Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: strawberry

24 Energy Consumption Modeling for Strawberry Greenhouse Crop by Adaptive Nero Fuzzy Inference System Technique: A Case Study in Iran

Authors: Azar Khodabakhshi, Elham Bolandnazar

Abstract:

Agriculture as the most important food manufacturing sector is not only the energy consumer, but also is known as energy supplier. Using energy is considered as a helpful parameter for analyzing and evaluating the agricultural sustainability. In this study, the pattern of energy consumption of strawberry greenhouses of Jiroft in Kerman province of Iran was surveyed. The total input energy required in the strawberries production was calculated as 113314.71 MJ /ha. Electricity with 38.34% contribution of the total energy was considered as the most energy consumer in strawberry production. In this study, Neuro Fuzzy networks was used for function modeling in the production of strawberries. Results showed that the best model for predicting the strawberries function had a correlation coefficient, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) equal to 0.9849, 0.0154 kg/ha and 0.11% respectively. Regards to these results, it can be said that Neuro Fuzzy method can be well predicted and modeled the strawberry crop function.

Keywords: crop yield, energy, neuro-fuzzy method, strawberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
23 Oxalate Content of Raw and Cooked Amaranth and Strawberry Spinach Grown in an Elevated CO₂ Atmosphere

Authors: Madhuri Kanala, Geoffrey Savage

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Worldwide CO₂ levels are slowly rising, and this may have effects on the growth and nutritional composition of many food plants. The production of secondary metabolites such as oxalates has not been investigated in depth. The oxalate content of many food plants are known to have adverse nutritional effects on humans and reduction in the oxalate contents of food plants is a very positive move. Recent studies had shown that the oxalate content of the leaves of spinach and silver beet reduced when the plants were grown in an environment where CO₂ was increased. The response of amaranth and strawberry spinach leaves to changes in the high CO₂ environment have not been understood though it is known that the plants do contain appreciable oxalate contents. A study was conducted where amaranth and strawberry spinach plants were grown in identical plant growth chambers with the same environmental conditions except that one chamber was supplied with ambient air (CO₂ 405 ppm) while the other chamber had the CO₂ level increased to 650 ppm. The total and soluble oxalate content of the leaves of raw and cooked amaranth and strawberry spinach were determined by HPLC and calcium levels were determined using ICP following 6 weeks of growth. The total oxalate content of the fresh leaves of amaranth and strawberry spinach were reduced by 29.5 % and 24.6% respectively in the leaves of the plants grown in increased CO₂ conditions compared to ambient levels. The soluble oxalate content of amaranth leaves grown under ambient and increased CO₂ conditions were future reduced by 42% and 26.8% respectively following cooking as the soluble oxalate was leached into the cooking water and discarded. The reduction of the oxalate and calcium levels of raw and cooked amaranth and strawberry spinach leaves following an increase in CO₂ content in the air is an interesting positive response to an otherwise significant environmental problem.

Keywords: amaranth, calcium oxalate, enriched CO₂, oxalates, strawberry spinach

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
22 Surface Sterilization Retain Postharvest Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry and Cherry Tomato during Modified Atmosphere Packaging

Authors: Ju Young Kim, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Mahmuda Akter Mele, Su Jeong Han, Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

Strawberry and tomato fruits were harvested at the red ripens maturity stage in the Republic of Korea. The fruits were dipped in fungi solution and afterwards were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas. Some fruits were dipped in 150μL/L NaOCl solution for 10 minutes, and others were treated with 5μL/L ClO2 gas for 12 hours and packed with 20,000 cc OTR (oxygen transmission rate) film, the rest were packed in 10,000 cc OTR film inserted with 5μL/L ClO2 gas. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed the lowest carbon dioxide and ethylene, and the highest oxygen concentration was on the final storage day (15th day) in both strawberry and tomato fruits. Tomato fruits showed the lowest fresh weight loss in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. The visual quality as well as shelf life showed the highest in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment of both strawberry and tomato fruits. In addition, the fungal incidence of strawberry and tomato fruits were the most suppressed in 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment. 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment showed higher firmness and soluble solids in both strawberry and tomato fruits. So, 5μL/L ClO2 gas insert treatment may be useful to prevent the fungal incidence as well as retaining the postharvest quality, and increase the shelf life of strawberry and tomato fruits for long term storage. This study was supported by Export Promotion Technology Development Program (314027-03), IPET, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.

Keywords: chlorine dioxide, ethylene, fungi, sodium hypochlorite

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
21 The Effect of Nano-Silver Packaging on Quality Maintenance of Fresh Strawberry

Authors: Naser Valipour Motlagh, Majid Aliabadi, Elnaz Rahmani, Samira Ghorbanpour

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Strawberry is one of the most favored fruits all along the world. But due to its vulnerability to microbial contamination and short life storage, there are lots of problems in industrial production and transportation of this fruit. Therefore, lots of ideas have tried to increase the storage life of strawberries especially through proper packaging. This paper works on efficient packaging as well. The primary material used is produced through simple mixing of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and silver nanoparticles in different weight fractions of 0.5 and 1% in presence of dicumyl peroxide as a cross-linking agent. Final packages were made in a twin-screw extruder. Then, their effect on the quality maintenance of strawberry is evaluated. The SEM images of nano-silver packages show the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the packages. Total bacteria count, mold, yeast and E. coli are measured for microbial evaluation of all samples. Texture, color, appearance, odor, taste and total acceptance of various samples are evaluated by trained panelists and based on 9-point hedonic scale method. The results show a decrease in total bacteria count and mold in nano-silver packages compared to the samples packed in polyethylene packages for the same storage time. The optimum concentration of silver nanoparticles for the lowest bacteria count and mold is predicted to be around 0.5% which has attained the most acceptance from the panelist as well. Moreover, organoleptic properties of strawberry are preserved for a longer period in nano-silver packages. It can be concluded that using nano-silver particles in strawberry packages has improved the storage life and quality maintenance of the fruit.

Keywords: antimicrobial properties, polyethylene, silver nanoparticles, strawberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
20 Solid Phase Micro-Extraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Study of Volatile Compounds from Strawberry Tree and Autumn Heather Honeys

Authors: Marinos Xagoraris, Elisavet Lazarou, Eleftherios Alissandrakis, Christos S. Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis

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Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) and autumn heather (Erica manipuliflora Salisb.) are important beekeeping plants of Greece. Six monofloral honeys (four strawberry tree, two autumn heather) were analyzed by means of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME, 60 min, 60 oC) followed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) for the purpose of assessing the botanical origin. A Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was employed, and benzophenone was used as internal standard. The volatile compounds with higher concentration (μg/ g of honey expressed as benzophenone) from strawberry tree honey samples, were α-isophorone (2.50-8.12); 3,4,5-trimethyl-phenol (0.20-4.62); 2-hydroxy-isophorone (0.06-0.53); 4-oxoisophorone (0.38-0.46); and β-isophorone (0.02-0.43). Regarding heather honey samples, the most abundant compounds were 1-methoxy-4-propyl-benzene (1.22-1.40); p-anisaldehyde (0.97-1.28); p-anisic acid (0.35-0.58); 2-furaldehyde (0.52-0.57); and benzaldehyde (0.41-0.56). Norisoprenoids are potent floral markers for strawberry-tree honey. β-isophorone is found exclusively in the volatile fraction of this type of honey, while also α-isophorone, 4-oxoisophorone and 2-hydroxy-isophorone could be considered as additional marker compounds. The analysis of autumn heather honey revealed that phenolic compounds are the most abundant and p-anisaldehyde; 1-methoxy-4-propyl-benzene; and p-anisic acid could serve as potent marker compounds. In conclusion, marker compounds for the determination of the botanical origin for these honeys could be identified as several norisoprenoids and phenolic components were found exclusively or in higher concentrations compared to common Greek honey varieties.

Keywords: SPME/GC-MS, volatile compounds, heather honey, strawberry tree honey

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
19 Interaction of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Temperature on Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Growth and Fruit Yield

Authors: Himali N. Balasooriya, Kithsiri B. Dassanayake, Saman Seneweera, Said Ajlouni

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Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] and ambient temperature associated with changing climatic conditions will have significant impacts on agriculture crop productivity and quality. Independent effects of the above two environmental variables on the growth, yield and quality of strawberry were well documented. Higher temperatures over the optimum range (20-25ºC) lead to crop failures, while elevated [CO2] stimulated plant growth and yield but compromised the physical quality of fruits. However, there is very limited understanding of the interaction between these variables on the plant growth, yield and quality. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the interactive effect of high temperature and elevated [CO2] on growth, yield and quality of strawberries. Strawberry cultivars ‘Albion’ and ‘San Andreas’ were grown under six different combinations of two temperatures (25 and 30ºC) and three [CO2] (400, 650 and 950 µmol mol-1) in controlled-environmental growth chambers. Plant growth measurements such as plant height, canopy area, number of flowers, and fruit yield were measured during phonological development. Photosynthesis and transpiration, the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric [CO2] (Ci/Ca) were measured to estimate the physiological adjustment to climate stress. The impact of temperature and [CO2] interaction on growth and yield of strawberry was significant (p < 0.05). Across both cultivars, highest fruit yields were observed at 650 µmol mol-1 [CO2], which was particularly clear at 25°C. The fruit yield gradually decreased at 30°C under all the treatment combinations. However, photosynthesis rates were highest at 650 µmol mol-1 [CO2] but no increment was found at 900 µmol mol-1 [CO2]. Interestingly, Ci/Ca ratio increased with increasing atmospheric [CO2] which was predominant at high temperature. Similarly, fruit yield was substantially reduced at high [CO2] under high temperature. Our findings suggest that increased Ci/Ca ratio at high temperature is likely reduces the photosynthesis and thus yield response to elevated [CO2].

Keywords: atmospheric CO₂ concentration, fruit yield, strawberry, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
18 In vitro Study of Inflammatory Gene Expression Suppression of Strawberry and Blackberry Extracts

Authors: Franco Van De Velde, Debora Esposito, Maria E. Pirovani, Mary A. Lila

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The physiology of various inflammatory diseases is a complex process mediated by inflammatory and immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes. Chronic inflammation, as observed in many cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, occurs when the low-grade inflammatory response fails to resolve with time. Because of the complexity of the chronic inflammatory disease, major efforts have focused on identifying novel anti-inflammatory agents and dietary regimes that prevent the pro-inflammatory process at the early stage of gene expression of key pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The ability of the extracts of three blackberry cultivars (‘Jumbo’, ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Dirksen’), and one strawberry cultivar (‘Camarosa’) to inhibit four well-known genetic biomarkers of inflammation: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxynase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in an in vitro lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model were investigated. Moreover, the effect of latter extracts on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed. Assay was conducted with 50 µg/mL crude extract concentration, an amount that is easily achievable in the gastrointestinal tract after berries consumption. The mRNA expression levels of Cox-2 and IL-6 were reduced consistently (more than 30%) by extracts of ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberries. Strawberry extracts showed high reduction in mRNA expression levels of IL-6 (more than 65%) and exhibited moderate reduction in mRNA expression of Cox-2 (more than 35%). The latter behavior mirrors the intracellular ROS production of the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages after the treatment with blackberry ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Jumbo’, and strawberry ‘Camarosa’ extracts, suggesting that phytochemicals from these fruits may play a role in the health maintenance by reducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, effective inhibition in the gene expression of IL-1β and iNOS was not observed by any of blackberry and strawberry extracts. However, suppression in the NO production in the activated macrophages among 5–25% was observed by ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberry extracts and ‘Camarosa’ strawberry extracts, suggesting a higher NO suppression property by phytochemicals of these fruits. All these results suggest the potential beneficial effects of studied berries as functional foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles. Moreover, the underlying role of phytochemicals from these fruits in the protection of inflammatory process will deserve to be further explored.

Keywords: cyclooxygenase-2, functional foods, interleukin-6, reactive oxygen species

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
17 Strawberry Productivity of Peri-Urban and Urban Locations across Southeast Michigan, USA

Authors: Maria E. Laconi, Kyla D. Scherr, Mary A. Jamieson

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Human populations in urban environments have rapidly grown in recent decades. Consequently, the intensity of land-use and development has also increased in many urban and peri-urban environments. Some cities, such as Detroit, Michigan, USA, have embraced urban agriculture and local food production. Little is known, however, about how the local and landscape scale environmental factors influence crop productivity on urban farms. Our study aims to evaluate factors influencing the productivity of strawberries on community farms and gardens in the Detroit metropolitan area. Strawberries are one of few fruits that can provide an abundant harvest just after the first season of being planted, which is ideal for urban gardeners in developed areas. In the spring of 2016, we planted six different strawberry cultivars (three everbearing and three June bearing varieties) at five farm sites in Wayne and Oakland County (six replicate plants per cultivar per site). We surveyed flower and fruit phenology and production for everbearing varieties weekly (flowers for June bearing varieties were removed to enhance productivity in the coming growing season). Additionally, we conducted one initial 36hr pollinator survey in mid-September during peak fruit production and characterized local and landscape scale land-cover data. Preliminary results and observations from this first year of our study revealed that strawberry production varied significantly by site. Specifically, productivity at our most northern site appeared to suffer from delayed phenology and early frost damage to ripening strawberries. Bee abundance and diversity also differed among farms, though further surveys are needed to adequately inventory the pollinator community. Finally, strawberry cultivars demonstrated significant differences in the number and size of fruits produced. We plan to continue this study in the coming years, increasing the number of sites surveyed and number of pollinator sampling events. Our study aims to inform strategies for enhancing crop productivity on urban and peri-urban farms.

Keywords: insect pollination, strawberry productivity, sustainable agriculture, urban gardening

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
16 Detection of Powdery Mildew Disease in Strawberry Using Image Texture and Supervised Classifiers

Authors: Sultan Mahmud, Qamar Zaman, Travis Esau, Young Chang

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Strawberry powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease that has a significant impact on strawberry production. Field scouting is still a major way to find PM disease, which is not only labor intensive but also almost impossible to monitor disease severity. To reduce the loss caused by PM disease and achieve faster automatic detection of the disease, this paper proposes an approach for detection of the disease, based on image texture and classified with support vector machines (SVMs) and k-nearest neighbors (kNNs). The methodology of the proposed study is based on image processing which is composed of five main steps including image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, features extraction and classification. Two strawberry fields were used in this study. Images of healthy leaves and leaves infected with PM (Sphaerotheca macularis) disease under artificial cloud lighting condition. Colour thresholding was utilized to segment all images before textural analysis. Colour co-occurrence matrix (CCM) was introduced for extraction of textural features. Forty textural features, related to a physiological parameter of leaves were extracted from CCM of National television system committee (NTSC) luminance, hue, saturation and intensity (HSI) images. The normalized feature data were utilized for training and validation, respectively, using developed classifiers. The classifiers have experimented with internal, external and cross-validations. The best classifier was selected based on their performance and accuracy. Experimental results suggested that SVMs classifier showed 98.33%, 85.33%, 87.33%, 93.33% and 95.0% of accuracy on internal, external-I, external-II, 4-fold cross and 5-fold cross-validation, respectively. Whereas, kNNs results represented 90.0%, 72.00%, 74.66%, 89.33% and 90.3% of classification accuracy, respectively. The outcome of this study demonstrated that SVMs classified PM disease with a highest overall accuracy of 91.86% and 1.1211 seconds of processing time. Therefore, overall results concluded that the proposed study can significantly support an accurate and automatic identification and recognition of strawberry PM disease with SVMs classifier.

Keywords: powdery mildew, image processing, textural analysis, color co-occurrence matrix, support vector machines, k-nearest neighbors

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
15 Mathematical Modelling of Ultrasound Pre-Treatment in Microwave Dried Strawberry (Fragaria L.) Slices

Authors: Hilal Uslu, Salih Eroglu, Betul Ozkan, Ozcan Bulantekin, Alper Kuscu

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In this study, the strawberry (Fragaria L.) fruits, which were pretreated with ultrasound (US), were worked on in the microwave by using 90W power. Then mathematical modelling was applied to dried fruits by using different experimental thin layer models. The sliced fruits were subjected to ultrasound treatment at a frequency of 40 kHz for 10, 20, and 30 minutes, in an ultrasonic water bath, with a ratio of 1:4 to fruit/water. They are then dried in the microwave (90W). The drying process continued until the product moisture was below 10%. By analyzing the moisture change of the products at a certain time, eight different thin-layer drying models, (Newton, page, modified page, Midilli, Henderson and Pabis, logarithmic, two-term, Wang and Singh) were tested for verification of experimental data. MATLAB R2015a statistical program was used for the modelling, and the best suitable model was determined with R²adj (coefficient of determination of compatibility), and root mean square error (RMSE) values. According to analysis, the drying model that best describes the drying behavior for both drying conditions was determined as the Midilli model by high R²adj and low RMSE values. Control, 10, 20, and 30 min US for groups R²adj and RMSE values was established as respectively; 0,9997- 0,005298; 0,9998- 0,004735; 0,9995- 0,007031; 0,9917-0,02773. In addition, effective diffusion coefficients were calculated for each group and were determined as 3,80x 10⁻⁸, 3,71 x 10⁻⁸, 3,26 x10⁻⁸ ve 3,5 x 10⁻⁸ m/s, respectively.

Keywords: mathematical modelling, microwave drying, strawberry, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
14 The Effect of Chloride Dioxide and High Concentration of CO2 Gas Injection on the Quality and Shelf-Life for Exporting Strawberry 'Maehyang' in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

The strawberry ‘Maehyang’ cultivated in South Korea has been increased to export to Southeast Asia. The degradation of quality often occurs in strawberries during short export period. Botrytis cinerea has been known to cause major damage to the export strawberries and the disease was caused during shipping and distribution. This study was conducted to find out the sterilized effect of chlorine dioxide(ClO2) gas and high concentration of CO2 gas injection for ‘Maehyang’ strawberry and it was packaged with oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films. The strawberry was harvested at 80% color changed stage and packaged with OTR film and perforated film (control). The treatments were a MAP used by with 20,000 cc·m-2·day·atm OTR film and gas injection in packages. The gas type of ClO2 and CO2 were injected into OTR film packages, and treatments were 6 mg/L ClO2, 15% CO2, and they were combined. The treated strawberries were stored at 3℃ for 30 days. Fresh weight loss rate was less than 1% in all OTR film packages but it was more than 15% in a perforated film treatment that showed severe deterioration of visual quality during storage. Carbon dioxide concentration within a package showed approximately 15% of the maximum CO2 concentration in all treatments except control until the 21st day, it was the tolerated range of maximum CO2 concentration of strawberry in recommended CA or MA conditions. But, it increased to almost 50% on the 30th day. Oxygen concentration showed a decrease down to approximately 0% in all treatments except control for 25 days. Ethylene concentration was shown to be steady until the 17th day, but it quickly increased on the 17th day and dropped down on the final storage day (30th day). All treatments did not show any significant differences in gas treatments. Firmness increased in CO2 (15%) and ClO2 (6mg/L) + CO2 (15%) treatments during storage. It might be the effect of high concentration CO2 known by reducing decay and cell wall degradation. The soluble solid decreased in all treatments during storage. These results were caused to use up the sugar by the increase of respiration during storage. The titratable acidity showed a similarity in all treatments. Incidence of fungi was 0% in CO2 (15%) and ClO2 (6mg/L)+ CO2 (15%), but was more than 20% in a perforated film treatment. Consequently, The result indicates that Chloride Dioxide(ClO2) and high concentration of CO2 inhibited fungi growth. Due to the fact that fresh weight loss rate and incidence of fungi were lower, the ClO2(6mg/L)+ CO2(15%) prove to be most efficient in sterilization. These results suggest that Chloride Dioxide (ClO2) and high concentration of CO2 gas injection treatments were an effective decontamination technique for improving the safety of strawberries.

Keywords: chloride dioxide, high concentration of CO2, modified atmosphere condition, oxygen transmission rate films

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13 Investigating the Feasibility of Berry Production in Central Oregon under Protected and Unprotected Culture

Authors: Clare S. Sullivan

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The high desert of central Oregon, USA is a challenging growing environment: short growing season (70-100 days); average annual precipitation of 280 mm; drastic swings in diurnal temperatures; possibility of frost any time of year; and sandy soils low in organic matter. Despite strong demand, there is almost no fruit grown in central Oregon due to potential yield loss caused by early and late frosts. Elsewhere in the USA, protected culture (i.e., high tunnels) has been used to extend fruit production seasons and improve yields. In central Oregon, high tunnels are used to grow multiple high-value vegetable crops, and farmers are unlikely to plant a perennial crop in a high tunnel unless proven profitable. In May 2019, two berry trials were established on a farm in Alfalfa, OR, to evaluate raspberry and strawberry yield, season length, and fruit quality in protected (high tunnels) vs. unprotected culture (open field). The main objective was to determine whether high tunnel berry production is a viable enterprise for the region. Each trial was arranged using a split-plot design. The main factor was the production system (high tunnel vs. open field), and the replicated, subplot factor was berry variety. Four day-neutral strawberry varieties and four primocane-bearing raspberry varieties were planted for the study and were managed using organic practices. Berries were harvested once a week early in the season, and twice a week as production increased. Harvested berries were separated into ‘marketable’ and ‘unmarketable’ in order to calculate percent cull. First-year results revealed berry yield and quality differences between varieties and production systems. Strawberry marketable yield and berry fruit size increased significantly in the high tunnel compared to the field; percent yield increase ranged from 7-46% by variety. Evie 2 was the highest yielding strawberry, although berry quality was lower than other berries. Raspberry marketable yield and berry fruit size tended to increase in the high tunnel compared to the field, although variety had a more significant effect. Joan J was the highest yielding raspberry and out-yielded the other varieties by 250% outdoor and 350% indoor. Overall, strawberry and raspberry yields tended to improve in high tunnels as compared to the field, but data from a second year will help determine whether high tunnel investment is worthwhile. It is expected that the production system will have more of an effect on berry yield and season length for second-year plants in 2020.

Keywords: berries, high tunnel, local food, organic

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
12 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films and High Concentration Carbon Dioxide for Maintaining the Freshness of Strawberry ‘Maehyang’ for Export in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: Hyuk Sung Yoon, In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

Abstract:

This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation oxygen transmission rate (OTR) films and effectiveness of high carbon dioxide at strawberry 'Maehyang' for export. Strawberries were grown by hydroponic system in Gyeongsangnam-do province. These strawberries were packed by different laser ablation OTR films (Daeryung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc, 80,000 cc, and 100,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. And CO2 injection (30%) treatment was used 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm OTR film and perforated film was as a control. Temperature conditions were applied simulated shipping and distribution conditions from Korea to Singapore, there were stored at 3 ℃ (13 days), 10 ℃ (an hour), and 8 ℃ (7 days) for 20 days. Fresh weight loss rate was under 1% as maximum permissible weight loss in treated OTR films except perforated film as a control during storage. Carbon dioxide concentration within a package for the storage period showed a lower value than the maximum CO2 concentration tolerated range (15 %) in treated OTR films and even the concentration of high OTR film treatment; from 20,000cc to 100,000cc were less than 3%. 1,300 cc had a suitable carbon dioxide range as over 5 % under 15 % at 5 days after storage until finished experiments and CO2 injection treatment was quickly drop the 15 % at storage after 1 day, but it kept around 15 % during storage. Oxygen concentration was maintained between 10 to 15 % in 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments, but other treatments were kept in 19 to 21 %. Ethylene concentration was showed very higher concentration at the CO2 injection treatment than OTR treatments. In the OTR treatments, 1,300 cc showed the highest concentration in ethylene and 20,000 cc film had lowest. Firmness was maintained highest in 1,300cc, but there was not shown any significant differences among other OTR treatments. Visual quality had shown the best result in 20,000 cc that showed marketable quality until 20 days after storage. 20,000 cc and perforated film had better than other treatments in off-odor and the 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments have occurred strong off-odor even after 10 minutes. As a result of the difference between Hunter ‘L’ and ‘a’ values of chroma meter, the 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were delayed color developments and other treatments did not shown any significant differences. The results indicate that effectiveness for maintaining the freshness was best achieved at 20,000 cc•m-2•day•atm. Although 1,300 cc and CO2 injection treatments were in appropriate MA condition, it showed darkening of strawberry calyx and excessive reduction of coloring due to high carbon dioxide concentration during storage. While 1,300cc and CO2 injection treatments were considered as appropriate treatments for exports to Singapore, but the result was shown different. These results are based on cultivar characteristics of strawberry 'Maehyang'.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, firmness, shelf-life, visual quality

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11 Influence of Maturation Degree of Arbutus (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruits in Spirit Composition and Quality

Authors: Goreti Botelho, Filomena Gomes, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Ilda Caldeira

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The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is a small tree or shrub from botanical Ericaceae family that grows spontaneously nearby the Mediterranean basin and produce edible red fruits. A traditional processed fruit application, in Mediterranean countries, is the production of a spirit (known as aguardente de medronho, in Portugal) obtained from the fermented fruit. The main objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge about the influence of the degree of maturation of fruits in the volatile composition and quality of arbutus spirit. The major volatiles in the three distillates fractions (head, heart and tail) obtained from fermentation of two different fruit maturation levels were quantified by GC-FID analysis and ANOVA one-way was performed. Additionally, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of both arbutus fruit spirits were determined, by ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteau method, respectively. The methanol concentration is superior (1022.39 g/hL a.a.) in the spirit made from fruits with highest total soluble solids, which is a value above the legal limit (1000 g/hL a.a.). Overall, our study emphasizes, for the first time, the influence of maturation degree of arbutus fruits in the spirit volatile composition and quality.

Keywords: arbutus fruit, maturation, quality, spirit

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
10 Analysis of Osmotin as Transcription Factor/Cell Signaling Modulator Using Bioinformatic Tools

Authors: Usha Kiran, M. Z. Abdin

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Osmotin is an abundant cationic multifunctional protein discovered in cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Wisconsin 38) adapted to an environment of low osmotic potential. It provides plants protection from pathogens, hence placed in the PRP family of proteins. The osmotin induced proline accumulation has been reported in plants including transgenic tomato and strawberry conferring tolerance against both biotic and abiotic stresses. The exact mechanism of induction of proline by osmotin is however, not known till date. These observations have led us to hypothesize that osmotin induced proline accumulation could be due to its involvement as transcription factor and/or cell signal pathway modulator in proline biosynthesis. The present investigation was therefore, undertaken to analyze the osmotin protein as transcription factor /cell signalling modulator using bioinformatics tools. The results of available online DNA binding motif search programs revealed that osmotin does not contain DNA-binding motifs. The alignment results of osmotin protein with the protein sequence from DATF showed the homology in the range of 0-20%, suggesting that it might not contain a DNA binding motif. Further to find unique DNA-binding domain, the superimposition of osmotin 3D structure on modeled Arabidopsis transcription factors using Chimera also suggested absence of the same. We, however, found evidence implicating osmotin in cell signaling. With these results, we concluded that osmotin is not a transcription factor but regulating proline biosynthesis and accumulation through cell signaling during abiotic stresses.

Keywords: osmotin, cell signaling modulator, bioinformatic tools, protein

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9 Fiber Optic Asparagine Biosensor for Fruit Juices by Co-Immobilization of L-Asparaginase and Phenol Red

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ritu Narula, Navneet Kaur

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Asparagine is vital amino acid which is required for the development of brain and it regulates the equilibrium of central nervous system. Asparagine is the chief amino acid that forms acrylamide in baked food by reacting with reducing sugars at high temperature ( Millard Reaction i.e. amino acids and sugars give new flavors at high temperature). It can also be a parameter of freshness in fruit juices because on storage of juices at 37°C caused an 87% loss in the total free amino acids and major decrease was recorded in asparagine contents. With this significance of monitoring asparagine, in the present work a biosensor for determining asparagine in fruit juices is developed. For the construction of biosensor L-asparaginase enzyme (0.5 IU) was co-immobilized with phenol red on TEOS chitosan sol-gel plastic disc and fixed on the fiber optic tip. Tip was immersed in a cell having 5ml of substrate and absorption was noted at response time of 5 min with 10-1 - 10-10 M concentrations of asparagine at 538 nm. L-asparaginase was extracted and from Solanum nigrum Asparagine biosensor was applied fruit juices on the monitoring asparagine contents. L-asparagine concentration found to be present in fruit juices like Guava Juice, Apple Juice, Mango Juice, Litchi juice, Strawberry juice, Pineapple juice Lemon juice, and Orange juice. Hence the developed biosensor has commercial aspects in quality insurance of fruit juices.

Keywords: fiber optic biosensor, chitosan, teos, l-asparaginase

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8 Agritourism Development Mode Study in Rural Area of Boshan China

Authors: Lingfei Sun

Abstract:

Based on the significant value of ecology, the strategic planning for ecological civilization construction was mentioned in the 17th and 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. How to generate economic value based on the environmental capacity is not only an economic decision but also a political decision to make. Boshan took the full use of “Ecology” and transformed it as an inexhaustible green resource to benefit people, reflecting the sustainable value of new agriculture development mode. The Strawberry Harvest Festival and Blueberry Harvest Festival hosted approximately 96,000 and 54,000 leisure tourists respectively in 2014. For the Kiwi Harvest Festival in August 2014, in average, it attracted about 4600 tourists per day, which generated daily kiwi sales of 50,000 lbs and 3 million RMB (About 476,000 USD) of daily revenue. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the modes of agritourism development, by analyzing the cases in rural area of Boshan, China. Interviews with the local government officers were applied to discover operation mode of agritourism operation. The financial data was used to demonstrate the strength of government policy and improvement of the income of rural people. The result indicated that there are mainly three types of modes: the Intensive Mode, the Model Mode and the Mixed Mode, supported by case study respectively. With the boom of tourism, the development of agritourism in Boshan relies on the agriculture encouraging policy of China and the effort of local government; meanwhile, large scale of cultivation and the product differentiation are the crucial elements for the success of rural agritourism projects.

Keywords: agriculture, agritourism, economy, rural area development

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7 Plant Volatiles for Trapping Queensland Fruit Flies

Authors: Nazma Akter Tithi

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Plant volatiles consist of a variety of chemicals that may disperse in the air over a wide distance and play important role in attracting fruit flies to source food or find mating or ovipositing locations. In this study, six different host-plants have been studied for Bactroceratryoni, known as Queensland fruit flies (Qfly), to evaluate their potential to attract these flies. Extracts were prepared from fresh plant materials of capsicum annuum (bell pepper), Capsicum frutescens (chilli), Citrus sinensis (sweet orange), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), and Fragariaananassa (strawberry). Lab reared virgin and mature Qflies, both male and female, were exposed to a number of traps that were made consisting of each of one of these extracts and control and observed for their behaviour towards the traps. It was recorded that mature flies, both male and female, were highly attracted to the plants S. lycopersicum and C. sinensis, whereas virgin males are more attracted to F. ananassa extract. Headspace volatiles of these plants have been collected and analysed in GCMS to identify the compounds present in the headspace that may have an impact of the observed Qfly attraction of these plants. A number of volatile chemicals have been identified analysing their m/z peaks in mass spectra and similarity compared with the NIST database. It was observed that several identified alcohols and aldehydes are constituents of the general “green-leaf odor” that emitted from most of the plants. However, there were a number of interesting compounds identified in the headspace of these plants that might have an impact on fly attractiveness, and thus further, this preliminary study provides a good scope of further investigation of plant volatiles as a possible way to develop fruit fly attractants.

Keywords: plant volatiles, fruit fly, headspace, pest management

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6 Consumer Preferences towards Sorbets: A Questionnaire Study

Authors: Kinga Topolska, Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Adam Florkiewicz, Daria Chechelska, Iwona Cieślik, Ewa Cieślik

Abstract:

Food choice is a complex human behaviour, that is influenced by many interrelating factors. It is important to understand what consumers really want to eat. Nowadays, the growing popularity of frozen desserts is observed. Among them, sorbets are of the special interest. They are made primarily of fruit juice or fruit purée, water and sugar. A questionnaire study was done to evaluate the consumer preferences towards sorbets. A hundred respondents were included in the study. The respondents answered the questions concerning, inter alia, on the favourite taste of sorbets, additional ingredients (pieces of fruits, nuts etc.), the reason for choosing the product and also the opinion about potential purchasing or not the new product. Women, more frequently than men, indicated strawberry sorbet or the product on the basis of citrus fruits as a favourite one. In turn, 14% of men chose the apple taste. Pieces of chocolate were chosen by most of respondents. Men, more often than women, regarded raisins, alcohol and nuts as the most desirable additional ingredients of sorbets. The candied fruits and spices were indicated more frequently by women. Most of respondents indicated the taste as the major reason for sorbet buying. In turn, for 20% women the most important determinant was the care for their figure. It was observed that more than a half of women regarded sorbets as healthier than traditional ice creams. Answering the question: 'If you had the opportunity to try a new sorbet, containing the ingredient with proven healthy properties, would you buy it?', significantly more men than women answered 'yes, because I like novelty'. Meanwhile, for 14% respondents (independently of gender) it would be only a publicity stunt. Knowing what the consumers desire in selecting a product, is a very important information to design and offer them a new one. Sorbets could be an interesting alternative to ice creams.

Keywords: consumer, preferences, sorbets, questionnaire study

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5 Hyperspectral Imaging and Nonlinear Fukunaga-Koontz Transform Based Food Inspection

Authors: Hamidullah Binol, Abdullah Bal

Abstract:

Nowadays, food safety is a great public concern; therefore, robust and effective techniques are required for detecting the safety situation of goods. Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is an attractive material for researchers to inspect food quality and safety estimation such as meat quality assessment, automated poultry carcass inspection, quality evaluation of fish, bruise detection of apples, quality analysis and grading of citrus fruits, bruise detection of strawberry, visualization of sugar distribution of melons, measuring ripening of tomatoes, defect detection of pickling cucumber, and classification of wheat kernels. HSI can be used to concurrently collect large amounts of spatial and spectral data on the objects being observed. This technique yields with exceptional detection skills, which otherwise cannot be achieved with either imaging or spectroscopy alone. This paper presents a nonlinear technique based on kernel Fukunaga-Koontz transform (KFKT) for detection of fat content in ground meat using HSI. The KFKT which is the nonlinear version of FKT is one of the most effective techniques for solving problems involving two-pattern nature. The conventional FKT method has been improved with kernel machines for increasing the nonlinear discrimination ability and capturing higher order of statistics of data. The proposed approach in this paper aims to segment the fat content of the ground meat by regarding the fat as target class which is tried to be separated from the remaining classes (as clutter). We have applied the KFKT on visible and nearinfrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images of ground meat to determine fat percentage. The experimental studies indicate that the proposed technique produces high detection performance for fat ratio in ground meat.

Keywords: food (ground meat) inspection, Fukunaga-Koontz transform, hyperspectral imaging, kernel methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
4 Odor-Color Association Stroop-Task and the Importance of an Odorant in an Odor-Imagery Task

Authors: Jonathan Ham, Christopher Koch

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There are consistently observed associations between certain odors and colors, and there is an association between the ability to imagine vivid visual objects and imagine vivid odors. However, little has been done to investigate how the associations between odors and visual information effect visual processes. This study seeks to understand the relationship between odor imaging, color associations, and visual attention by utilizing a Stroop-task based on common odor-color associations. This Stroop-task was designed using three fruits with distinct odors that are associated with the color of the fruit: lime with green, strawberry with red, and lemon with yellow. Each possible word-color combination was presented in the experimental trials. When the word matched the associated color (lime written in green) it was considered congruent; if it did not, it was considered incongruent (lime written in red or yellow). In experiment I (n = 34) participants were asked to both imagine the odor of the fruit on the screen and identify which fruit it was, and each word-color combination was presented 20 times (a total of 180 trials, with 60 congruent and 120 incongruent instances). Response time and error rate of the participant responses were recorded. There was no significant difference in either measure between the congruent and incongruent trials. In experiment II participants (n = 18) followed the identical procedure as in the previous experiment with the addition of an odorant in the room. The odorant (orange) was not the fruit or color used in the experimental trials. With a fruit-based odorant in the room, the response times (measured in milliseconds) between congruent and incongruent trials were significantly different, with incongruent trials (M = 755.919, SD = 239.854) having significantly longer response times than congruent trials (M = 690.626, SD = 198.822), t (1, 17) = 4.154, p < 0.01. This suggests that odor imagery does affect visual attention to colors, and the ability to inhibit odor-color associations; however, odor imagery is difficult and appears to be facilitated in the presence of a related odorant.

Keywords: odor-color associations, odor imagery, visual attention, inhibition

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3 Drivers of Liking: Probiotic Petit Suisse Cheese

Authors: Helena Bolini, Erick Esmerino, Adriano Cruz, Juliana Paixao

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The currently concern for health has increased demand for low-calorie ingredients and functional foods as probiotics. Understand the reasons that infer on food choice, besides a challenging task, it is important step for development and/or reformulation of existing food products. The use of appropriate multivariate statistical techniques, such as External Preference Map (PrefMap), associated with regression by Partial Least Squares (PLS) can help in determining those factors. Thus, this study aimed to determine, through PLS regression analysis, the sensory attributes considered drivers of liking in probiotic petit suisse cheeses, strawberry flavor, sweetened with different sweeteners. Five samples in same equivalent sweetness: PROB1 (Sucralose 0.0243%), PROB2 (Stevia 0.1520%), PROB3 (Aspartame 0.0877%), PROB4 (Neotame 0.0025%) and PROB5 (Sucrose 15.2%) determined by just-about-right and magnitude estimation methods, and three commercial samples COM1, COM2 and COM3, were studied. Analysis was done over data coming from QDA, performed by 12 expert (highly trained assessors) on 20 descriptor terms, correlated with data from assessment of overall liking in acceptance test, carried out by 125 consumers, on all samples. Sequentially, results were submitted to PLS regression using XLSTAT software from Byossistemes. As shown in results, it was possible determine, that three sensory descriptor terms might be considered drivers of liking of probiotic petit suisse cheese samples added with sweeteners (p<0.05). The milk flavor was noticed as a sensory characteristic with positive impact on acceptance, while descriptors bitter taste and sweet aftertaste were perceived as descriptor terms with negative impact on acceptance of petit suisse probiotic cheeses. It was possible conclude that PLS regression analysis is a practical and useful tool in determining drivers of liking of probiotic petit suisse cheeses sweetened with artificial and natural sweeteners, allowing food industry to understand and improve their formulations maximizing the acceptability of their products.

Keywords: acceptance, consumer, quantitative descriptive analysis, sweetener

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2 Characterization of a Broad Range Antimicrobial Substance from Pseudozyma aphidis

Authors: Raviv Harris, Maggie Levy

Abstract:

Natural product-based pesticides may serve as an alternative to the traditional synthetic pesticides, which have a potentially damaging effect, both to human health and for the environment. Along with plants, microorganisms are a prospective source of such biological pesticides. A unique and active strain of P. aphidis (designated isolate L12, Israel 2004), an epiphytic and non-pathogenic basidiomycete yeast, was isolated in our lab from strawberry leaves. P. aphidis L12 secretions were found to inhibit broad range of plant pathogens. This work demonstrates that metabolites isolated from the biocontrol agent P. aphidis (isolate L12) can inhibit varied fungal and bacterial phytopathogens. Biologically active metabolites were extracted from P. aphidis biomass, using the organic solvent ethyl acetate. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was demonstrated, both in vitro and in planta. Using disk diffusion assays, the following inhibition zones were obtained: 43cm² for Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, 28.5cm² for Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, 59cm² for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, 34cm² for Erwinia amylovora and 34cm² for Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Additionally, strong inhibitory activity of the extract against fungi mycelial growth was established, with IC₅₀ values of 606µg ml⁻¹ for Botrytis cinerea, 221µg ml⁻¹ for Pythium spp., 519µg ml⁻¹ for Rhizoctonia solani, 455µg ml⁻¹ for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, 2270µg ml⁻¹ for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and 2038µg ml⁻¹ for Alternaria alternata. The results of the in planta experiments demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in disease infection. Significant inhibition of B. cinerea lesions on tomato plants was obtained when a spore suspension of this pathogen was treated with extract concentrations higher than 4.2mg ml⁻¹. Concentration of 7mg ml⁻¹ caused a reduction of over 95% in the lesion size of B. cinerea on tomato plants. The strong antimicrobial activity demonstrated both in vitro and in planta against varied phytopathogens, may indicate that the extracted antimicrobial metabolites have potential to serve as natural pesticides in the field.

Keywords: antimicrobial, B. cinerea, metabolites, natural pesticides, P. aphidis

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
1 Hanta Virus Infection in a Child and Sequelae

Authors: Vijay Samuel, Tina Thekkekkara, Shoma Ganguly

Abstract:

There is no reported Hanta Seoul virus infection in children in the UK so far, making it quite challenging for clinicians in diagnosing, predicting and prognosticating the outcome of the infection to patients and parents. We report a case of a ten-year-old girl who presented with pyrexia associated with headache, photophobia and abdominal pain. The family had recently acquired two pet rats six weeks ago. She appeared flushed with peri-oral pallor, coated the strawberry tongue, inflamed tonsils and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Her liver and splenic edges were palpable. Investigations showed that she was thrombocytopenic with deranged renal and liver functions. An ultrasound abdomen demonstrated a mildly enlarged spleen, peripancreatic lymph node and an acalculous cholecystitis. In view of her clinical presentation, a diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and she was commenced on intravenous benzylpenicillin. The following day she became oliguric, developed significant proteinuria and her renal function deteriorated. Following conservative management, her urine output gradually improved along with her renal function, proteinuria and thrombocytopaenia. Serology for leptospirosis and various other viruses were negative. Following discussion with the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton hanta virus serology was requested and found to be strongly positive for Seoul hanta virus. Following discharge she developed palpitations, fatigue, severe headache and cognitive difficulties including memory loss and difficulties in spelling, reading and mathematics. Extensive investigations including ECG, MRI brain and CSF studies were performed and revealed no significant abnormalities. Since 2012, there have been six cases of acute kidney injury due to Hantavirus infection in the UK. Two cases were from the Humber region and were exposure to wild rats and the other four were exposed to specially bred pet fancy rats. Hanta virus infections can cause mild flu like symptoms but two clinical syndromes are associated with severe disease including haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, which may be associated with thrombocytopenia and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Neuropsychological impairments reported following hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and following Puumala virus infection have been reported. Minor white matter lesions were found in about half of the patients investigated with MRI brain. Seoul virus has a global distribution owing to the dispersal of its carrier host rats, through global trade. Several ports in the region could explain the possible establishment of Seoul virus in local populations of rats in the Yorkshire and Humber region. The risk of infection for occupationally exposed groups is 1-3% compared to 32.9% for specialist pet rat owners. The report highlight’s the importance of routinely asking about pets in the family. We hope to raise awareness of the emergence of hantavirus infection in the UK, particularly in the Yorkshire and Humber region. Clinicians should consider hantavirus infection as a potential cause of febrile illness causing renal impairment in children. Awareness of the possible neuro-cognitive sequele would help the clinicians offer appropriate information and support to children and their families. Contacting Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory at Porton is a useful resource for clinicians in UK when they consider unusual infections.

Keywords: Seoul hantavirus in child Porton, UK Acute kidney injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 191