Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2520

Search results for: supercritical carbon dioxide

2520 Optimization of Soybean Oil by Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: N. R. Putra, A. H. Abdul Aziz, A. S. Zaini, Z. Idham, F. Idrus, M. Z. Bin Zullyadini, M. A. Che Yunus


The content of omega-3 in soybean oil is important in the development of infants and is an alternative for the omega-3 in fish oils. The investigation of extraction of soybean oil is needed to obtain the bioactive compound in the extract. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is modern and green technology to extract herbs and plants to obtain high quality extract due to high diffusivity and solubility of the solvent. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimum condition of soybean oil extraction by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. The soybean oil was extracted by using modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) under the temperatures of 40, 60, 80 °C, pressures of 150, 250, 350 Bar, and constant flow-rate of 10 g/min as the parameters of extraction processes. An experimental design was performed in order to optimize three important parameters of SC-CO2 extraction which are pressure (X1), temperature (X2) to achieve optimum yields of soybean oil. Box Behnken Design was applied for experimental design. From the optimization process, the optimum condition of extraction of soybean oil was obtained at pressure 338 Bar and temperature 80 °C with oil yield of 2.713 g. Effect of pressure is significant on the extraction of soybean oil by modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Increasing of pressure will increase the oil yield of soybean oil.

Keywords: soybean oil, SC-CO₂ extraction, yield, optimization

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2519 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Hamidreza Bagheri, Alireza Shariati


There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid-supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well-predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system.

Keywords: supercritical fluids, solubility, solid, PC-SAFT EoS, genetic algorithm

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2518 Effect of Sub Supercritical CO2 Processing on Microflora and Shelf Life Tempe

Authors: M. Kustyawati, F. Pratama, D. Saputra, A. Wijaya


Tempe composes of not only molds but also bacteria and yeasts. The structure of microorganisms needs to be in balance number in order the tempe to be an acceptable quality for an extended time. Sub supercritical carbon dioxide can be a promising preservation method for tempe as it induces microbial inactivation avoiding alterations of its quality attributes. Fresh tempe were processed using supercritical and sub supercritical CO2 for a defined holding times, then the growth ability of molds and bacteria were analyzed. The results showed that the supercritical CO2 processing for 5 minutes reduced the number of bacteria and molds to 0.30 log cycle and 1.17 log cycles, respectively. In addition, sub supercritical CO2 processing for 20 minutes had fungicidal effect against mold tempe; whereas, the sub supercritical CO2 for 10 minutes had reducing effect against bacteria tempe, and had fungistatic affect against mold tempe. It suggested that sub-supercritical CO2 processing for 10 min could be useful alternative technique for preservation of tempe.

Keywords: tempe, sub supercritical CO2, fungistatic effect, preservation

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2517 Determinaton of Processing Parameters of Decaffeinated Black Tea by Using Pilot-Scale Supercritical CO₂ Extraction

Authors: Saziye Ilgaz, Atilla Polat


There is a need for development of new processing techniques to ensure safety and quality of final product while minimizing the adverse impact of extraction solvents on environment and residue levels of these solvents in final product, decaffeinated black tea. In this study pilot scale supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction was used to produce decaffeinated black tea in place of solvent extraction. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO₂ flow rate (1, 2 ,3 LPM) and co-solvent quantity (0, 2.5, 5 %mol) were selected as extraction parameters. The five factors BoxBehnken experimental design with three center points was performed to generate 46 different processing conditions for caffeine removal from black tea samples. As a result of these 46 experiments caffeine content of black tea samples were reduced from 2.16 % to 0 – 1.81 %. The experiments showed that extraction time, pressure, CO₂ flow rate and co-solvent quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Optimum extraction parameters obtained of decaffeinated black tea were as follows: extraction temperature of 62,5 °C, extraction pressure of 375 bar, CO₂ flow rate of 3 LPM, extraction time of 176.5 min and co-solvent quantity of 5 %mol.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, decaffeination, black tea, extraction

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2516 Counter-Current Extraction of Fish Oil and Toxic Elements from Fish Waste Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Parvaneh Hajeb, Shahram Shakibazadeh, Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker


High-quality fish oil for human consumption requires low levels of toxic elements. The aim of this study was to develop a method to extract oil from fish wastes with the least toxic elements contamination. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied to detoxify fish oils from toxic elements. The SFE unit used consisted of an intelligent HPLC pump equipped with a cooling jacket to deliver CO2. The freeze-dried fish waste sample was extracted by heating in a column oven. Under supercritical conditions, the oil dissolved in CO2 was separated from the supercritical phase using pressure reduction. The SFE parameters (pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate, and extraction time) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to extract the highest levels of toxic elements. The results showed that toxic elements in fish oil can be reduced using supercritical CO2 at optimum pressure 40 MPa, temperature 61 ºC, CO2 flow rate 3.8 MPa, and extraction time 4.25 hr. There were significant reductions in the mercury (98.2%), cadmium (98.9%), arsenic (96%), and lead contents (99.2%) of the fish oil. The fish oil extracted using this method contained elements at levels that were much lower than the accepted limits of 0.1 μg/g. The reduction of toxic elements using the SFE method was more efficient than that of the conventional methods due to the high selectivity of supercritical CO2 for non-polar compounds.

Keywords: food safety, toxic elements, fish oil, supercritical carbon dioxide

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2515 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan


Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

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2514 Artificial Neural Network Regression Modelling of GC/MS Retention of Terpenes Present in Satureja montana Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Jelena Vladić, Senka Vidović, Zoran Zeković, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac Kuzmanović


Supercritical extracts of highly valuated medicinal plant Satureja montana were prepared by application of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction in the carbon dioxide pressure range from 125 to 350 bar and temperature range from 40 to 60°C. Using GC/MS method of analysis chemical profiles (aromatic constituents) of S. montana extracts were obtained. Self-training artificial neural networks were applied to predict the retention time of the analyzed terpenes in GC/MS system. The best ANN model obtained was multilayer perceptron (MLP 11-11-1). Hidden activation was tanh and output activation was identity with Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno training algorithm. Correlation measures of the obtained network were the following: R(training) = 0.9975, R(test) = 0.9971 and R(validation) = 0.9999. The comparison of the experimental and predicted retention times of the analyzed compounds showed very high correlation (R = 0.9913) and significant predictive power of the established neural network.

Keywords: ANN regression, GC/MS, Satureja montana, terpenes

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2513 Characterization of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Flue Gas Sources for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever - present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: Flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

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2512 Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution (RESS) Carbon Dioxide as an Environmental Friendly Method for Ginger Rhizome Solid Oil Particles Formation

Authors: N. A. Zainuddin, I. Norhuda, I. S. Adeib, A. N. Mustapa, S. H. Sarijo


Recently, RESS (Rapid Expansion Supercritical Solution) method has been used by researchers to produce fine particles for pharmaceutical drug substances. Since RESS technology acknowledges a lot of benefits compare to conventional method of ginger extraction, it is suggested to use this method to explore particle formation of bioactive compound from powder ginger. The objective of this research is to produce direct solid oil particles formation from ginger rhizome which contains valuable compounds by using RESS-CO2 process. RESS experiments were carried using extraction pressure of 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 and 7000psi and at different extraction temperature of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70°C for 40 minutes extraction time and contant flowrate (24ml/min). From the studies conducted, it was found that at extraction pressure 5000psi and temperature 40°C, the smallest particle size obtained was 2.22μm on 99 % reduction from the original size of 370μm.

Keywords: particle size, RESS, solid oil particle, supercritical carbon dioxide,

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2511 Flue Gas Characterisation for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina


Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever-present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
2510 Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Tocotrienols from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

Authors: Najwa Othman, Norhidayah Suleiman, Gun Hean Chong


Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a by-product of palm oil refineries which contains valuable compounds such as phytosterols, squalene, polycosanol, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols). Approximately 0.7-1.0% of vitamin E accumulates in PFAD, and it functions as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory. The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of manipulated variables in supercritical carbon dioxide towards the recovery of tocotrienols in PFAD. The vitamin E concentrate isolated varies depending on the pre-treatment of sample and extraction techniques. In this research, tocotrienols in PFAD was concentrated by removing the extraneous matters, especially free fatty acid (FFA) and acylglycerols. Pre-treatment method such as enzymatic hydrolysis by using lipase from Candida rugosa as an enzyme was used to remove FFA and improve recovery of vitamin E. After that, treated PFAD was extracted by using supercritical fluid extraction in co-current glass beads packed column (22 cm x 75 cm i.d) at different temperatures (40-60°C) and pressures (100-300 bar) for 5 hours. After the extraction, the sample was analyzed by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system to quantify the tocotrienols. The results indicated that a combined pressure (200 bar) and temperature (60°C) was predicted to provide highest tocotrienols yield and the extraction yield obtained was 106.45%.

Keywords: enzymatic hydrolysis, palm fatty acid distillate, supercritical fluid extraction, tocotrienols

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2509 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

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2508 SFE as a Superior Technique for Extraction of Eugenol-Rich Fraction from Cinnamomum tamala Nees (Bay Leaf) - Process Analysis and Phytochemical Characterization

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Dipanwita Roy, Dipan Chatterjee, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Satadal Das


Highest yield of eugenol-rich fractions from Cinnamomum tamala (bay leaf) leaves were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), compared to hydro-distillation, organic solvents, liquid CO2 and subcritical CO2 extractions. Optimization of SC-CO2 extraction parameters was carried out to obtain an extract with maximum eugenol content. This was achieved using a sample size of 10 g at 55°C, 512 bar after 60 min at a flow rate of 25.0 cm3/sof gaseous CO2. This extract has the best combination of phytochemical properties such as phenolic content (1.77 mg gallic acid/g dry bay leaf), reducing power (0.80 mg BHT/g dry bay leaf), antioxidant activity (IC50 of 0.20 mg/ml) and anti-inflammatory potency (IC50 of 1.89 mg/ml). Identification of compounds in this extract was performed by GC-MS analysis and its antimicrobial potency was also evaluated. The MIC values against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were 0.5, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial potency, Cinnamomum tamala, eugenol, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

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2507 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim


Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

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2506 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana


Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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2505 Modification of Polyolefin Membrane Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Vadim V. Zefirov, Victor E. Sizov, Marina A. Pigaleva, Igor V. Elmanovich, Mikhail S. Kondratenko, Marat O. Gallyamov


This work presents a novel method for treating porous hydrophobic polyolefin membranes using supercritical carbon dioxide that allows usage of the modified membrane in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte. Polyolefin membranes are well known and widely used, however, they cannot be used as separators in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte since they have insufficient wettability, and therefore do not provide sufficient proton conductivity. The main aim of the presented work was the development of hydrophilic composites based on cheap membranes and precursors. Supercritical fluid was used as a medium for the deposition of the hydrophilic phase on the hydrophobic surface of the membrane. Due to the absence of negative capillary effects in a supercritical medium, a homogeneous composite is obtained as a result of synthesis. The in-situ synthesized silicon oxide nanoparticles and the chitosan polymer layer act as the hydrophilic phase and not only increase the affinity of the membrane towards the electrolyte, but also reduce the pore size of the polymer matrix, which positively affects the ion selectivity of the membrane. The composite material obtained as a result of synthesis has enhanced hydrophilic properties and is capable of providing proton conductivity in redox flow batteries. The morphology of the obtained composites was characterized by electron microscopy. To analyze the phase composition, infrared spectroscopy was used. The hydrophilic properties were studied by water contact angle measurements. In addition, the proton conductivity and ion selectivity of the obtained samples were studied, and tests in real redox flow batteries were performed. As a result, modified membrane was characterised in detail and moreover it was shown that modified cheap polyolefin membranes have pronounced proton conductivity and high ion selectivity, so their performance in a real redox flow battery approaches expensive commercial analogues, reaching 70% of energy efficiency.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, chitosan, polymer membrane, redox flow batteries, silica nanoparticles, supercritical fluid

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2504 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng


Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.

Keywords: biomass, fructose, gasification, supercritical water

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2503 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee


In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

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2502 Extraction of the Volatile Oils of Dictyopteris Membranacea by Focused Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Chemical Composition and Kinetic Data

Authors: Mohamed El Hattab


The Supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE) and the focused microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (FMAHD) were employed to isolate the volatile fraction of the brown alga Dictyopteris membranacea from the crude extract. The volatiles fractions obtained were analyzed by GC/MS. The major compounds in this case: dictyopterene A, 6-butylcyclohepta-1,4-diene, Undec-1-en-3-one, Undeca-1,4-dien-3-one, (3-oxoundec-4-enyl) sulphur, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 3-hexyl-4,5-dithia-cycloheptanone and albicanol (this later is present only in the FMAHD oil) are identified by comparing their mass spectra with those reported on the commercial MS data base and also on our previously work. A kinetic study realized on both extraction processes and followed by an external standard quantification has allowed the study of the mass percent evolution of the major compounds in the two oils, an empirical mathematical modelling was used to describe their kinetic extraction.

Keywords: dictyopteris membranacea, extraction techniques, mathematical modeling, volatile oils

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2501 Nondestructive Natural Gas Hydrate Production by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Ahn Yun-Ho, Hyery Kang, Koh Dong-Yeun, Huen Lee


In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

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2500 Properties of Biodiesel Produced by Enzymatic Transesterification of Lipids Extracted from Microalgae in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

Authors: Hanifa Taher, Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Yousef Haik, Mohammed Farid


Biodiesel, as an alternative renewable fuel, has been receiving increasing attention due to the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increasing need for energy. Microalgae is a promising source for lipids, which can be converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel production from microalgae lipids using lipase catalyzed reaction in supercritical CO2 medium has several advantages over conventional production processes. However, identifying the optimum microalgae lipid extraction and transesterification conditions is still a challenge. In this study, the lipids extracted from Scenedesmus sp. and their enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide have been investigated. The effect of extraction variables (temperature, pressure and solvent flow rate) and reaction variables (enzyme loading, incubation time, methanol to lipids molar ratio and temperature) were considered. Process parameters and their effects were studied using a full factorial analysis of both. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and was used to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction and reaction steps. For extraction, the optimum conditions were 53 °C and 500 bar, whereas for the reaction the optimum conditions were 35% enzyme loading, 4 h reaction, 9:1 molar ratio and 50 oC. At these optimum conditions, the highest biodiesel production yield was found to be 82 %. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel, at optimum reaction condition, were determined and compared to ASTM standards. The properties were found to comply with the limits, and showed a low glycerol content, without any separation step.

Keywords: biodiesel, lipase, supercritical CO2, standards

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2499 Estimation of Carbon Uptake of Seoul City Street Trees in Seoul and Plans for Increase Carbon Uptake by Improving Species

Authors: Min Woo Park, Jin Do Chung, Kyu Yeol Kim, Byoung Uk Im, Jang Woo Kim, Hae Yeul Ryu


Nine representative species of trees among all the street trees were selected to estimate the absorption amount of carbon dioxide emitted from street trees in Seoul calculating the biomass, amount of carbon saved, and annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide in each of the species. Planting distance of street trees in Seoul was 1,851,180 m, the number of planting lines was 1,287, the number of planted trees was 284,498 and 46 species of trees were planted as of 2013. According to the result of plugging the quantity of species of street trees in Seoul on the absorption amount of each of the species, 120,097 ton of biomass, 60,049.8 ton of amount of carbon saved, and 11,294 t CO2/year of annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide were calculated. Street ratio mentioned on the road statistics in Seoul in 2022 is 23.13%. If the street trees are assumed to be increased in the same rate, the number of street trees in Seoul was calculated to be 294,823. The planting distance was estimated to be 1,918,360 m, and the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide was measured to be 11,704 t CO2/year. Plans for improving the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide from street trees were established based on the expected amount of absorption. First of all, it is to improve the annual absorption amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the number of planted street trees after adjusting the planting distance of street trees. If adjusting the current planting distance to 6 m, it was turned out that 12,692.7 t CO2/year was absorbed on an annual basis. Secondly, it is to change the species of trees to tulip trees that represent high absorption rate. If increasing the proportion of tulip trees to 30% up to 2022, the annual absorption rate of carbon dioxide was calculated to be 17804.4 t CO2/year.

Keywords: absorption of carbon dioxide, source of absorbing carbon dioxide, trees in city, improving species

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2498 Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide in Spinning Disk Reactor and Its Applications in Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides

Authors: Tzu-Wen Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Yu-Shao Chen


CO_2 is believed to be partly responsible for changes to the global climates. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the past. Recently, how to convert the captured CO_2 into fine chemicals gets lots of attention owing to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and providing greener feedstock for the chemicals industry. A variety of products can be manufactured from carbon dioxide and the most attractive products are cyclic carbonates. Therefore, the kind of catalyst plays an important role in cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Magnesium oxide can be an efficiency heterogeneous catalyst for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides because magnesium oxide has both acid and base active sites and can provide the adsorption of carbon dioxide, promoting ring-opening reaction. Spinning disk reactor (SDR) is one of the device of high-gravity technique and has successfully used for synthesis of nanoparticles by precipitation methods because of the high mass transfer rate. Synthesis of nanoparticles in SDR has advantages of low energy consumption and easy to scale up. The aim of this research is to synthesize magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in SDR as precursors for magnesium oxide. Experimental results showed that the calcination temperature of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide, and the pressure and temperature of cycloaddition reaction had significantly effect on the conversion and selectivity of the reaction.

Keywords: magnesium oxide, catalyst, cycloaddition, spinning disk reactor, carbon dioxide

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2497 Recovery of Essential Oil from Zingiber Officinale Var. Bentong Using Ultrasound Assisted-Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

Authors: Norhidayah Suleiman, Afza Zulfaka


Zingiber officinale var. Bentong has been identified as the source of high added value compound specifically gingerol-related compounds. The extraction of the high-value compound using conventional method resulted in low yield and time consumption. Hence, the motivation for this work is to investigate the effect of the extraction technique on the essential oil from Zingiber officinale var. Bentong rhizome for commercialization purpose in many industries namely, functional food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical. The investigation begins with a pre-treatment using ultrasound assisted in order to enhance the recovery of essential oil. It was conducted at a fixed frequency (20 kHz) of ultrasound with various time (10, 20, 40 min). The extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were carried out afterward at a specific condition of temperature (50 °C) and pressure (30 MPa). scCO2 extraction seems to be a promising sustainable green method for the extraction of essential oil due to the benefits that CO2 possesses. The expected results demonstrated the ultrasound-assisted-scCO2 produces a higher yield of essential oil compared to solely scCO2 extraction. This research will provide important features for its application in food supplements or phytochemical preparations.

Keywords: essential oil, scCO2, ultrasound assisted, Zingiber officinale Var. Bentong

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2496 Response Surface Methodology to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Microalgal Lipids

Authors: Yen-Hui Chen, Terry Walker


As the world experiences an energy crisis, investing in sustainable energy resources is a pressing mission for many countries. Microalgae-derived biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel, and microalgae Chlorella protothecoides lipid is recognized as a renewable source for microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) is a promising green solvent that may potentially substitute the use of organic solvents for lipid extraction; however, the efficiency of SC-CO₂ extraction may be affected by many variables, including temperature, pressure and extraction time individually or in combination. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters, including temperature, pressure and extraction time, on C. protothecoides lipid yield by SC-CO₂ extraction. A second order polynomial model provided a good fit (R-square value of 0.94) for the C. protothecoides lipid yield. The linear and quadratic terms of temperature, pressure and extraction time—as well as the interaction between temperature and pressure—showed significant effects on lipid yield during extraction. The optimal lipid yield from the model was predicted as the temperature of 59 °C, the pressure of 350.7 bar and the extraction time 2.8 hours. Under these conditions, the experimental lipid yield (25%) was close to the predicted value. The principal fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of C. protothecoides lipid-derived biodiesel were oleic acid methyl ester (60.1%), linoleic acid methyl ester (18.6%) and palmitic acid methyl ester (11.4%), which made up more than 90% of the total FAMEs. In summary, this study indicated that RSM was useful to characterize the optimization the SC-CO₂ extraction process of C. protothecoides lipid yield, and the second-order polynomial model could be used for predicting and describing the lipid yield very well. In addition, C. protothecoides lipid, extracted by SC-CO₂, was suggested as a potential candidate for microalgae-derived biodiesel production.

Keywords: Chlorella protothecoides, microalgal lipids, response surface methodology, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

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2495 Effect of Loop Diameter, Height and Insulation on a High Temperature CO2 Based Natural Circulation Loop

Authors: S. Sadhu, M. Ramgopal, S. Bhattacharyya


Natural circulation loops (NCLs) are buoyancy driven flow systems without any moving components. NCLs have vast applications in geothermal, solar and nuclear power industry where reliability and safety are of foremost concern. Due to certain favorable thermophysical properties, especially near supercritical regions, carbon dioxide can be considered as an ideal loop fluid in many applications. In the present work, a high temperature NCL that uses supercritical carbon dioxide as loop fluid is analysed. The effects of relevant design and operating variables on loop performance are studied. The system operating under steady state is modelled taking into account the axial conduction through loop fluid and loop wall, and heat transfer with surroundings. The heat source is considered to be a heater with controlled heat flux and heat sink is modelled as an end heat exchanger with water as the external cold fluid. The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation are normalized and are solved numerically using finite volume method. Results are obtained for a loop pressure of 90 bar with the power input varying from 0.5 kW to 6.0 kW. The numerical results are validated against the experimental results reported in the literature in terms of the modified Grashof number (Grm) and Reynolds number (Re). Based on the results, buoyancy and friction dominated regions are identified for a given loop. Parametric analysis has been done to show the effect of loop diameter, loop height, ambient temperature and insulation. The results show that for the high temperature loop, heat loss to surroundings affects the loop performance significantly. Hence this conjugate heat transfer between the loop and surroundings has to be considered in the analysis of high temperature NCLs.

Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, heat loss, natural circulation loop, supercritical carbon dioxide

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2494 Carbon Storage in Natural Mangrove Biomass: Its Destruction and Potential Impact on Climate Change in the UAE

Authors: Hedaya Ali Al Ameri, Alya A. Arabi


Measuring the level of carbon storage in mangroves’ biomass has a potential impact in the climate change of UAE. Carbon dioxide is one of greenhouse gases. It is considered to be a main reason for global warming. Deforestation is a key source of the increase in carbon dioxide whereas forests such as mangroves assist in removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere by storing them in its biomass and soil. By using Kauffman and Donato methodology, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stored in UAE’s natural mangroves were quantified. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) released to the atmosphere was then estimated in case of mangroves deforestation in the UAE. The results show that the mean total biomass of mangroves in the UAE ranged from 15.75 Mg/ha to 3098.69 Mg/ha. The estimated CO2eq released upon deforestation in the UAE was found to have a minimal effect on the temperature increase and thus global warming.

Keywords: carbon stored in biomass, mangrove deforestation, temperature change, United Arab Emirate

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2493 Glycerol-Free Biodiesel Synthesis from Crude Mahua (Madhuca indica) Oil under Supercritical Methyl Acetate Using CO2 as a Co-Solvent

Authors: Antaram Sarve, Mahesh Varma, Shriram Sonawane


Conventional route of producing biodiesel with alcohol produces glycerol as side product which leads to oversupply and devaluation in the world market. Supercritical methyl acetate (SCMA) has been proven to convert triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and triacetin, which is a valuable biodiesel additive as side product rather than glycerol. However, due to the low reactivity of supercritical methyl acetate on triglycerides, high reaction conditions are required to obtained maximum yields. The present study describes the renewable approach for the production of biodiesel from low-cost, high acid value mahua oil under supercritical methyl acetate condition using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a co-solvent. CO2 was employed to decrease high reaction conditions required for supercritical methyl acetate transesterification. The influence of process parameters such as temperature, oil to methyl acetate molar ratio, reaction time, and the CO2 pressure was evaluated. The properties of biodiesel produced were found to be superior compared to conventional biodiesel method. Furthermore, SCMA has a high tolerance towards free fatty acids (FFAs) which is crucial to allow the utilization of inexpensive waste oils as a biodiesel feedstock.

Keywords: supercritical methyl acetate, CO2, biodiesel, fuel properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
2492 Evaluation of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) as Mosquito Repellent Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Assisted Process

Authors: Chia-Yu Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Chih-Jer Lin


Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), grown in tropical and subtropical regions over the world, has many potential uses in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and flavor, and agriculture industries. In this study, because of its affinity to human body and friendliness to the environment, lemongrass extract was prepared from different processes to evaluate its effectiveness as mosquito repellent. Moreover, the supercritical fluid extraction method has been widely used as an effective and environmental friendly process in the preparation of a variety of compounds. Thus, both the extracts from lemongrass by the conventional hydrodistillation method and the supercritical CO₂ assisted method were compared. The effects of pressure, temperature and time duration on the supercritical CO₂ extraction were also investigated. The compositions of different extracts were examined using mass spectrometer. As for the experiment of mosquito repellence, the extract was placed inside a mosquito trap along with syrup. The mosquito counts in each trap with extracts prepared from different processes were employed in the quantitative evaluation. It was found that the extract from the supercritical CO₂ assisted process contained higher citronellol content than the conventional hydrodistillation method. The extract with higher citronellol content also demonstrated more effective as a mosquito repellent.

Keywords: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, mosquito repellent

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2491 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 195