheema

Abstract:

This study is about understanding the role of the gender division of work that has been assigned to men and women in different societies and cultures and its impact on labour force participation through economic development. Development in Gilgit Baltistan has been challenging due to its geographical conditions and the human development indicators are lower than the rest of the Pakistan. Various socioeconomic factors are identified that play an important role in determining the choices and roles men and women undertake for contributing towards the labour force. Our research highlights the areas lagging behind in gender equality in the labour market. The availability and access of gender over these socioeconomic resources determine gender mainstreaming in the labour market. It is a need of time that gender gaps should be addressed at the grass root level by the policy makers to enhance the growth and improve human development indicators.

Keywords: gender division of work, human development, indicators of socioeconomic factors, labour force

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2826 Creativity and Stereotype Threat: Analysis of the Impact of Creativity on Eliminating the Stereotype Threat in the Educational Setting

Authors: Aleksandra Gajda

Abstract:

Among students between 12 and 13, the probability of activating the stereotype threat increases noticeably. Girls consider themselves weaker in science, while boys consider themselves weaker in the field of language skills. This phenomenon is disturbing because it may result in wrong choices of the further path of education, not consistent with the actual competences of the students. Meanwhile, negative effects of the stereotype threat, observable in the loss of focus on the task and transferring it to dealing with fear of failure, can be reduced by various factors. The study examined the impact of creativity on eliminating the stereotype threat. The experiment in the form of a 2 (gender: male vs. female) x 3 (traditional gender roles: neutral version vs. nontraditional gender roles) x 2 (creativity: low vs. high) factorial design was conducted. The results showed that a high level of creative abilities may reduce the negative effects of stereotype threat in educational setting.

Keywords: creativity, education, language skills, mathematical skills, stereotype threat

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2825 Gender Equality and the Politics of Presence among the Maasai in Kenya

Authors: Shillah Memusi

Abstract:

Underrepresentation of women in governance structures is a global phenomenon, with patriarchal considerations being among the main, if not the top, reason for this in Sub Saharan Africa. This paper demonstrates that gender norms and informal rules have perpetuated a culture of stereotypical gender roles that have limited women’s public participation and leadership in society. To achieve this, the paper explores barriers to women’s political engagement, and how these are navigated in the face of gender equality laws. Situated in Kenya’s Maasai community, the paper investigates the influence of set laws on the increased involvement of women from the patriarchal community in the political economy. It gives special attention to the intersectionality of formal and informal laws and the subsequent interpretation and implementation of gender equality. The paper then concludes by demonstrating the benefits of exploring alternative gender equality pathways, as informed by contextual realities of settings such as patriarchal communities.

Keywords: equality, Kenya, patriarchy, public participation, women

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2824 Viewing Entrepreneurship Through a Goal Congruity Lens: The Roles of Dominance and Communal Goal Orientations in Women’s and Men’s Venture Interests

Authors: Xiaoming Yang, Abby Folberg, Carey Ryan, Lwetzel, Tgoering

Abstract:

We examined gender differences in entrepreneurial career interests drawing on goal congruity theory, which posits that people adopt gender-stereotypic goal orientations in response to social pressures to conform to traditional gender roles. Aspiring entrepreneurs (N = 351) first wrote three to five sentences about what they believed made an entrepreneur successful. They then completed measures of agentic and communal goal orientations (i.e., male and female stereotypic orientations, respectively) and indicated their interests in starting ventures in stereotypically feminine (e.g., salon), masculine (e.g., auto-repair) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM; e.g., software developer) ventures. Qualitative analyses demonstrated that participants ascribed agentic and, more specifically, dominance, attributes to entrepreneurs; few participants ascribed communal attributes (e.g., warmth). Bifactor structural equation modeling indicated that, as expected, agentic goal orientations included dimensions of competence, self-direction, and dominance orientations and communal goal orientations were unidimensional. Further, as expected, dominance and communal orientations partially accounted for gender differences in all three career types. We discuss implications for entrepreneurial education and practice from a goal congruity perspective and the use of bifactor modeling to improve the measurement of goal orientations.

Keywords: gender, entrepreneurship, gender stereotypes, agentic and communal goal orientations, entrepreneurship education

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2823 Views of the Self in Beast and the Beauty K-Dramas - The South Korean Paradigm of Beauty

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenco

Abstract:

South Korean Entertainment Industry has reversed the gender binary through Beast and Beauty Korean dramas that perpetuate Korean unrealistic beauty standards by emphasizing freckles, acne, pimples, excessive weight, fizzy hair, glasses and braces as ugly and unattractive, therefore in need of correction to fit into society’s pre-established beauty mould. This pursuit of physical beauty as a happiness goal only detracts singularity in favour of mundaneness, sustaining the illusion that unsightly women need to undergo a physical transformation to improve their lives while handsome, wealthy men need not do anything more than altruistically accept them for who they really are inside. SevenBeast and Beauty dramas and one movie were analysed for this paper. The assessment revealed that there is a standardization and typecasting of Beast and Beauty roles in K-Dramas, a reflection of South Korean’s patriarchal society where women and men are continuously expected to fulfil their pre-established gender binary roles and stereotypes.

Keywords: K-dramas, gender binary, beauty, low self-esteem, bullying, tolerance, plastic surgery, South Korean stereotypes

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2822 Enabling Gender Equality in Leadership: An Exploration of Leadership and Self-Awareness, Using Community Participatory Action Research Methods

Authors: Robyn Jackaman

Abstract:

This research explores the characterization of leadership, self-awareness, and gender identity within a higher educational institution. This is in response to the widely researched area of gender in relation to senior management levels and the contemporary reflection of this issue in leadership, where gender diversity is lacking. Through organizational platforms, the University has self-identified issues relating to gender, equality, and representation. With equality being central to the core of the project, a Community Participatory Action Research approach was implemented. This approach was chosen as it is recognized for facilitating change within community contexts which complements the University Campus culture. Seventeen semi-structured interviews gave qualitative insight into working habitus (from both professional and academic services), leadership attributions and qualities and gender significance within the workplace. The research team (cross-disciplinary) used framework analysis to code and categorized the data. Key findings presented categories in gender significance to personal/work identity, organizational change and positive reflections on leadership characteristics and roles. This research has helped support the creation of tools to better assist the organization in gender equality, inclusion, and leadership development.

Keywords: gendered work, gender equality, leadership, university organization

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2821 The Principle of Transparency as a Tool to Potentiate Gender-Based Approaches in the World Trade Organization

Authors: Desiree Llaguno Cerezo, Elizabeth Valdes-Miranda Fernandez

Abstract:

Women have a critical role in sustaining the economy and in the development of trade. However, such a role has long been invisible due to orthodox conceptions that have ignored the gender variable in commercial analyses. Today, it is generally accepted that neither the economy nor business are gender-neutral and that the performance of these activities often impact negatively the lives of women. Women’s participation in trade, on equal terms as men, in any of the various possible roles -producer, wage earner, consumer, merchant, taxpayer- will not only favour the lives of women but also the performance of the economies in which they participate. Transparency, as a principle of the multilateral trading system, can play a significant role as a strategy for the empowerment of women.

Keywords: trade, human rights, gender equality, transparency, WTO, women workers, women's economic empowerment

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2820 Gender Role Conflict and Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Teenagers: A Study Based on High School Students from Guangdong and Yunnan

Authors: Yuan Zhang, Xin Fu, Yixin Tan

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Gender role conflict is a key factor influencing the mental health condition of adolescents. It has a strong connection with the noticeably growing mental health crisis of high school students. This study elucidates the relationship between gender role conflict and reports of subjective well-being of teenagers through mixed-methods empirical research based on surveys conducted in two Chinese cities, namely Shenzhen and Yuxi. These two cities are from two provinces of very distinct economic and cultural backgrounds. We believe a comparison between the two cities reveals the unequally distributed social conditions in China. We found that teenagers who possess a higher degree of gender role conflict tend to exhibit more negative emotions and that this relationship is conditioned upon other important factors such as gender, only child status, and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, we discovered that the social environment that is more progressive and open to various gender roles is correlated with higher levels of subjective well-being of teenagers in Shenzhen and Yunnan.

Keywords: gender role conflict, mental health conditions, subjective well-being, social environment

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2819 Fijian Women’s Role in Disaster Risk Management: Climate Change

Authors: Priyatma Singh, Manpreet Kaur

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Climate change is progressively being identified as a global crisis and this has immediate repercussions for Fiji Islands due to its geographical location being prone to natural disasters. In the Pacific, it is common to find significant differences between men and women, in terms of their roles and responsibilities. In the pursuit of prudent preparedness before disasters, Fijian women’s engagement is constrained due to socially constructed roles and expectation of women here in Fiji. This vulnerability is aggravated by viewing women as victims, rather than as key people who have vital information of their society, economy, and environment, as well as useful skills, which, when recognized and used, can be effective in disaster risk reduction. The focus of this study on disaster management is to outline ways in which Fijian women can be actively engaged in disaster risk management, articulating in decision-making, negating the perceived ideology of women’s constricted roles in Fiji and unveiling social constraints that limit women’s access to practical disaster management strategic plan. This paper outlines the importance of gender mainstreaming in disaster risk reduction and the ways of mainstreaming gender based on a literature review. It analyses theoretical study of academic literature as well as papers and reports produced by various national and international institutions and explores ways to better inform and engage women for climate change per ser disaster management in Fiji. The empowerment of women is believed to be a critical element in constructing disaster resilience as women are often considered to be the designers of community resilience at the local level. Gender mainstreaming as a way of bringing a gender perspective into climate related disasters can be applied to distinguish the varying needs and capacities of women, and integrate them into climate change adaptation strategies. This study will advocate women articulation in disaster risk management, thus giving equal standing to females in Fiji and also identify the gaps and inform national and local Disaster Risk Management authorities to implement processes that enhance gender equality and women’s empowerment towards a more equitable and effective disaster practice.

Keywords: disaster risk management, climate change, gender mainstreaming, women empowerment

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2818 'Gender' and 'Gender Equalities': Conceptual Issues

Authors: Moustafa Ali

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The aim of this paper is to discuss and question some of the widely accepted concepts within the conceptual framework of gender from terminological, scientific, and Muslim cultural perspectives, and to introduce a new definition and a model of gender in the Arab and Muslim societies. This paper, therefore, uses a generic methodology and document analysis and comes in three sections and a conclusion. The first section discusses some of the terminological issues in the conceptual framework of gender. The second section highlights scientific issues, introduces a definition and a model of gender, whereas the third section offers Muslim cultural perspectives on some issues related to gender in the Muslim world. The paper, then, concludes with findings and recommendations reached so far.

Keywords: gender definition, gender equalities, sex-gender separability, fairness-based model of gender

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2817 Role of Television in Constructing Gender for Young Women

Authors: Bhavna Negi

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Several studies highlight the significance of media in constructing realities around us. According to Forbes magazine the demand of televisions has increased several times in the developing nations. A recent survey reveals that 112 million Indian households have a television, with 61 percent accessing cable. The space and visibility of television has enormously grown over the last decade in Indian homes. This small box has indeed taken a large place in their daily routines. The multi channel viewing and TRPs puzzle the Indian audience. This medium creates and constructs social images and roles which form internal representation about societal functioing. According to National Council of Applied Economic Research about twenty seven percent Indian literate youth watches TV for recreation. The present study finds about the role of television and its impact on young college going women with reference to family based serials shown on television. It is interesting to see how young women perceive the popular family soaps and define norms, roles and spaces for a woman and a man. The paper further examines the subtle messages given to young women through television serials. It draws insights into the relationship between the contemporary Indian women and the images conceptualized and communicated on television.

Keywords: media, women, gender, social roles

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2816 The Impact of International Human Rights Law on Local Efforts to Address Women’s Realities of Violence: Lessons from Jamaica

Authors: Ramona Georgeta Biholar

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Gender-based violence against women plagues societies around the world. The work to eliminate it is an ongoing battle. At the international level, Article 5 (a) CEDAW establishes an agenda for social and cultural transformation: it imposes on States parties to CEDAW an obligation to modify sex roles and stereotypical social and cultural patterns of conduct. Also, it provides for the protection of women from violence stemming from such gender norms. Yet, the lived realities of women are frequently disconnected from this agenda. Nonetheless, it is the reality of the local that is crucial for the articulation, implementation and realization of women’s rights in general, and for the elimination of gender-based violence against women in particular. In this paper we discuss the transformation of sex roles and gender stereotyping with a view to realize women’s right to be free from gender-based violence. This paper is anchored in qualitative data collection undertaken in Jamaica and socio-legal research. Based on this research, 1) We explain the process of vernacularisation as a strategy that enables women’s human rights to hit the ground and benefit rights holders, and 2) We present a synergistic model for the implementation of Article 5 (a) CEDAW so that women’s right to be free from gender-based violence can be realized in a concrete national jurisdiction. This model is grounded in context-based demands and recommendations for social and cultural transformation as a remedy for the incidence of gender-based violence against women. Moreover, the synergistic model offers directions that have a general application for the implementation of CEDAW and Article 5 (a) CEDAW in particular, with a view to realize women’s right to be free from gender-based violence. The model is thus not only a conceptual tool of analysis, but also a prescriptive tool for action. It contributes to the work of both academics and practitioners, such as Governmental officials, and national and local civil society representatives. Overall, this paper contributes to understanding the process necessary to bridge that gap between women’s human rights norms and women’s life realities of discrimination and violence.

Keywords: CEDAW, gender-based violence against women, international human rights law, women’s rights implementation, the Caribbean

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2815 Gender, Occupational Status, Work-to-Family Conflict, and the Roles of Stressors among Korean Immigrants: Rethinking the Concept of the 'Stress of Higher Status'

Authors: Il-Ho Kim, Samuel Noh, Kwame McKenzie, Cyu-Chul Choi

Abstract:

Introduction: The ‘stress of higher status’ hypothesis suggests that workers with higher-status occupations are more likely to experience work-to-family conflict (WFC) than those with lower-status occupations. Yet, the occupational difference in WFC and its mechanisms have not been explicitly explored within Asian culture. This present study examines (a) the association between occupational status and WFC and (b) the mediating roles of work-related stressors and resources, focused on gender perspectives using a sample of Korean immigrants. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of foreign born Korean immigrants who were currently working at least two years in the Greater Area of Toronto or surrounding towns. The sample was stratified for equivalent presentations of micro-business owners (N=555) and paid employees in diverse occupational categories (N=733). Results: We found gender differences and similarities in the link between occupational status and WFC and the mediating roles of work-related variables. Compared to skilled/unskilled counterparts, male immigrants in professional, service, and microbusiness jobs reported higher levels of WFC, whereas female immigrants in higher-status occupations were more likely to have WFC with the exception of the highest levels of WFC among microbusiness owners. Regardless of gender, both male and female immigrants who have longer weekly work hours, shift work schedule, and high emotional and psychological demands were significantly associated with high levels of WFC. However, skill development was related to WFC only among male immigrants. Regarding the mediating roles of work-related factors, among female immigrants, the occupational difference in WFC was fully mediated by weekly work hours, shift work schedule, and emotional and psychological demands with the exception of the case of microbusiness workers. Among male immigrants, the occupational differences remained virtually unchanged after controlling for these mediators. Conclusions: Our results partially confirmed the ‘stress of higher status’ hypothesis among female immigrants. Additionally, work-related stressors seem to be critical mediators of the link between occupations and WFC only for female immigrants.

Keywords: work-to-family conflict, gender, work conditions, job demands, job resources

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2814 The Erasure of Sex and Gender Minorities by Misusing Sex and Gender in Public Health

Authors: Tessalyn Morrison, Alexis Dinno, Taurica Salmon

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Sex and gender conflation continue to perpetuate the invisibility of gender minorities and obscure information about the ways that biological sex and gender affect health. The misuse of sex and gender terms, and their respective binaries, can yield inaccurate results. But more importantly, it contributes to the erasure of sex and gender minority health experiences. This paper discusses ways in which public health researchers can use sex and gender terms correctly and center the health experiences of intersex, transgender, non binary, and a-gender individuals. It includes promoting sensitivity in approaching minority communities, improving survey questions, and collaborating with sex and gender minority communities to improve research quality and participant experiences. Improving our standards for the quality of sex and gender term usage and centering sex and gender minorities in public health research are imperative to address the health inequalities faced by sex and gender minorities.

Keywords: epidemiology, gender, intersex, research methods, sex, transgender

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2813 Women Recreational Center in District Swabi Pakistan

Authors: Shehryar Afzal

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Gender is one of the organizing principles of the society. Gender relations are based on the ideology of sexual division of labors. Consequently, women tend to have a lower level of education, vocational and professional skills then men in a conservative area. In Swabi women, overall take part in their daily work, either it is home management. I-e cooking, sewing. Their Economic roles are selling daily used commodities I-e poultry, embroidery Selling, etc. Their Social roles are participation in traditional ceremonies’ like Death, marriages, etc. The aim is to introduce the Society a new range of communal and recreational spaces acting as a community center for women and children, while developing plans for the community women and children, Providing recreational and communal activities for which the community strive and urge, having a sense of freedom and openness. Already interacting spaces are present where they have a social and communal gathering, but there is no such facilities to celebrate these activities.

Keywords: social sitting, communal spaces, tradition, freedom

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2812 Men Act, Women Are Acted Upon: Morphosyntactic Framing of the Sexual Intercourse in Online Pornography Titles

Authors: Aleksandra Tomic

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According to reliable sources, 4% of all websites is devoted to pornographic material, yet these estimates are often reported to be much higher. The largest internet pornography streaming website reports 21.2 billion visits in 2015 only. Considering the ubiquity of online pornography and the frequency of use, it is necessary to examine its potential influence on the construal of the sexual act and the roles of participants. Apart from the verbal and physical interactions in the pornographic movies themselves, the language in the titles of movies has the power to frame the sexual intercourse. In this study, Critical Discourse Analysis and corpus linguistics approaches will be used to examine the way the sexual intercourse and the roles of the participants are ideologically construed and perpetuated in the Internet pornography discourse. To this end, the study will explore the association between the specific morphosyntactic aspects of the references to performers of both genders, the person and the thematic role, and the gender of referred performer in the corpus of online pornographic movie titles. Distinctive collexeme analysis will be conducted to uncover possible associations between for gender of the performer denoted by the linguistic expression, and the person and thematic role assigned to it in the titles of online pornography movies. Initial results of the chi-square procedure performed on a sample of 295 online pornography movie titles on the largest pornography streaming website ‘Pornhub’ yielded significant results. The use of the three person categories was not equally distributed between genders, X2 (2, N = 106) = 32.52, p < 0.001, with female performers being referred to in the third person in 71.7% of the instances, and speaking in the first person 20.8% of the time, whereas male performers spoke in the first person 68% of the time, and were referred to in the third person in 17% of the instances. Moreover, there was a gender disparity in the assignment of thematic roles, with linguistic expressions for women being assigned the Patient role and men the Agent role in 58.8% of the cases, whereas the roles were reversed in 41.2% of the instances, X2 (1, N = 262) = 8.07633, p < 0.005. The results are discussed in terms of the ideologies surrounding female and male sexuality in the pornography discourse. Potential patterns of power imbalance, objectification, and discrimination are highlighted. Finally, the evidence from psycholinguistic studies on the influence of the language structure on event construal is related to the results of the study.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, gender studies, pornography, thematic roles

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2811 Gender and Advertisements: A Content Analysis of Pakistani Prime Time Advertisements

Authors: Aaminah Hassan

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Advertisements carry a great potential to influence our lives because they are crafted to meet particular ends. Stereotypical representation in advertisements is capable of forming unconscious attitudes among people towards any gender and their abilities. This study focuses on gender representation in Pakistani prime time advertisements. For this purpose, 13 advertisements were selected from three different categories of foods and beverages, cosmetics, cell phones and cellular networks from the prime time slots of one of the leading Pakistani entertainment channel, ‘Urdu 1’. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses are carried out for range of variables like gender, age, roles, activities, setting, appearance and voice overs. The results revealed that gender representation in advertisements is stereotypical. Moreover, in few instances, the portrayal of women is not only culturally inappropriate but is demeaning to the image of women as well. Their bodily charm is used to promote products. Comparing different entertainment channels for their prime time advertisements and broadening the scope of this research will yield greater implications for the researchers who want to carry out the similar research. It is hoped that the current study would help in the promotion of media literacy among the viewers and media authorities in Pakistan.

Keywords: Advertisements, Content Analysis, Gender, Prime time

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2810 Representation of Women in TV Commercials

Authors: Elmira Fotoohi

Abstract:

Representation of women in commercials and the place of sex in advertising is a part of communication studies and all of them are subset of advertising sociology. In this context, a lot of national and international studies have been done from different aspects. But in the meantime, and in connection with women issues, researchers in Communication Science and Sociology are interested in two topics “use of pornographic images of women” and “repeated representations of women in traditional roles and gender stereotypes by emphasizing the differences between men and women”, more than any other topics. Considering a number of changes that have occurred in social institutions and at different levels, the main research question currently are, what is the role of women in our TV ads and how are they represented in them? Do the local television ads represent women in the same issues as the researchers on this topic has proposed or new changes have occurred? Many scholars and thinkers in the field of media outlet that, today, media not just focus on women as gender issues or sex objects, but also seeks to strengthen the gender division of labor in the family and emphasize on the traditional muliebrity and masculinity stereotype.

Keywords: women, representation, tv commercials, advertising sociology, gender stereotypes

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
2809 Correlates of Work-Family Role Conflict and Well-Being: A Comparative Analysis by Gender

Authors: Liat Kulik

Abstract:

The main goal of the present study was to examine gender differences in the variables that explain the experience of role conflict and well-being among Jewish working fathers and mothers in the Israel. The experience of work-family conflict arises from simultaneous pressures from the work and family domains that are mutually incompatible. In light of the expansion of women's role set following the addition of paid employment outside of the home, most of the studies dealing with the impact of multiple roles on well-being have been conducted among women. However, changes in gender roles in recent years have also affected men's role set, as reflected in the terms ‘new men’ and ‘new fathers’. Based on structural equation modeling, the study examined gender differences in variables that explain the experience of two types of role conflict – family interferes with work (FIW) and work interferes with family (WIF), as well as with the sense of well-being (positive and negative affect) among 611 employed Jewish mothers and fathers in Israel. The findings revealed that for women, both FIW and WIF conflict correlated negatively with well-being, whereas for men, a negative correlation with well-being was found only in the case of FIW conflict. For both men and women, egalitarian gender role ideology correlated with the dimension of positive effect, but the correlation was stronger for men. The findings highlight the contribution of egalitarian gender role ideology to alleviating the experience of role conflict and improving the emotional well-being of both men and women. Contrary to expectations, social support contributed more to mitigating negative effect among men than women. On the whole, the findings highlight the changes that men have experienced in the work-family system. In sum, the research findings shed new light on the masculine image in terms of the experience of FIW conflict. In contrast to the prevailing assumption that FIW role conflict is predominant among women, the findings of this study indicate that today, this type of role conflict is experienced equally by men and women whereas WIF conflict is predominant among men. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, levels of perceived social support were found to be similar for men and women, and men benefited from it even more than women did.

Keywords: FIW conflict, WIF conflict, social support, egalitarian gender role ideology, overload

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2808 Mothers, the Missing Link: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Women-Centric Counterterrorism Measures

Authors: Bukola Solomon

Abstract:

In counterterrorism, policymakers typically design a confined role for women as family members and nurturers. In recent years, they have embraced the idea of mothers as the missing link to preventing and countering violent extremism. This ‘programmed’ role of women is derived from the convictions that women’s central roles in the family and community afford them the ‘unique set of skills’ to detect early signs of radicalization and extremism. This paper attempts to focus on the ‘mother’ narrative that frames women’s agency as mothers of ‘terrorists’ and ‘potential’ terrorists. The general underlying assumption of the ‘mother’ narrative is that naturally, every ‘terrorist’ has or once had a mother, and their radicalization is a maternal ‘oversight.’ By deconstructing the notion of motherhood as a social construct instead of an inherent female desire and ability, this paper argues that the assumption of ‘mothers know best’ is invalid. Also, this paper suggests that the ‘mother’ narrative is a deliberate effort to restrict women’s participation in counterterrorism as ‘preventers.’ Finally, this paper notes a global trend in which mothers are contesting the dominant view of women empowerment that restricts their agency by seeking alternative versions in terrorist organizations. And as such, they create parallel terror cells. Thus, the overemphasis on the role women plays as mothers in counterterrorism limits the scope and potential of counterterrorism programs by marginalizing gender issues and reinforcing gender disparities to the extent that the programs become counterproductive.

Keywords: countering violent extremism, counterterrorism, gender, gender roles, terrorism, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2807 Chaotic Representation: Translating Gender in Cantonese Opera Performances

Authors: Kar Yue Chan

Abstract:

Cantonese opera is a valuable heritage originated from South China, and started to span its influence across the area to Hong Kong, and became extremely popular back in the 1950s to the 1970s. It has also been honoured and recognized as one treasurable item on the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity on the Representative List of UNESCO since 2009. A certain level of difficulty is encountered when one identifies the gender roles and representations from a usual performance of Cantonese opera, as conventional practices of Cantonese opera display to the audience that many of the male hero roles are played by female upon the prior knowledge of all audience, and it is understandable for them as well because in the past there were insufficient male actors and performers on the market. Female actresses, in some senses, are more capable to sing near-male voices, and their appearances in heroic operatic attires are more appreciated by general audience. Therefore, perspectives of 'feminine representation' and the 'Reception Theory' in literature are conducive to analyzing such phenomenon. In spite of some 'normal' performances with romantic love stories or historical accounts involving often a talented intellectual and a beautiful wise lady (in Chinese caizi jiaren 才子佳人), in which the male role is actually male and the female role is actually female, there have still been some opera titles specifically manifesting these extreme gender associations by putting together displacement of gender roles in the same performance in view of such chaotic complication. On top of all other factors, translators dealing with any operatic texts face plenty of challenges upon transferring Cantonese operatic performances into English. It is found that translators need to deal with cultural elements embedded in the lyrics; the form (which is as delicate as those deriving from classical Chinese poetry); the gender misplacements that affect the mood and tone of the lyrics that much when they are in the process of translating. Some lyrics and tunes are specifically designed for a particular gender role to perform, while some others are more generic; both of which require different and specific translation strategies. After scrutinizing the various sources of reference, readers of this paper should be well informed of a significance which lies in the refined nature of the poetic form and content that signifies in the way the distinguished gender voice segregation of the discourse from which the lyrics are derived, and definitely also through the on-stage performability aspect of the task. In order to produce a relatively short and concise translated version which fits performance needs, all of the above factors will be looked at in this paper with relevant examples and analysis.

Keywords: Cantonese opera, translation, chaotic gender, performance

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2806 The Influence of Having Sons or Daughters on Rural Mothers Life Quality after Birth: A Sample from Hebei Province in China

Authors: Jin Liang, Q. Li, Yue Qi, Liying Wang, Wenhua Yu, Xun Liu

Abstract:

Fertility is very important for women. The gender role of women gives them the fertility ability. Giving birth to a boy or a girl might have effect on the mother’s life in the past in China. However, with the shifting of traditional attitudes and views, the women's social status and living situation have been transformed. Although the pregnancy and childbirth can still bring them a major impact on their lives, the form and content of the impact have changed. So we investigated the rural women of Hebei province after birth to reflect their living situation changes before and after birth and the differences of their living situation from women in the past by using a self-made rural women life situation change questionnaire, the index of well-being, and the index of general effect questionnaire. It has shown that women’s living situation after babybirth in Hebei province is well in general, and their mind and body, as well as their interpersonal relationships and social status, were all enhanced. The women’s living situation after babybirth was positively related to and could anticipate subjective happiness, and specifically, the rural women’s mind and body, their interpersonal relationship and social status in rural women life situation change questionnaire are the main predicted factors to subjective happiness. Furthermore, the women’s self-identification on female roles was influenced by the children’s gender. Specifically, women with only one daughter had highest self-identification on female roles, consisting with their families' concept about children’s gender, which indicated family values have a great effect on women’s self-identification on female roles in rural. Moreover, the women’s living situation and subjective happiness are both impacted by home incomes.

Keywords: rural women, parturition, well-being, life quality

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2805 Level of Roles Performed in Tourism Development: The Case Study of Local Municipality, Chiang Khan District, Loei

Authors: Sukanya Sripho

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the level of roles performed in tourism development by local people residing in Chiang Khan Sub-District Municipality, Loei Province in Northeast of Thailand. In addition, this study also tested whether personal factors had a relationship with the level of roles performed in tourism development. These personal factors included gender, age, educational level, career, position and duty in the community, average income per month, length of residence and involvement in the tourism industry. The findings revealed a high level in each role performed. These roles were ranked from the highest mean score to the lowest mean score as follows: (1) improving and rejuvenating tourist attractions; (2) improving tourist facilities; (3) promoting people participation; (4) publicizing tourist attractions; (5) protecting for safety and security; and (6) surveying and managing the information of tourist attractions. Furthermore, it was found that position and duty in the community, length of residence and involvement in tourism industry had a relationship with the level of roles performed in tourism development at a significance level of 0.05.

Keywords: Role, local municipality administration, tourism development, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 371