Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: estuarine

50 Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Estuarine Fish from Dhaka City Markets

Authors: Fahmida Khalique Nitu

Abstract:

Little is known on the biosafety level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fishes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction( PCR) method . The study was conducted on 37 fishes of different species from different types of estuarine fish commonly sold at city markets. Sampling was done on the intestinal tract and gills of each fish. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was found to be 29.72% with higher percentages detected in samples from the gills (89.28%) followed by the intestinal tract (10.71%). The density of Vibrio spp. in the gill of estuarine fishes with an average was 4.4 x103CFU/g and in the intestine samples was 1.5x103 CFU/g. The outcome of the biosafety assessment V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish indicates another potential source of food safety issues to consumers.

Keywords: biosafety, estuarine, prevalence, Vibrios

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49 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang

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In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
48 Reservoir Characterization using Comparative Petrophysical Testing Approach Acquired with Facies Architecture Properties Analysis

Authors: Axel Priambodo, Dwiharso Nugroho

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Studies conducted to map the reservoir properties based on facies architecture in which to determine the distribution of the petrophysical properties and calculate hydrocarbon reserves in study interval. Facies Architecture analysis begins with stratigraphic correlation that indicates the area is divided into different system tracts. The analysis of distribution patterns and compiling core analysis with facies architecture model show that there are three estuarine facies appear. Formation evaluation begins with shale volume calculation using Asquith-Krygowski and Volan Triangle Method. Proceed to the calculation of the total and effective porosity using the Bateman-Konen and Volan Triangle Method. After getting the value of the porosity calculation was continued to determine the effective water saturation and non-effective by including parameters of water resistivity and resistivity clay. The results of the research show that the Facies Architecture on the field in divided into three main facies which are Estuarine Channel, Estuarine Sand Bar, and Tidal Flat. The petrophysics analysis are done by comparing different methods also shows that the Volan Triangle Method does not give a better result of the Volume Shale than the Gamma Ray Method, but on the other hand, the Volan Triangle Methode is better on calculating porosity compared to the Bateman-Konen Method. The effective porosity distributions are affected by the distribution of the facies. Estuarine Sand Bar has a low porosity number and Estuarine Channel has a higher number of the porosity. The effective water saturation is controlled by structure where on the closure zone the water saturation is lower than the area beneath it. It caused by the hydrocarbon accumulation on the closure zone.

Keywords: petrophysics, geology, petroleum, reservoir

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47 Spatial Dynamic of Pico- and Nano-Phytoplankton Communities in the Mouth of the Seine River

Authors: M. Schapira, S. Françoise, F. Maheux, O. Pierre-Duplessix, E. Rabiller, B. Simon, R. Le Gendre

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Pico- and nano-phytoplankton are abundant and ecologically critical components of the autotrophic communities in the pelagic realm. While the role of physical forcing related to tidal cycle, water mass intrusion, nutrient availability, mixing and stratification on microphytoplankton blooms have been widely investigated, these are often overlooked for pico- and nano-phytoplankton especially in estuarine waters. This study investigates changes in abundances and community composition of pico- and nano-phytoplankton under different estuarine tidal conditions in the mouth of the Seine River in relation to nutrient availability, water column stratification and spatially localized currents. Samples were collected each day at high tide, over spring tide to neap tide cycle, from 21 stations homogeneously distributed in the Seine river month in May 2011. Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and fluorescence were realized at each sampling station. Sub-surface water samples (i.e. 1 m depth) were collected for nutrients (i.e. N, P and Si), phytoplankton biomass (i.e. Chl a) and pico- and nano-phytoplankton enumeration and identification. Pico- and nano-phytoplankton populations were identified and quantified using flow cytometry. Total abundances tend to decrease from spring tide to neap tide. Samples were characterized by high abundances of Synechococcus and Cryptophyceae. The composition of the pico- and nano-phytoplankton varied greatly under the different estuarine tidal conditions. Moreover, at the scale of the river mouth, the pico- and nano-phytoplankton population exhibited patchy distribution patterns that were closely controlled by water mass intrusion from the Sea, freshwater inputs from the Seine River and the geomorphology of the river mouth. This study highlights the importance of physical forcing to the community composition of pico- and nano-phytoplankton that may be critical for the structure of the pelagic food webs in estuarine and adjacent coastal seas.

Keywords: nanophytoplancton, picophytoplankton, physical forcing, river mouth, tidal cycle

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46 Application of Hydrological Engineering Centre – River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) to Estuarine Hydraulics

Authors: Julia Zimmerman, Gaurav Savant

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This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers’ River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) application to modeling the hydraulics of estuaries. HEC-RAS has been broadly used for a variety of riverine applications. However, it has not been widely applied to the study of circulation in estuaries. This report details the model development and validation of a combined 1D/2D unsteady flow hydraulic model using HEC-RAS for estuaries and they are associated with tidally influenced rivers. Two estuaries, Galveston Bay and Delaware Bay, were used as case studies. Galveston Bay, a bar-built, vertically mixed estuary, was modeled for the 2005 calendar year. Delaware Bay, a drowned river valley estuary, was modeled from October 22, 2019, to November 5, 2019. Water surface elevation was used to validate both models by comparing simulation results to NOAA’s Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) gauge data. Simulations were run using the Diffusion Wave Equations (DW), the Shallow Water Equations, Eulerian-Lagrangian Method (SWE-ELM), and the Shallow Water Equations Eulerian Method (SWE-EM) and compared for both accuracy and computational resources required. In general, the Diffusion Wave Equations results were found to be comparable to the two Shallow Water equations sets while requiring less computational power. The 1D/2D combined approach was valid for study areas within the 2D flow area, with the 1D flow serving mainly as an inflow boundary condition. Within the Delaware Bay estuary, the HEC-RAS DW model ran in 22 minutes and had an average R² value of 0.94 within the 2-D mesh. The Galveston Bay HEC-RAS DW ran in 6 hours and 47 minutes and had an average R² value of 0.83 within the 2-D mesh. The longer run time and lower R² for Galveston Bay can be attributed to the increased length of the time frame modeled and the greater complexity of the estuarine system. The models did not accurately capture tidal effects within the 1D flow area.

Keywords: Delaware bay, estuarine hydraulics, Galveston bay, HEC-RAS, one-dimensional modeling, two-dimensional modeling

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45 Applied Free Living Nematode as Bioindicator to Assess Environmental Impact of Dam Construction in Ba Lai Estuary, Vietnam

Authors: Ngo Xuan Quang, Tran Thanh Thai, Ann Vanreusel

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The Ba Lai dam construction was created in 2000 in the Ba Lai estuarine river, Ben Tre province, Vietnam to prevent marine water infiltration, drainage and de-acidification, and to build a reservoir of freshwater for land reclamation in the Ba Lai tributary. However, this dam is considered as an environmental failure for the originally connected estuarine and river ecosystem, especially to bad effect to benthic fauna distribution. This research aims to study applying free living nematode communities’ distribution in disturbance of dam construction as bioindicator to detect environmental impact. Nematode samples were collected together measuring physical–chemical environmental parameters such as chlorophyll, CPE, coliform, nutrient, grain size, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, temperature in three stations within three replicates. Results showed that free living nematode communities at the dam construction was significantly low densities, low diversity (Hurlbert’s index, Hill diversity indices) and very low maturity index in comparison with two remaining stations. Strong correlation of nematode feeding types and communities’ structure was found in relation with sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment such nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and pigment concentration. Moreover, greatly negative link between nematode maturity index with nutrient parameters can serve as warning organic pollution of the Ba Lai river due to dam construction.

Keywords: Ba Lai, dam impact, nematode, environment

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44 A West Coast Estuarine Case Study: A Predictive Approach to Monitor Estuarine Eutrophication

Authors: Vedant Janapaty

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Estuaries are wetlands where fresh water from streams mixes with salt water from the sea. Also known as “kidneys of our planet”- they are extremely productive environments that filter pollutants, absorb floods from sea level rise, and shelter a unique ecosystem. However, eutrophication and loss of native species are ailing our wetlands. There is a lack of uniform data collection and sparse research on correlations between satellite data and in situ measurements. Remote sensing (RS) has shown great promise in environmental monitoring. This project attempts to use satellite data and correlate metrics with in situ observations collected at five estuaries. Images for satellite data were processed to calculate 7 bands (SIs) using Python. Average SI values were calculated per month for 23 years. Publicly available data from 6 sites at ELK was used to obtain 10 parameters (OPs). Average OP values were calculated per month for 23 years. Linear correlations between the 7 SIs and 10 OPs were made and found to be inadequate (correlation = 1 to 64%). Fourier transform analysis on 7 SIs was performed. Dominant frequencies and amplitudes were extracted for 7 SIs, and a machine learning(ML) model was trained, validated, and tested for 10 OPs. Better correlations were observed between SIs and OPs, with certain time delays (0, 3, 4, 6 month delay), and ML was again performed. The OPs saw improved R² values in the range of 0.2 to 0.93. This approach can be used to get periodic analyses of overall wetland health with satellite indices. It proves that remote sensing can be used to develop correlations with critical parameters that measure eutrophication in situ data and can be used by practitioners to easily monitor wetland health.

Keywords: estuary, remote sensing, machine learning, Fourier transform

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43 Application and Limitation of Heavy Metal Pollution Indicators in Coastal Environment of Pakistan

Authors: Noor Us Saher

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Oceans and Marine areas have a great importance, mainly regarding food resources, fishery products and reliance of livelihood. Aquatic pollution is common due to the incorporation of various chemicals mainly entering from urbanization, industrial and commercial facilities, such as oil and chemical spills. Many hazardous wastes and industrial effluents contaminate the nearby areas and initiate to affect the marine environment. These contaminated conditions may become worse in those aquatic environments situated besides the world’s largest cities, which are hubs of various commercial activities. Heavy metal contamination is one of the most important predicaments for marine environments and during past decades this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization. Coastal regions of Pakistan are facing severe threats from various organic and inorganic pollutants, especially the estuarine and coastal areas of Karachi city, the most populated and industrialized city situated along the coastline. Metal contamination causes severe toxicity in biota resulting the degradation of Marine environments and depletion of fishery resources and sustainability. There are several abiotic (air, water and sediment) and biotic (fauna and flora) indicators that indicate metal contamination. However, all these indicators have certain limitations and complexities, which delay their implementation for rehabilitation and conservation in the marine environment. The inadequate evidences have presented on this significant topic till the time and this study discussed metal pollution and its consequences along the marine environment of Pakistan. This study further helps in identification of possible hazards for the ecological system and allied resources for management strategies and decision making for sustainable approaches.

Keywords: coastal and estuarine environment, heavy metals pollution, pollution indicators, Pakistan

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42 Texture Characteristics and Depositional Environment of the Lower Mahi River Sediment, Mainland Gujarat, India

Authors: Shazi Farooqui, Anupam Sharma

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The Mahi River (~600km long) is an important west flowing the river of Central India. It originates in Madhya Pradesh and starts flowing in NW direction and enters into the state of Rajasthan. It flows across southern Rajasthan and then enters into Gujarat and finally debouches in the Gulf of Cambay. In Gujarat state, it flows through all four geomorphic zones i.e. eastern upland zone, shallow buried piedmont zone, alluvial zone and coastal zone. In lower reaches and particularly when it is flowing under the coastal regime, it provides an opportunity to study – 1. Land–Sea interaction and role of relative sea level changes, 2. Coastal/estuarine geological process, 3. Landscape evolution in marginal areas and so on. The Late Quaternary deposits of Mainland Gujarat is appreciably studied by Chamyal and his group of MS University of Baroda, and they have established that the 30-35m thick sediment package of the Mainland Gujarat is comprised of marine, fluvial and aeolian sediments. It is also established that in the estuarine zone, the upper few meter thick sediments package is of marine nature. However, its thickness, characters and the depositional environment including the role of climate and tectonics is still not clearly defined. To understand few aspects of the above mentioned, in the present study, a 17m subsurface sediment core has been retrieved from the estuarine zone of Mahi river basin. The Multiproxy studies which include the textural analysis (grain size), Loss on ignition (LOI), Bulk and clay mineralogy and geochemical studies have been carried out. In the entire sedimentary sequence, the grain size largely varies from coarse sand to clay; however, a solitary gravel bed is also noticed. The lower part (depth 9-17m), is mainly comprised of sub equal proportion of sand and silt. The sediments mainly have bimodal and leptokurtic distribution and deposited in alternate sand-silt package, probably indicating flood deposits. Relatively low moisture (1.8%) and organic carbon (2.4%) with increased carbonate values (12%) indicate that conditions must have to remain oxidizing. The middle part (depth 9–6m) has a 1m thick gravel bed at the bottom and overlain by coarse sand to very fine sand showing fining upward sequence. The presence of gravel bed suggests some kind of tectonic activity resulting into change in base level or enhanced precipitation in the catchment region. The upper part (depth 6–0m; top part of sequence) mainly comprised of fine sand to silt size grains (with appreciable clay content). The sediment of this part is Unimodal and very leptokurtic in nature suggesting wave and winnowing process and deposited in low energy suspension environment. This part has relatively high moisture (2.1%) and organic carbon (2.7%) with decreased carbonate content (4.2%) indicating change in the depositional environment probably under estuarine conditions. The presence of chlorite along with smectite clay mineral further supports the significant marine contribution in the formation of upper part of the sequence.

Keywords: grain size, statistical analysis, clay minerals, late quaternary, LOI

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41 Trophic Variations in Uptake and Assimilation of Cadmium, Manganese and Zinc: An Estuarine Food-Chain Radiotracer Experiment

Authors: K. O’Mara, T. Cresswell

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Nearly half of the world’s population live near the coast, and as a result, estuaries and coastal bays in populated or industrialized areas often receive metal pollution. Heavy metals have a chemical affinity for sediment particles and can be stored in estuarine sediments and become biologically available under changing conditions. Organisms inhabiting estuaries can be exposed to metals from a variety of sources including metals dissolved in water, bound to sediment or within contaminated prey. Metal uptake and assimilation responses can vary even between species that are biologically similar, making pollution effects difficult to predict. A multi-trophic level experiment representing a common Eastern Australian estuarine food chain was used to study the sources for Cd, Mn and Zn uptake and assimilation in organisms occupying several trophic levels. Sand cockles (Katelysia scalarina), school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi) and sand whiting (Sillago ciliata) were exposed to radiolabelled seawater, suspended sediment and food. Three pulse-chase trials on filter-feeding sand cockles were performed using radiolabelled phytoplankton (Tetraselmis sp.), benthic microalgae (Entomoneis sp.) and suspended sediment. Benthic microalgae had lower metal uptake than phytoplankton during labelling but higher cockle assimilation efficiencies (Cd = 51%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 63 %) than both phytoplankton (Cd = 21%, Mn = 32%, Zn = 33%) and suspended sediment (except Mn; (Cd = 38%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 53%)). Sand cockles were also sensitive to uptake of Cd, Mn and Zn dissolved in seawater. Uptake of these metals from the dissolved phase was negligible in prawns and fish, with prawns only accumulating metals during moulting, which were then lost with subsequent moulting in the depuration phase. Diet appears to be the main source of metal assimilation in school prawns, with 65%, 54% and 58% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. Whiting fed contaminated prawns were able to exclude the majority of the metal activity through egestion, with only 10%, 23% and 11% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. The findings of this study support previous studies that find diet to be the dominant accumulation source for higher level trophic organisms. These results show that assimilation efficiencies can vary depending on the source of exposure; sand cockles assimilated more Cd, Mn, and Zn from the benthic diatom than phytoplankton and assimilation was higher in sand whiting fed prawns compared to artificial pellets. The sensitivity of sand cockles to metal uptake and assimilation from a variety of sources poses concerns for metal availability to predators ingesting the clam tissue, including humans. The high tolerance of sand whiting to these metals is reflected in their widespread presence in Eastern Australian estuaries, including contaminated estuaries such as Botany Bay and Port Jackson.

Keywords: cadmium, food chain, metal, manganese, trophic, zinc

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40 Genetic Differentiation between Members of a Species Complex (Retropinna spp.)

Authors: Md. Rakeb-Ul Islam, Daniel J. Schmidt, Jane M. Hughes

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Population connectivity plays an important role in the conservation and recovery of declining species. It affects genetic diversity, adaptive potential and resilience of species in nature. Loss of genetic variation can affect populations by limiting their ability to persist in stressful environmental conditions. Generally, freshwater fishes show higher levels of genetic structuring and subdivision among populations than those inhabiting estuarine or marine environments due to the presence of artificial (e.g. dams) and natural (e.g. mountain ranges) barriers to dispersal in freshwater ecosystems. The Australian smelt (Retropinnidae: Retropinna spp.) is a common freshwater fish species which is widely distributed throughout coastal and inland drainages in South - eastern Australia. These fish are found in a number of habitats from headwaters to lowland sites. They form large shoals in the mid to upper water column and inhabit deep slow – flowing pools as well as shallow fast flowing riffle-runs. Previously, Australian smelt consisted of two described taxa (Retropinna semoni and Retropinna tasmanica), but recently a complex of five or more species has been recognized based on an analysis of allozyme variation. In many area, they spend their entire life cycle within freshwater. Although most populations of the species are thought to be non-diadromous, it is still unclear whether individuals within coastal populations of Australian Retropinna exhibit diadromous migrations or whether fish collected from marine/estuarine environments are vagrants that have strayed out of the freshwater reaches. In this current study, the population structure and genetic differentiation of Australian smelt fish were investigated among eight rivers of South-East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. 11 microsatellite loci were used to examine genetic variation within and among populations. Genetic diversity was very high. Number of alleles ranged from three to twenty. Expected heterozygosity averaged across loci ranged from 0.572 to 0.852. There was a high degree of genetic differentiation among rivers (FST = 0.23), although low levels of genetic differentiation among populations within rivers. These extremely high levels of genetic differentiation suggest that the all smelt in SEQ complete their life history within freshwater, or, if they go to the estuary, they do not migrate to sea. This hypothesis is being tested further with a micro-chemical analysis of their otoliths.

Keywords: diadromous, genetic diversity, microsatellite, otolith

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39 Monitoring the Pollution Status of the Goan Coast Using Genotoxicity Biomarkers in the Bivalve, Meretrix ovum

Authors: Avelyno D'Costa, S. K. Shyama, M. K. Praveen Kumar

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The coast of Goa, India receives constant anthropogenic stress through its major rivers which carry mining rejects of iron and manganese ores from upstream mining sites and petroleum hydrocarbons from shipping and harbor-related activities which put the aquatic fauna such as bivalves at risk. The present study reports the pollution status of the Goan coast by the above xenobiotics employing genotoxicity studies. This is further supplemented by the quantification of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and various trace metals (iron, manganese, copper, cadmium, and lead) in gills of the estuarine clam, Meretrix ovum as well as from the surrounding water and sediment, over a two-year sampling period, from January 2013 to December 2014. Bivalves were collected from a probable unpolluted site at Palolem and a probable polluted site at Vasco, based upon the anthropogenic activities at these sites. Genotoxicity was assessed in the gill cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The quantity of TPHs and trace metals present in gill tissue, water and sediments were analyzed using spectrofluorometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), respectively. The statistical significance of data was analyzed employing Student’s t-test. The relationship between DNA damage and pollutant concentrations was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Significant DNA damage was observed in the bivalves collected from Vasco which is a region of high industrial activity. Concentrations of TPHs and trace metals (iron, manganese, and cadmium) were also found to be significantly high in gills of the bivalves collected from Vasco compared to those collected from Palolem. Further, the concentrations of these pollutants were also found to be significantly high in the water and sediments at Vasco compared to that of Palolem. This may be due to the lack of industrial activity at Palolem. A high positive correlation was observed between the pollutant levels and DNA damage in the bivalves collected from Vasco suggesting the genotoxic nature of these pollutants. Further, M. ovum can be used as a bioindicator species for monitoring the level of pollution of the estuarine/coastal regions by TPHs and trace metals.

Keywords: comet assay, metals, micronucleus test, total petroleum Hydrocarbons

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38 Conservation Challenges of Wetlands Biodiversity in Northeast Region of Bangladesh

Authors: Anisuzzaman Khan, A. J. K. Masud

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Bangladesh is the largest delta in the world predominantly comprising large network of rives and wetlands. Wetlands in Bangladesh are represented by inland freshwater, estuarine brakishwater and tidal salt-water coastal wetlands. Bangladesh possesses enormous area of wetlands including rivers and streams, freshwater lakes and marshes, haors, baors, beels, water storage reservoirs, fish ponds, flooded cultivated fields and estuarine systems with extensive mangrove swamps. The past, present, and future of Bangladesh, and its people’s livelihoods are intimately connected to its relationship with water and wetlands. More than 90% of the country’s total area consists of alluvial plains, crisscrossed by a complex network of rivers and their tributaries. Floodplains, beels (low-lying depressions in the floodplain), haors (deep depression) and baors (oxbow lakes) represent the inland freshwater wetlands. Over a third of Bangladesh could be termed as wetlands, considering rivers, estuaries, mangroves, floodplains, beels, baors and haors. The country’s wetland ecosystems also offer critical habitats for globally significant biological diversity. Of these the deeply flooded basins of north-east Bangladesh, known as haors, are a habitat of wide range of wild flora and fauna unique to Bangladesh. The haor basin lies within the districts of Sylhet, Sunamgonj, Netrokona, Kishoregonj, Habigonj, Moulvibazar, and Brahmanbaria in the Northeast region of Bangladesh comprises the floodplains of the Meghna tributaries and is characterized by the presence of numerous large, deeply flooded depressions, known as haors. It covers about around 8,568 km2 area of Bangladesh. The topography of the region is steep at around foothills in the north and slopes becoming mild and milder gradually at downstream towards south. Haor is a great reservoir of aquatic biological resources and acts as the ecological safety net to the nature as well as to the dwellers of the haor. But in reality, these areas are considered as wastelands and to make these wastelands into a productive one, a one sided plan has been implementing since long. The programme is popularly known as Flood Control, Drainage and Irrigation (FCDI) which is mainly devoted to increase the monoculture rice production. However, haor ecosystem is a multiple-resource base which demands an integrated sustainable development approach. The ongoing management approach is biased to only rice production through FCDI. Thus this primitive mode of action is diminishing other resources having more economic potential ever thought.

Keywords: freshwater wetlands, biological diversity, biological resources, conservation and sustainable development

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37 Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Sediments along the Ganges River Estuary, India

Authors: Priyanka Mondal, Santosh K. Sarkar

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The present study investigated the spatiotemporal distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace elements of surface sediments (top 0 - 5 cm; grain size ≤ 0.63 µm) in relevance to sediment quality characteristics along the Ganges River Estuary, India. Sediment samples were collected during ebb tide from intertidal regions covering seven sampling sites of diverse environmental stresses. The elements were analyzed with the help of ICPAES. This positive, mixohaline, macro-tidal estuary has global significance contributing ecological and economic services. Presence of fine-clayey particle (47.03%) enhances the adsorption as well as transportation of trace elements. There is a remarkable inter-metallic variation (mg kg-1 dry weight) in the distribution pattern in the following manner: Al (31801± 15943) > Fe (23337± 7584) > Mn (461±147) > S(381±235) > Zn(54 ±18) > V(43 ±14) > Cr(39 ±15) > As (34±15) > Cu(27 ±11) > Ni (24 ±9) > Se (17 ±8) > Co(11 ±3) > Mo(10 ± 2) > Hg(0.02 ±0.01). An overall trend of enrichment of majority of trace elements was very much pronounced at the site Lot 8, ~ 35km upstream of the estuarine mouth. In contrast, the minimum concentration was recorded at site Gangasagar, mouth of the estuary, with high energy profile. The prevalent variations in trace element distribution are being liable for a set of cumulative factors such as hydrodynamic conditions, sediment dispersion pattern and textural variations as well as non-homogenous input of contaminants from point and non-point sources. In order to gain insight into the trace elements distribution, accumulation, and their pollution status, geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF) were used. The Igeo indicated that surface sediments were moderately polluted with As (0.60) and Mo (1.30) and strongly contaminated with Se (4.0). The EF indicated severe pollution of Se (53.82) and significant pollution of As (4.05) and Mo (6.0) and indicated the influx of As, Mo and Se in sediments from anthropogenic sources (such as industrial and municipal sewage, atmospheric deposition, agricultural run-off, etc.). The significant role of the megacity Calcutta in relevance to the untreated sewage discharge, atmospheric inputs and other anthropogenic activities is worthwhile to mention. The ecological risk for different trace elements was evaluated using sediment quality guidelines, effects range low (ERL), and effect range median (ERM). The concentration of As, Cu and Ni at 100%, 43% and 86% of the sampling sites has exceeded the ERL value while none of the element concentration exceeded ERM. The potential ecological risk index values revealed that As at 14.3% of the sampling sites would pose relatively moderate risk to benthic organisms. The effective role of finer clay particles for trace element distribution was revealed by multivariate analysis. The authors strongly recommend regular monitoring emphasizing on accurate appraisal of the potential risk of trace elements for effective and sustainable management of this estuarine environment.

Keywords: pollution assessment, sediment contamination, sediment quality, trace elements

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36 Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel

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Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.

Keywords: carbon, ecretion, filtration, nitrogen, phosphorus

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35 Best Practices for Healthy Estuaries

Authors: Hassan Badkoobehi, Pradip Peter Dey, Mohammad Amin, Milan Jose Carlos, Basmal Hana, Fadi Zaco

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The economy of coastline areas depends on the natural splendor of estuaries. When estuaries are improperly managed or polluted, long or short term damage to local economy or harm to local life forms can be caused. Estuaries are shelters for thousands of species such as birds, mammals, fish, crustaceans, insects, reptiles, and amphibians. The delicate balance of these life forms in estuaries requires careful planning for the benefit of all. The commercial value of estuaries is very important; recreational activities that people enjoy like boating, kayaking, windsurfing, swimming, bird-watching and fishing are marketable. Estuaries are national treasures with vital community and ecological resources. Years of estuarine environmental studies have produced extensive results that merit consideration. This study reviews research results from various sources and suggests best strategies for maintaining healthy estuaries in the current socioeconomic conditions. The main hypothesis is that many estuaries can be restored to their original healthy status in a cost effective manner with restoration or prevention plans suggested in published studies.

Keywords: environment, pollution, sustainable, wildlife

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34 Recognition of a Stacked Wave-Tide Dominated Fluvio-Marine Depositional System in an Ancient Rock Record, Proterozoic Simla Group, Lesser Himalaya, India

Authors: Ananya Mukhopadhyay, Priyanka Mazumdar, Tithi Banerjee, Alono Thorie

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Outcrop-based facies analysis of the Proterozoic rock successions in the Simla Basin, Lesser Himalaya was combined with the application of sequence stratigraphy to delineate the stages of wave-tide dominated fluvio-marine depositional system development. On this basis, a vertical profile depositional model has been developed. Based on lateral and vertical facies transitions, twenty lithofacies have been delineated from the lower-middle-upper part of the Simla Group, which are categorized into four major facies (FA1, FA2, FA3 and FA4) belts. FA1 documented from the Basantpur Formation (lower part of the Simla Group) indicates evolution of a distally steepened carbonate ramp deposits) highly influenced by sea level fluctuations, where outer, mid and inner ramp sub environments were identified. This transition from inner-mid to outer ramp is marked by a distinct slope break that has been widely cited as an example of a distally steepened ramp. The Basantpur carbonate ramp represents two different systems tracts: TST and HST which developed at different stages of sea level fluctuations. FA2 manifested from the Kunihar Formation (uncorformably overlying the Basantpur Formation) indicates deposition in a rimmed shelf (rich in microbial activity) sub-environment and bears the signature of an HST. FA3 delineated from the Chhaosa Formation (unconformably overlying the Kunihar mixed siliciclastic carbonates, middle part of the Simla Group) provides an excellent example of tide- and wave influenced deltaic deposit (FA3) which is characterized by wave dominated shorefacies deposit in the lower part, sharply overlain by fluvio-tidal channel and/or estuarine bay successions in the middle part followed by a tide dominated muddy tidal flat in the upper part. Despite large-scale progradation, the Chhaosa deltaic deposits are volumetrically dominated by transgressive estuarine deposits. The transgressive deposits are overlain by highstand units which are characterized by muddy tidal flat deposit. The Sanjauli Formation (upper part of the Simla Basin) records a major marine regression leading to the shifting of the shoreline basinward thereby resulting in fluvial incision on the top of the Chhaosa deltaic succession. The development of a braided fluvial system (FA4) with prominent fluvial incision is marked by presence of conglomerate-sandstone facies associations. Prominent fluvial incision on top of the delta deposits indicates the presence of sub-aerial TYPE 1 unconformity. The fluvial deposits mark the closure of sedimentation in the Simla basin that evolved during high frequency periods of coastal progradation and retrogradation. Each of the depositional cycles represents shoreline regression followed by transgression which is bounded by flooding surfaces and further followed by regression. The proposed depositional model in the present work deals with lateral facies variation due to shift in shore line along with fluctuations in accommodation space on a wave-tide influenced depositional system owing to fluctuations of sea level. This model will probably find its applicability in similar depositional setups.

Keywords: proterozoic, carbonate ramp, tide dominated delta, braided fluvial system, TYPE 1 unconformity

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33 Spatial Orientation of Land Use Activities along Buffalo River Estuary: A Study in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, Eastern Cape South Africa

Authors: A. Ngunga, M. K. Soviti, S. Nakin

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South Africa is one of the developing countries rich in estuary ecosystem. Previous studies have identified many impacts of land use activities on the pollution status of the estuaries. These land use activity and related practices are often blamed for the many pollution problems affecting the estuaries. For example, the estuarine ecosystems on a global scale are experiencing vast transformations from anthropogenic influences; Buffalo River Estuary is one of the influenced estuaries whereby the sources of pollution are unknown. These problems consequently lead to the degradation of the estuaries. The aim of the research was to establish the factors that have the potential to impact pollution status of Buffalo river estuary. Study focuses on Identifying and mapping land use activities along Buffalo River Estuary. Questionnaire survey, structured interviews, direct observation, GPS survey and ArcGIS mapping were the methods used for data collection in the area, and results were analyzed and presented by ANOVA and Microsoft Excel statistical methods. The results showed that harbour is the main source of pollution, in Buffalo River Estuary, through Ballast water discharge. Therefore that requires more concern for protecting and cleaning the estuary.

Keywords: estuary, land-use activities, pollution, mapping, water pollution

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32 Ecosystem Response of a Semi-Enclosed Saline Bay to Damming and Sluice-Management: Case of Lake Grevelingen in the Netherlands

Authors: Marijn Tangelder, Ingeborg Mulder, Jeroen Wijsman, John Janssen, Tom Ysebaert

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The delta works in the Southwest Netherlands drastically changed the estuarine nature of this area. The Grevelingen estuary was dammed off and became a lake in 1971. Since 1978 a connection with the North Sea exists to keep the lake saline but management of the sluices varied over time. Our research of several decades of monitoring data shows that water management practices lead to drastic changes in water quality and consequent ecological shifts in benthic fauna, fish, and bird species. Benthic biomass, dominated by molluscs, showed major changes with an important role for invasive species. Fish migration and, therefore, fish stock in the lake changed with recently smaller fish species and lower biomass values, with consequences for fish eating birds. Implications are made towards future management to re-introduce micro-tide in connection with the North Sea to improve water quality and the ecological status of the lake, as well as consequences for the bordering Natura 2000 terrestrial habitats, including rare dune vegetations, are discussed.

Keywords: ecosystem study, Grevelingen, Natura 2000, water management, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
31 Enrichment and Flux of Heavy Metals along the Coastal Sediments of Pakistan

Authors: Asmat Siddiqui, Noor Us Saher

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Heavy metal contamination in the marine environment is a global issue, and in past decades, this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization, especially in developing countries. Marine sediments act as a preliminary indicator of heavy metal contamination in the coastal and estuarine environment, which has adverse effects on biota as well as in the marine system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contamination status, enrichment, and flux of heavy metals in two monitoring years from coastal sediments of Pakistan. A total of 74 sediment samples were collected from seven coastal areas of Pakistan in two monitoring years, 2001-03 (MY-I) and 2011-13 (MY-II). The geochemical properties (grain size analysis, organic contents and eight heavy metals, i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd) of all sediment samples were analyzed. A significant increase in Fe, Ni and Cr concentrations detected between the years, whereas no significant differences were exhibited in Cu, Zn, Co, Pb and Cd concentrations. The extremely high enrichment (>50) of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were scrutinized in both monitoring years. The annual deposition flux of heavy metals ranged from 0.63 to 66.44 and 0.78 to 68.27 tons per year in MY-I and MY-II, respectively, with the lowest flux evaluated for Cd and highest for Zn in both monitoring years. A significant increase (p <0.05) was observed in the burial flux of Cr and Ni during the last decade in coastal sediments. The use of geo-indicators is helpful to assess the contamination analysis for management and conservation of the marine environment.

Keywords: coastal contamination, enrichment factor, geo-indicator, heavy metal flux

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30 Isolation of a Bacterial Community with High Removal Efficiencies of the Insecticide Bendiocarb

Authors: Eusebio A. Jiménez-Arévalo, Deifilia Ahuatzi-Chacón, Juvencio Galíndez-Mayer, Cleotilde Juárez-Ramírez, Nora Ruiz-Ordaz

Abstract:

Bendiocarb is a known toxic xenobiotic that presents acute and chronic risks for freshwater invertebrates and estuarine and marine biota; thus, the treatment of water contaminated with the insecticide is of concern. In this paper, a bacterial community with the capacity to grow in bendiocarb as its sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated by enrichment techniques in batch culture, from samples of a composting plant located in the northeast of Mexico City. Eight cultivable bacteria were isolated from the microbial community, by PCR amplification of 16 rDNA; Pseudoxanthomonas spadix (NC_016147.2, 98%), Ochrobacterium anthropi (NC_009668.1, 97%), Staphylococcus capitis (NZ_CP007601.1, 99%), Bosea thiooxidans. (NZ_LMAR01000067.1, 99%), Pseudomonas denitrificans. (NC_020829.1, 99%), Agromyces sp. (NZ_LMKQ01000001.1, 98%), Bacillus thuringiensis. (NC_022873.1, 97%), Pseudomonas alkylphenolia (NZ_CP009048.1, 98%). NCBI accession numbers and percentage of similarity are indicated in parentheses. These bacteria were regarded as the isolated species for having the best similarity matches. The ability to degrade bendiocarb by the immobilized bacterial community in a packed bed biofilm reactor, using as support volcanic stone fragments (tezontle), was evaluated. The reactor system was operated in batch using mineral salts medium and 30 mg/L of bendiocarb as carbon and nitrogen source. With this system, an overall removal efficiency (ηbend) rounding 90%, was reached.

Keywords: bendiocarb, biodegradation, biofilm reactor, carbamate insecticide

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29 Functionalized Carbon-Base Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Emerging Contaminants Targeted Analysis

Authors: Alexander Rodríguez-Hernández, Arnulfo Rojas-Perez, Liz Diaz-Vazquez

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The rise in consumerism over the past century has resulted in the creation of higher amounts of plasticizers, personal care products and other chemical substances, which enter and accumulate in water systems. Other sources of pollutants in Neotropical regions experience large inputs of nutrients with these pollutants resulting in eutrophication of water which consume large quantities of oxygen, resulting in high fish mortality. This dilemma has created a need for the development of targeted detection in complex matrices and remediation of emerging contaminants. We have synthesized carbon nanoparticles from macro algae (Ulva fasciata) by oxidizing the graphitic carbon network under extreme acidic conditions. The resulting material was characterized by STEM, yielding a spherical 12 nm average diameter nanoparticles, which can be fixed into a polysaccharide aerogel synthesized from the same macro algae. Spectrophotometer analyses show a pH dependent fluorescent behavior varying from 450-620 nm in aqueous media. Heavily oxidized edges provide for easy functionalization with enzymes for a more targeted analysis and remediation technique. Given the optical properties of the carbon base nanoparticles and the numerous possibilities of functionalization, we have developed a selective and robust targeted bio-detection and bioremediation technique for the treatment of emerging contaminants in complex matrices like estuarine embayment.

Keywords: aerogels, carbon nanoparticles, fluorescent, targeted analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
28 Modeling Sediment Transports under Extreme Storm Situation along Persian Gulf North Coast

Authors: Majid Samiee Zenoozian

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The Persian Gulf is a bordering sea with an normal depth of 35 m and a supreme depth of 100 m near its narrow appearance. Its lengthen bathymetric axis divorces two main geological shires — the steady Arabian Foreland and the unbalanced Iranian Fold Belt — which are imitated in the conflicting shore and bathymetric morphologies of Arabia and Iran. The sediments were experimented with from 72 offshore positions through an oceanographic cruise in the winter of 2018. Throughout the observation era, several storms and river discharge actions happened, as well as the major flood on record since 1982. Suspended-sediment focus at all three sites varied in reaction to both wave resuspension and advection of river-derived sediments. We used hydrological models to evaluation and associate the wave height and inundation distance required to carriage the rocks inland. Our results establish that no known or possible storm happening on the Makran coast is accomplished of detaching and transporting the boulders. The fluid mud consequently is conveyed seaward due to gravitational forcing. The measured sediment focus and velocity profiles on the shelf provide a strong indication to provision this assumption. The sediment model is joined with a 3D hydrodynamic module in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model that offers data on estuarine rotation and salinity transport under normal temperature conditions. 3-D sediment transport from model simulations specify dynamic sediment resuspension and transport near zones of highly industrious oyster beds.

Keywords: sediment transport, storm, coast, fluid dynamics

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27 Study of the Morpho-Sedimentary Evolution of Tidal Mouths on the Southern Fringe of the Gulf of Gabes, Southeast of Tunisia: Hydrodynamic Circulation and Associated Sedimentary Movements

Authors: Chadlia Ounissi, Maher Gzam, Tahani Hallek, Salah Mahmoudi, Mabrouk Montacer

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This work consists of a morphological study of the coastal domain at the central fringe of the Gulf of Gabes, Southeast of Tunisia, belonging to the structural domain of the maritime Jeffara. The diachronic study of tidal mouths in the study area and the observation of morphological markers revealed the existence of hydro-sedimentary processes leading to sedimentary accumulation and filling of the estuarine system. This filling process is materialized by the genesis of a sandy cord and the lateral migration of the tidal mouth. Moreover, we have been able to affirm, by the use of satellite images, that the dominant and responsible current at this particular coastal morphology is directed to the North, having constituted a controversy on the occurrence of what is previously mentioned in the literature. The speed of the lateral displacement of the channel varies as a function of the hydrodynamic forcing. Wave-dominated sites recorded the fastest speed (18 m/year) in the image of the mouth of Wadi el Melah. Tidal dominated sites in the Wadi Zerkine satellite image recorded a very low lateral migration (2 m / year). This variation in speed indicates that the intensity of the coastal current is uneven along the coast. This general pattern of hydrodynamic circulation, to the north, of the central fringe of the Gulf of Gabes, is disturbed by hydro-sedimentary cells.

Keywords: tidal mouth, direction of current, filling, sediment transport, Gulf of Gabes

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
26 Quantifying the UK’s Future Thermal Electricity Generation Water Use: Regional Analysis

Authors: Daniel Murrant, Andrew Quinn, Lee Chapman

Abstract:

A growing population has led to increasing global water and energy demand. This demand, combined with the effects of climate change and an increasing need to maintain and protect the natural environment, represents a potentially severe threat to many national infrastructure systems. This has resulted in a considerable quantity of published material on the interdependencies that exist between the supply of water and the thermal generation of electricity, often known as the water-energy nexus. Focusing specifically on the UK, there is a growing concern that the future availability of water may at times constrain thermal electricity generation, and therefore hinder the UK in meeting its increasing demand for a secure, and affordable supply of low carbon electricity. To provide further information on the threat the water-energy nexus may pose to the UK’s energy system, this paper models the regional water demand of UK thermal electricity generation in 2030 and 2050. It uses the strategically important Energy Systems Modelling Environment model developed by the Energy Technologies Institute. Unlike previous research, this paper was able to use abstraction and consumption factors specific to UK power stations. It finds that by 2050 the South East, Yorkshire and Humber, the West Midlands and North West regions are those with the greatest freshwater demand and therefore most likely to suffer from a lack of resource. However, it finds that by 2050 it is the East, South West and East Midlands regions with the greatest total water (fresh, estuarine and seawater) demand and the most likely to be constrained by environmental standards.

Keywords: climate change, power station cooling, UK water-energy nexus, water abstraction, water resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
25 Adaptive Strategies of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to Ocean Acidification and Salinity Stress

Authors: Nitin Pipralia, Amit Kmar Sinha, Gudrun de Boeck

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Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations have been increasing since the beginning of the industrial revolution due to combustion of fossils fuel and many anthropogenic means. As the number of scenarios assembled by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predict a rise of pCO2 from today’s 380 μatm to approximately 900 μatm until the year 2100 and a further rise of up to 1900 μatm by the year 2300. A rise in pCO2 results in more dissolution in ocean surface water which lead to cange in water pH, This phenomena of decrease in ocean pH due to increase on pCO2 is ocean acidification is considered a potential threat to the marine ecosystems and expected to affect fish as well as calcerious organisms. The situation may get worste when the stress of salinity adds on, due to migratory movement of fishes, where fish moves to different salinity region for various specific activities likes spawning and other. Therefore, to understand the interactive impact of these whole range of two important environmental abiotic stresses (viz. pCO2 ranging from 380 μatm, 900 μatm and 1900 μatm, along with salinity gradients of 32ppt, 10 ppt and 2.5ppt) on the ecophysiologal performance of fish, we investigated various biological adaptive response in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a model estuarine teleost. Overall, we hypothesize that effect of ocean acidification would be exacerbate with shift in ambient salinity. Oxygen consumption, ammonia metabolism, iono-osmoregulation, energy budget, ion-regulatory enzymes, hormones and pH amendments in plasma were assayed as the potential indices of compensatory responses.

Keywords: ocean acidification, sea bass, pH climate change, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
24 Design and Construction Validation of Pile Performance through High Strain Pile Dynamic Tests for both Contiguous Flight Auger and Drilled Displacement Piles

Authors: S. Pirrello

Abstract:

Sydney’s booming real estate market has pushed property developers to invest in historically “no-go” areas, which were previously too expensive to develop. These areas are usually near rivers where the sites are underlain by deep alluvial and estuarine sediments. In these ground conditions, conventional bored pile techniques are often not competitive. Contiguous Flight Auger (CFA) and Drilled Displacement (DD) Piles techniques are on the other hand suitable for these ground conditions. This paper deals with the design and construction challenges encountered with these piling techniques for a series of high-rise towers in Sydney’s West. The advantages of DD over CFA piles such as reduced overall spoil with substantial cost savings and achievable rock sockets in medium strength bedrock are discussed. Design performances were assessed with PIGLET. Pile performances are validated in two stages, during constructions with the interpretation of real-time data from the piling rigs’ on-board computer data, and after construction with analyses of results from high strain pile dynamic testing (PDA). Results are then presented and discussed. High Strain testing data are presented as Case Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP) analyses.

Keywords: contiguous flight auger (CFA) , DEFPIG, case pile wave analysis program (CAPWAP), drilled displacement piles (DD), pile dynamic testing (PDA), PIGLET, PLAXIS, repute, pile performance

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23 Partial Purification and Characterization of a Low Molecular Weight and Industrially Important Chitinase and a Chitin Deacetylase Enzyme from Streptomyces Chilikensis RC1830, a Novel Strain Isolated from Chilika Lake, India

Authors: Lopamudra Ray, Malla Padma, Dibya Bhol, Samir Ranjan Mishra, A. N. Panda, Gurdeep Rastogi, T. K. Adhya, Ajit Kumar Pattnaik, Mrutyunjay Suar, Vishakha Raina

Abstract:

Chilika Lake is the largest coastal estuarine brackish water lagoon in Asia situated on the east coast of India and is a designated Ramsar site. In the current study, several chitinolytic microorganisms were isolated and screened by appearance of clearance zone on 0.5% colloidal chitin agar plate. A strain designated as RC 1830 displayed maximum colloidal chitin degradation by release of 112 μmol/ml/min of N-acetyl D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in 48h. The strain was taxonomically identified by polyphasic approach based on a range of phenotypic and genotypic properties and was found to be a novel species named Streptomyces chilikensis RC1830. The organism was halophilic (12% NaCl w/v), alkalophilic (pH10) and was capable of hydrolyzing chitin, starch, cellulose, gelatin, casein, tributyrin and tween 80. The partial purification of chitinase enzymes from RC1830 was performed by DEAE Sephacel anion exchange chromatography which revealed the presence of a very low molecular weight chitinase(10.5kD) which may be a probable chitobiosidase enzyme. The study reports the presence of a low MW chitinase (10.5kD) and a chitin decaetylase from a novel Streptomyces strain RC1830 isolated from Chilika Lake. Previously chitinases less than 20.5kD have not been reported from any other Streptomyces species. The enzymes was characterized with respect to optimum pH, temperature, and substrate specificity and temperature stability.

Keywords: chitinases, chitobiosidase, Chilika Lake, India

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22 Mathematical Modeling to Reach Stability Condition within Rosetta River Mouth, Egypt

Authors: Ali Masria , Abdelazim Negm, Moheb Iskander, Oliver C. Saavedra

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Estuaries play an important role in exchanging water and providing a navigational pathway for ships. These zones are very sensitive and vulnerable to any interventions in coastal dynamics. Almost major of these inlets experience coastal problems such as severe erosion, and accretion. Rosetta promontory, Egypt is an example of this environment. It suffers from many coastal problems as erosion problem along the coastline and siltation problem inside the inlet. It is due to lack of water and sediment resources as a side effect of constructing the Aswan High dam. The shoaling of the inlet leads to hindering the navigation process of fishing boats, negative impacts to estuarine and salt marsh habitat and decrease the efficiency of the cross section to transfer the flow during emergencies to the sea. This paper aims to reach a new condition of stability of Rosetta Promontory by using coastal measures to control the sediment entering, and causes shoaling inside the inlet. These coastal measures include modifying the inlet cross section by using centered jetties, eliminate the coastal dynamic in the entrance using boundary jetties. This target is achieved by using a hydrodynamic model Coastal Modeling System (CMS). Extensive field data collection (hydrographic surveys, wave data, tide data, and bed morphology) is used to build and calibrate the model. About 20 scenarios were tested to reach a suitable solution that mitigate the coastal problems at the inlet. The results show that 360 m jetty in the eastern bank with system of sand bypass from the leeside of the jetty can stabilize the estuary.

Keywords: Rosetta promontory, erosion, sedimentation, inlet stability

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21 Evaluation of a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron in the Shrimp Palaemon Adspersus: Impact on Ecdysteroids and Chitin Contents

Authors: Hinda Berghiche, Hamida Benradia, Noureddine Soltani

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Pesticides are widely used in crop production and are known to induce a major contamination of ecosystems especially in aquatic environments. The leaching of a large amount of pollutants derived from agricultural activities (fertilizers, pesticides) might contaminate rivers which diverse into the likes and estuarine and coastal environments affecting several organisms such as crustacean species. In this context, there is searched for new selective insecticides with minimal toxic effects on the environment and human health such as growth insect regulators (GIRs). The current study aimed to examine the impact of novaluron (CE 20%), a potent benzoylphenylurea derivative insecticide on mosquito larvae, against non-target shrimp, Palaemon adspersus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae). The compound was tested at two concentrations (0.91 mg/L and 4.30 mg/L) corresponding respectively to the LC50 and LC90 determined against fourth-instar larvae of Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera, Culicidae). The molting hormone titer was determined in the haemolymph by an enzyme-immunoassay, while chitin was measured in peripheral integument at different stages during the molting cycle. Under normal conditions, the haemolymphatic ecdysteroid concentrations increased during the molting cycle to reach peak at stage D. In the treated series, we note absence of the peak at stage D and an increase at stages B, C and D as compared to the controls. Concerning the chitin amounts, we observe an increase from stage A to stage C followed by a decrease at stage D. Exposition of shrimps to novaluron resulted in a significant decrease of values at all molting stages with a dose-response effect. Thus, the insecticide can present secondary effects on this non-target arthropod species.

Keywords: toxicology, novaluron, crustacean, palaemon adspersus, ecdysteroids, cuticle, chitin

Procedia PDF Downloads 187