Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani

19 Evaluation of Phytochemical and Fatty Acids Content and Composition in Iranian Borage (Echium amoenum) in Different Habitate of Iran

Authors: Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani, Mohamadjavad Shakouri

Abstract:

Iranian Gole GavZaban (Echium amoenum fich & mey), is one of the most important medicinal plant in north of iran . is dry petals used for tonic, tranquillizer, diaphoretic, cough suppressant and a remedy for sore throat in treditional Iranian medicine. This study is the report about the analysis of phytochemical and seeds oil of Echium amoenum's in different habitates and accessions of Iran. The results showed that the oil content of seeds was 36% and eleven fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC). The major fatty acids wereα-Linolenicacid (39.99), Linoleic acid (20.86), linolenic acid (20%) and Oleic acid (15.36) respectively. The amount of phenols, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins with increasing height, increased amount of these compounds. So that the highest rates of these compounds were observed at an altitude of 2125 meters in ciposht accession.

Keywords: phytochemical, accession, oil components, Iranian borage

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18 The Effect of Different Concentrations of Trichoderma harzianum Fungus on the Phytochemical and Antioxidative Parameters of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea convar.botrytisl) in Soils Contaminated with Lead

Authors: Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani, Mohammad Javad Shakori, Vajihe Esmaili

Abstract:

Today, the increasing contamination is an environmental concern. There is relationship between plants and microorganisms many years ago. In this regard, an experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of lead across three levels ‘zero, 50, and 100 mg/L’ and Trichoderma Harzanium fungus across three levels ‘5, 10, and 15%’ in a factorial design in the form of fully randomized blocks in three replications under form conditions in the climatic conditions of Shahroud in Dehlama Village. This research was performed in 2014-2015 on cauliflower. In this experiment, chlorophyll a, b, total, cartenoid, phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant properties of cauliflowers were measured. The results indicated that the greatest level of chlorophyll a (75.723 mg/wet weight), chlorophyll b (27.378 mg/wet weight), and total chlorophyll (109.074 mg/wet weight) was related to the interactive effects of 5% treatment of Trichoderma fungus and 0mg/L lead. The results also indicated that the greatest amount of antioxidant (79.88% of free radical) and flavonoides (22.889 mg of coercetin/g of dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 50 mg/L and the treatment of Trichoderma fungus 5%. Further, the greatest level of phenol (21.33 mg of Gaelic acid/ dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 100 mg/L and Trichoderma fungus 5% . As carotenoids are a type of antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, with the development of alignment effect with other antioxidants such as the total phenol, flavonoid, achieved desirable levels of antioxidant.

Keywords: flavonoid, antioxidant, chlorophyll, lead, cauliflower

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17 Design of a Laboratory Test for InvestigatingPermanent Deformation of Asphalt

Authors: Esmaeil Ahmadinia, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers

Abstract:

Many concerns have been raised in recent years about the adequacy of existing creep test methods for evaluating rut-resistance of asphalt mixes. Many researchers believe the main reason for the creep tests being unable to duplicate field results is related to a lack of a realistic confinement for laboratory specimens. In-situ asphalt under axle loads is surrounded by a mass of asphalt, which provides stress-strain generated confinement. However, most existing creep tests are largely unconfined in their nature. It has been hypothesised that by providing a degree of confinement, representative of field conditions, in a creep test, it could be possible to establish a better correlation between the field and laboratory. In this study, a new methodology is explored where confinement for asphalt specimens is provided. The proposed methodology is founded on the current Australian test method, adapted to provide simulated field conditions through the provision of sample confinement.

Keywords: permanent deformation, asphalt mixture, creep test, confinements

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16 Tourism Climate Index Environmental Assessment of Piranshahr

Authors: Parvaneh Ziviar Pardehei, Esmaeil Hossinnejad

Abstract:

In this research, the tourism climate index Miczcofski (TCI) and to assess climate Trjvng Piranshahr city tourism is discussed. The index is a systematic way to evaluate the climatic conditions for tourism. To calculate the parameters of mean monthly maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, average daily relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine and the wind speed are used. In the months of April, July, August and September of comfort there in December, January, February and March, the nerve is cold comfort factor. Baker calculation method showed that during spring and summer cooling environment, mild, pleasant, and comfortable Byvklymay there. TCI results suggest that the months of April to July are top rated and best climatic conditions in terms of comfort to the tourists. In general, indices used in this paper show that the months of April to October is the best time for tourism in the city Piranshahr.

Keywords: Climate, Tourism, Piranshahr city, TCI indicators and trjvng

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15 Study of the Environment Problems of Flowers in the World

Authors: Esmaeil Khodadad

Abstract:

The environment is one of the hotbeds of global politics. It is only necessary to emphasize the human being on this word, and to take it as a serious political-social debate, so as to prevent the collapse of the harmony of the system of nature governing the earth, the landlord and its creatures. Earth, water and humans are three interconnected arms that should be kept in balance and harmony. The collapse of one of these arms disrupts the entire framework of the philosophy of life on earth. Environmental issues were found worldwide in the late 20th century and were given serious attention by experts. At the same time, international environmental issues have brought to the forefront the challenges of international relations. These ideas have introduced environmental issues and some of the main features of the causes and consequences of global environmental change, as well as ways to deal with this change Has been discussed. The objectives of this study are environmental issues in the world and in Iran, and it shows what factors contribute to the formation of spatial systems and its supporting systems, and finally what the goals should be about the ideal state of the future of the global environment and its issues. The information required for this research is a combination of documentary, descriptive-analytical and library methods.

Keywords: Environment, Environmental Issues, flower, oeacen

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14 A Nanofi Brous PHBV Tube with Schwann Cell as Artificial Nerve Graft Contributing to Rat Sciatic Nerve Regeneration across a 30-Mm Defect Bridge

Authors: Esmaeil Biazar

Abstract:

A nanofibrous PHBV nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of nerve regeneration in rats. The designed conduits were investigated by physical, mechanical and microscopic analyses. The conduits were implanted into a 30-mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. This polymeric conduit had sufficiently high mechanical properties to serve as a nerve guide. The results demonstrated that in the nanofibrous graft with cells, the sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. For the grafts especially the nanofibrous conduits with cells, muscle cells of gastrocnemius on the operated side were uniform in their size and structures. This study proves the feasibility of artificial conduit with Schwann cells for nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in a rat model.

Keywords: sciatic regeneration, Schwann cell, artificial conduit, nanofibrous PHBV, histological assessments

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13 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer in Pulsation Mist Flow in Rectanglar Duct Partially Filled with a Porous Medium

Authors: Hosein Shokoohmand, Mohamad Esmaeil Jomeh

Abstract:

The present thesis studies the effect of different factors such as frequency of oscillatory flow, change in constant wall heat flux and two-phase current state, on heat transfer in a pipe in presence of porous medium. In this experimental study is conducted for Reynolds numbers in a range of Re=850 to Re=10000 and oscillatory frequencies of 5, 20, 10, 30 and 40 Hz with constant heat flux of 585 w/m2 and 819 w/m2. The results indicate that increase in oscillation frequency in higher frequencies for heat flux of 585 w/m2 leads to an increase in heat transfer; however, in the rest of tests it results in a heat transfer decrease. Increasing Reynolds number in a pulsation mist flow causes an increase in average Nusselt number values. The effect of oscillation frequencies in a pulsation mist flow for different Reynolds numbers has revealed different results, in a way that for some Reynolds numbers an increase of frequency has led to a heat transfer decrease.

Keywords: constant heat flux, Reynolds numbers, frequency of oscillatory flow, mist flow

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12 The Effectiveness of Self-Compassion Training: A Field Trial Study

Authors: Esmaeil Sarikhani

Abstract:

Objectives: Considering the importance of introducing new methods of improving self-compassion and compassion to the others in nursing students, this study intends to evaluate the effect of self-compassion training on nursing students. Methods: This is a field trial study in which 52 nursing interns from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected using convenience sampling method and divided in two experimental and control groups. The sampling was done during two phases: before and after the intervention. The intervention consisted of eight sessions over eight weeks of self-compassion training. The data were collected using the self-compassion standard questionnaire with 26 questions before and after the intervention. Data were then analyzed by the SPSS18 software and independent and paired T-tests, and also Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results obtained from the independent t-test showed that the mean score of self-compassion and its components in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Comparing the groups, the mean overall score difference of self-compassion and its components had also a statistically significant change after the intervention (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Self-compassion training program, leads to improving nursing students' self-compassion. As it seems, this method can be used as an important training course in order to improve compassion of nursing students to themselves and the others.

Keywords: Student, nursing students, self-compassion, field trial

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11 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Saeedeh Dashti, Hakimeh Fekrandish

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilariacorticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of Urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P < 0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: biomass, Culture, Growth, red alga, net, rope

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10 The Role of Sport-Centered Social Capitals on Student's Tendency in Sports Activities

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Esmaeil Zabihi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is the review and prioritizes of sport-centered social capital on Islamic Azad university of Garmsar student’s tendency in sports activities, especially public sports based on Bourdieu viewpoint. 365 students at of 6254 students (3140 male and 3114 female) of Islamic Azad university of Garmsar branch were selected randomly, Morgan also used. 272 person answer questionnaire (with the help of specific questionnaires moeinaldini, 1391) it has 30 questions. Researchers have confirmed the validity of this questionnaire justifiability. Reliability was achieved through Cronbach's alpha 84%. The analysis of data done by, SPSS software and independent t-tests, friedman, u Mann Whitney, Kruskal Wallis test. friedman test showed below things : environmental dimension (MR=4.71) social and economic factors (MR=3.57) and family (MR=3.47). These factors have significant role on sports activities of students (P≤1.0). Also, comparison of these dimensions showed that the men believe to university (t-4.30) in increasing students participation. These results show that environment like (such as) governmental organization, going to the stadium and life environment is the most important factor which can effect on sport and body activities of the students.

Keywords: Social Capital, Cultural Capital, Bourdieu viewpoint, sport for all

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9 Qualitative Detection of HCV and GBV-C Co-infection in Cirrhotic Patients Using a SYBR Green Multiplex Real Time RT-PCR Technique

Authors: Shahzamani Kiana, Esmaeil Lashgarian Hamed, Merat Shahin

Abstract:

HCV and GBV-C belong to the Flaviviridae family of viruses and GBV-C is the closest virus to HCV genetically. Accumulative research is in progress all over the world to clarify clinical aspects of GBV-C. Possibility of interaction between HCV and GBV-C and also its consequence with other liver diseases are the most important clinical aspects which encourage researchers to develop a technique for simultaneous detection of these viruses. In this study a SYBR Green multiplex real time RT-PCR technique as a new economical and sensitive method was optimized for simultaneous detection of HCV/GBV-C in HCV positive plasma samples. After designing and selection of two pairs of specific primers for HCV and GBV-C, SYBR Green Real time RT-PCR technique optimization was performed separately for each virus. Establishment of multiplex PCR was the next step. Finally our technique was performed on positive and negative plasma samples. 89 cirrhotic HCV positive plasma samples (29 of genotype 3 a and 27 of genotype 1a) were collected from patients before receiving treatment. 14% of genotype 3a and 17.1% of genotype 1a showed HCV/GBV-C co-infection. As a result, 13.48% of 89 samples had HCV/GBV-C co-infection that was compatible with other results from all over the world. Data showed no apparent influence of HGV co-infection on the either clinical or virological aspect of HCV infection. Furthermore, with application of multiplex Real time RT-PCR technique, more time and cost could be saved in clinical-research settings.

Keywords: cirrhotic patients, HCV, GBV-C, multiplex real time RT- PCR

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8 Biological Organic or Inorganic Sulfur Sources Feeding Effects on Intake and Some Blood Metabolites of Close-Up Holstein Cows

Authors: Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari, Esmaeil Manidari, Vahid Keshavarz

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of increased level of sulfur by supplementing magnesium sulfate with or without biologically organic source in dairy cow close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI) and some blood metabolites. The 24 multiparous close-up Holstein cows averaging body weight 687.94 kg and days until expected calving date 21.89 d were allocated in three different treatments (8 cows per each) in a completely randomized design. The first treatment (T1) has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis), the second treatment (T2) has contained 0.41% sulfur which entirely supplied through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3) has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur. All the cows were fed same diet after parturition until 21 d. The DMI for both pre-calving (P < 0.001) and post-calving was affected by treatments (P < 0.004) and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Among the blood metabolites, glucose, calcium, and copper were decreased in T2 (P < 0.05). However, blood concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, urea, CPK, and AST were increased in T2 (P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and biological organic source of sulfur in close-up diets could have positive effects on DMI and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

Keywords: organic sulfur, dairy cow, intake, blood metabolites

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7 Reconstructing Calvarial Bone Lesions Using PHBV Scaffolds and Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rat

Authors: Esmaeil Biazar, Hamed Hosseinkazemi

Abstract:

For tissue engineering of bone, anatomical and operational reconstructions of damaged tissue seem to be vital. This is done via reconstruction of bone and appropriate biological joint with bone tissues of damaged areas. In this study the condition of biodegradable bed Nanofibrous PHBV and USSC cells were used to accelerate bone repair of damaged area. Hollow nanofabrication scaffold of damageable life was designed as PHBV by electrospinning and via determining the best factors such as the kind and amount of solvent, specific volume and rate. The separation of osseous tissue infiltration and evaluating its nature by flow cytometrocical analysis was done. Animal test including USSC as well as PHBV condition in the damaged bone was done in the rat. After 8 weeks the implanted area was analyzed using CT scan and was sent to histopathology ward. Finally, the rate and quality of reconstruction were determined after H and E coloring. Histomorphic analysis indicated a statistically significant difference between the experimental group of PHBV, USSC+PHBV and control group. Besides, the histopathologic analysis showed that bone reconstruction rate was high in the area containing USSC and PHBV, compared with area having PHBV and control group and consequently the reconstruction quality of bones and the relationship between the new bone tissues and surrounding bone tissues were high too. Using PHBR scaffold and USSC together could be useful in the amending of wide range of bone lesion.

Keywords: Stem Cells, nanofibrous PHBV, bone lesion, umbilical cord blood

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6 The Comparison of Movement and Physical Fitness in Secondary Male Students in Altitude and Coastal Areas

Authors: Seyed Hossein Alavi, Esmaeil Zabihi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is a comparison of movement and physical fitness in athlete's male students in altitude and sea-level. The samples consist of 450 subjects in altitude and sea-level in Iran in years of 2013 which were selected randomly from the population. We investigated the effect of high altitude on the tests activity profile of youth high altitude and sea level residents. Methods 450 Sea Level (Mahmood Abad) and 450 Altitude-resident (Shahre-Kord) athlete students tests of physical fitness near sea level (-5 m) and in Altitude (2100 m). This study is Descriptive Research (causal-comparative research). The tests of physical fitness include pull-ups test, sit-ups test, agility test(4 9), 45 sprint test, 1600 m running, long jump, and flexibility test. For determining of different between the physical fitness of altitude and sea-level students was used t-test (P ≤ 0.05). The result of this study show that there is no significant difference between the average of pull-ups test, flexibility, 45 sprints, and agility (4 9) test of students in sea-level and altitude. But there is a significant difference between the average of sit-ups, 1600 m running and long jump in altitude. The students of altitude have higher power rather than sea-level. But the students of sea-level have stronger abdominal muscles and cardio-respiratory endurance rather than altitude. High altitude reduces the distance covered by youth athlete students during tests. Neither acclimatisation nor lifelong residence at high altitude protects against detrimental effects of altitude on tests activity profile.

Keywords: Physical Fitness, Sea Level, altitude areas, AAHPERD test

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5 Progressive Collapse of Cooling Towers

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

Well documented records of the past failures of the structures reveals that the progressive collapse of structures is one of the major reasons for dramatic human loss and economical consequences. Progressive collapse is the failure mechanism in which the structure fails gradually due to the sudden removal of the structural elements. The sudden removal of some structural elements results in the excessive redistributed loads on the others. This sudden removal may be caused by any sudden loading resulted from local explosion, impact loading and terrorist attacks. Hyperbolic thin walled concrete shell structures being an important part of nuclear and thermal power plants are always prone to such terrorist attacks. In concrete structures, the gradual failure would take place by generation of initial cracks and its propagation in the supporting columns along with the tower shell leading to the collapse of the entire structure. In this study the mechanism of progressive collapse for such high raised towers would be simulated employing the finite element method. The aim of this study would be providing clear conceptual step-by-step descriptions of various procedures for progressive collapse analysis using commercially available finite element structural analysis software’s, with the aim that the explanations would be clear enough that they will be readily understandable and will be used by practicing engineers. The study would be carried out in the following procedures: 1. Provide explanations of modeling, simulation and analysis procedures including input screen snapshots; 2. Interpretation of the results and discussions; 3. Conclusions and recommendations.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, Cooling Towers, Crack Generation, progressive collapse

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4 CFD-DEM Modelling of Liquid Fluidizations of Ellipsoidal Particles

Authors: Aibing Yu, Esmaeil Abbaszadeh Molaei, Zongyan Zhou

Abstract:

The applications of liquid fluidizations have been increased in many parts of industries such as particle classification, backwashing of granular filters, crystal growth, leaching and washing, and bioreactors due to high-efficient liquid–solid contact, favorable mass and heat transfer, high operation flexibilities, and reduced back mixing of phases. In most of these multiphase operations the particles properties, i.e. size, density, and shape, may change during the process because of attrition, coalescence or chemical reactions. Previous studies, either experimentally or numerically, mainly have focused on studies of liquid-solid fluidized beds containing spherical particles; however, the role of particle shape on the hydrodynamics of liquid fluidized beds is still not well-known. A three-dimensional Discrete Element Model (DEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are coupled to study the influence of particles shape on particles and liquid flow patterns in liquid-solid fluidized beds. In the simulations, ellipsoid particles are used to study the shape factor since they can represent a wide range of particles shape from oblate and sphere to prolate shape particles. Different particle shapes from oblate (disk shape) to elongated particles (rod shape) are selected to investigate the effect of aspect ratio on different flow characteristics such as general particles and liquid flow pattern, pressure drop, and particles orientation. First, the model is verified based on experimental observations, then further detail analyses are made. It was found that spherical particles showed a uniform particle distribution in the bed, which resulted in uniform pressure drop along the bed height. However for particles with aspect ratios less than one (disk-shape), some particles were carried into the freeboard region, and the interface between the bed and freeboard was not easy to be determined. A few particle also intended to leave the bed. On the other hand, prolate particles showed different behaviour in the bed. They caused unstable interface and some flow channeling was observed for low liquid velocities. Because of the non-uniform particles flow pattern for particles with aspect ratios lower (oblate) and more (prolate) than one, the pressure drop distribution in the bed was not observed as uniform as what was found for spherical particles.

Keywords: Simulation, Multiphase Flow, CFD, Ellipsoid, Fluidization, DEM, non-spherical

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3 Scrutinizing the Effective Parameters on Cuttings Movement in Deviated Wells: Experimental Study

Authors: Siyamak Sarafraz, Reza Esmaeil Pour, Saeed Jamshidi, Asghar Molaei Dehkordi

Abstract:

Cutting transport is one of the major problems in directional and extended reach oil and gas wells. Lack of sufficient attention to this issue may bring some troubles such as casing running, stuck pipe, excessive torque and drag, hole pack off, bit wear, decreased the rate of penetration (ROP), increased equivalent circulation density (ECD) and logging. Since it is practically impossible to directly observe the behavior of deep wells, a test setup was designed to investigate cutting transport phenomena. This experimental work carried out to scrutiny behavior of the effective variables in cutting transport. The test setup contained a test section with 17 feet long that made of a 3.28 feet long transparent glass pipe with 3 inch diameter, a storage tank with 100 liters capacity, drill pipe rotation which made of stainless steel with 1.25 inches diameter, pump to circulate drilling fluid, valve to adjust flow rate, bit and a camera to record all events which then converted to RGB images via the Image Processing Toolbox. After preparation of test process, each test performed separately, and weights of the output particles were measured and compared with each other. Observation charts were plotted to assess the behavior of viscosity, flow rate and RPM in inclinations of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°. RPM was explored with other variables such as flow rate and viscosity in different angles. Also, effect of different flow rate was investigated in directional conditions. To access the precise results, captured image were analyzed to find out bed thickening and particles behave in the annulus. The results of this experimental study demonstrate that drill string rotation helps particles to be suspension and reduce the particle deposition cutting movement increased significantly. By raising fluid velocity, laminar flow converted to turbulence flow in the annulus. Increases in flow rate in horizontal section by considering a lower range of viscosity is more effective and improved cuttings transport performance.

Keywords: cutting transport, directional drilling, flow rate, hole cleaning, pipe rotation

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2 Effect of Pollutions on Mangrove Forests of Nayband National Marine Park

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Elaheh Shakerdargah

Abstract:

The mangrove ecosystem is a complex of various inter-related elements in the land-sea interface zone which is linked with other natural systems of the coastal region such as corals, sea-grass, coastal fisheries and beach vegetation. The mangrove ecosystem consists of water, muddy soil, trees, shrubs, and their associated flora, fauna and microbes. It is a very productive ecosystem sustaining various forms of life. Its waters are nursery grounds for fish, crustacean, and mollusk and also provide habitat for a wide range of aquatic life, while the land supports a rich and diverse flora and fauna, but pollutions may affect these characteristics. Iran has the lowest share of Persian Gulf pollution among the eight littoral states; environmental experts are still deeply concerned about the serious consequences of the pollution in the oil-rich gulf. Prolongation of critical conditions in the Persian Gulf has endangered its aquatic ecosystem. Water purification equipment, refineries, wastewater emitted by onshore installations, especially petrochemical plans, urban sewage, population density and extensive oil operations of Arab states are factors contaminating the Persian Gulf waters. Population density has been the major cause of pollution and environmental degradation in the Persian Gulf. Persian Gulf is a closed marine environment which is connected to open waterways only from one way. It usually takes between three and four years for the gulf's water to be completely replaced. Therefore, any pollution entering the water will remain there for a relatively long time. Presently, the high temperature and excessive salt level in the water have exposed the marine creatures to extra threats, which mean they have to survive very tough conditions. The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fish grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialization and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region. Pollution may cause the mortality of mangrove forests by effect on root, leaf and soil of the area. Study was showed the high correlation between industrial pollution and mangrove forests health in south of Iran and increase of population, coupled with economic growth, inevitably caused the use of mangrove lands for various purposes such as construction of roads, ports and harbors, industries and urbanization.

Keywords: Environment, Pollution, Population, mangrove forest, Persian Gulf

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1 Evaluation of Rheological Properties, Anisotropic Shrinkage, and Heterogeneous Densification of Ceramic Materials during Liquid Phase Sintering by Numerical-Experimental Procedure

Authors: Hamed Yaghoubi, Esmaeil Salahi, Fateme Taati

Abstract:

The effective shear and bulk viscosity, as well as dynamic viscosity, describe the rheological properties of the ceramic body during the liquid phase sintering process. The rheological parameters depend on the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of the material such as relative density, temperature, grain size, and diffusion coefficient and activation energy. The main goal of this research is to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the response of an incompressible viscose ceramic material during liquid phase sintering process such as stress-strain relations, sintering and hydrostatic stress, the prediction of anisotropic shrinkage and heterogeneous densification as a function of sintering time by including the simultaneous influence of gravity field, and frictional force. After raw materials analysis, the standard hard porcelain mixture as a ceramic body was designed and prepared. Three different experimental configurations were designed including midpoint deflection, sinter bending, and free sintering samples. The numerical method for the ceramic specimens during the liquid phase sintering process are implemented in the CREEP user subroutine code in ABAQUS. The numerical-experimental procedure shows the anisotropic behavior, the complete difference in spatial displacement through three directions, the incompressibility for ceramic samples during the sintering process. The anisotropic shrinkage factor has been proposed to investigate the shrinkage anisotropy. It has been shown that the shrinkage along the normal axis of casting sample is about 1.5 times larger than that of casting direction, the gravitational force in pyroplastic deformation intensifies the shrinkage anisotropy more than the free sintering sample. The lowest and greatest equivalent creep strain occurs at the intermediate zone and around the central line of the midpoint distorted sample, respectively. In the sinter bending test sample, the equivalent creep strain approaches to the maximum near the contact area with refractory support. The inhomogeneity in Von-Misses, pressure, and principal stress intensifies the relative density non-uniformity in all samples, except in free sintering one. The symmetrical distribution of stress around the center of free sintering sample, cause to hinder the pyroplastic deformations. Densification results confirmed that the effective bulk viscosity was well-defined with relative density values. The stress analysis confirmed that the sintering stress is more than the hydrostatic stress from start to end of sintering time so, from both theoretically and experimentally point of view, the sintering process occurs completely.

Keywords: rheological properties, anisotropic shrinkage, ceramic material, liquid phase sintering process, numerical-experimental procedure

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