Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: biofuels

79 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma

Abstract:

Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: jatropha curcus, computational analysis, emissions, NOx biofuels

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78 Environmental Evaluation of Alternative/Renewable Fuels Technology

Authors: Muhammad Hadi Ibrahim

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The benefits of alternative/renewable fuels in general and a study of the environmental impacts of biofuels in particular have been reviewed in this paper. It is a known fact that, energy generation using fossil fuel produces many important pollutants including; nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, soot, dust, smoke and other particulate harmful matter. It’s believed that if carbon dioxide levels continue to increase drastically, the planet will become warmer and will most likely result in a variety of negative impacts including; sea-level rise, extreme and unpredictable weather events and an increased frequency of draughts in inland agricultural zones. Biofuels such as alcohols, biogas, etc. appear to be more viable alternatives, especially for use as fuels in diesel engines. The substitution of fossil fuel through increased utilization of biofuels produced in a sustainable manner, can contribute immensely towards a cleaner environment, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation of climate change. Stakeholders in the energy sector can be sensitized by the findings of the research study and to consider the possible adverse effects in developing technologies for the production and combustion of biofuels.

Keywords: emission, energy, renewable/alternative fuel, environment, pollution

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77 Process of Research, Development and Application of New Pelletizer

Authors: Ľubomír Šooš, Peter Križan, Juraj Beniak, Miloš Matúš

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The success of introducing a new product on the market is the new principle of production, or progressive design, improved efficiency or high quality of manufactured products. Proportionally with the growth of interest in press-biofuels - pellets or briquettes, is also growing interest in the new design better, more efficiently machines produce pellets, briquettes or granules completely new shapes. Our department has for years dedicated to the development of new highly productive designs pressing machines and new optimized press-biofuels. In this field, we have more than 40 national and international patents. The aim of paper is description of the introduction of a new principle pelleting mill and the description of his process of research, development, manufacturing and testing to deployment into production.

Keywords: compacting process, pellets mill, design, new conception, press-biofuels, patent, waste

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76 Synthesis of Biofuels of New Generation

Authors: Selena Gutiérrez, Araceli Martínez

Abstract:

One of the most important challenges worldwide, scientific and technological, is to have a sustainable energy source; friendly to the environment and widely available. Currently, the 85% of the energy used comes from the fossil sources. Another important environmental problem is that several rubber products (tires, gloves, hoses, among others) are discarded practically without any treatment. In nature, the degradation of such products will take at least 500 years. In 2009, the worldwide rubber production was about 23.6 million tons. In order to solve this problems, our research focus in an alternative synthesis of biofuels in a two-step approach: The metathesis degradation of industrial rubber (models of rubber waste), and the oligomers transesterification. Thus, cis-1,4-polybutadiene (Mn= 9.1x105, Mw/Mn= 2.2) and styrene-butadiene block copolymers with 30% (Mn= 1.61x105; Mw/Mn= 1.3) and 21% wt styrene (Mn= 1.92x105; Mw/Mn= 1.4) were degraded via metathesis with soybean oil as chain transfer agent (CTA) and green solvent; using [(PCy3)2Cl2Ru=CHPh] and [(1,3-diphenyl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene)(PCy3)Ru=CHPh] catalysts. Afterwards, the products were transesterified by basic homogeneous catalysis. Before transesterification, the polystyrene microblocks (Mn= 16,761; Mw/Mn= 1.2) were isolated. Finally, the biofuels obtained (BO) were purified, characterized and showed similar properties to standards biodiesel (SB) (Norms: EN 14214-03 and ASTM D6751-02), i.e. (SB / BO): molecular weight [Daltons] (570 / 543-596), density [g/cm3] (0.86-0.90 / 0.88), kinematic viscosity [mm2/s] (1.90-6.0 / 3.5-4.5), iodine (97 / 97-98) and cetane number (Min.47 / 56-58).

Keywords: biofuels, industrial rubber, metathesis, vegetable oils

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75 The Potential of Sown Pastures as Feedstock for Biofuels in Brazil

Authors: Danilo G. De Quadros

Abstract:

Biofuels are a priority in the renewable energy agenda. The utilization of tropical grasses to ethanol production is a real opportunity to Brazil reaches the world’s leadership in biofuels production because there are 100 million hectares of sown pastures, which represent 20% of all land and 80% of agricultural areas. Basically, nowadays tropical grasses are used to raise livestock. The results obtained in this research could bring tremendous advance not only to national technology and economy but also to improve social and environmental aspects. Thus, the objective of this work was to estimate, through well-established international models, the potential of biofuels production using sown tropical pastures as feedstocks and to compare the results with sugarcane ethanol, considering state-of-art of conversion technology, advantages and limitations factors. There were used data from national and international literature about forage yield and biochemical conversion yield. Some scenarios were studied to evaluate potential advantages and limitations for cellulosic ethanol production, since non-food feedstock appeal to conversion strategies, passing through harvest, densification, logistics, environmental impacts (carbon and water cycles, nutrient recycling and biodiversity), and social aspects. If Brazil used only 1% of sown pastures to ethanol production by biochemical pathway, with average dry matter yield of 15 metric tons per hectare per year (there are results of 40 tons), resulted annually in 721 billion liters, that represents 10 times more than sugarcane ethanol projected by the Government in 2030. However, more research is necessary to take the results to commercial scale with competitive costs, considering many strategies and methods applied in ethanol production using cellulosic feedstock.

Keywords: biofuels, biochemical pathway, cellulosic ethanol, sustainability

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74 Biofuels from Hybrid Poplar: Using Biochemicals and Wastewater Treatment as Opportunities for Early Adoption

Authors: Kevin W. Zobrist, Patricia A. Townsend, Nora M. Haider

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Advanced Hardwood Biofuels Northwest (AHB) is a consortium funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to research the potential for a system to produce advanced biofuels (jet fuel, diesel, and gasoline) from hybrid poplar in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. An Extension team was established as part of the project to examine community readiness and willingness to adopt hybrid as a purpose-grown bioenergy crop. The Extension team surveyed key stakeholder groups, including growers, Extension professionals, policy makers, and environmental groups, to examine attitudes and concerns about growing hybrid poplar for biofuels. The surveys found broad skepticism about the viability of such a system. The top concern for most stakeholder groups was economic viability and the availability of predictable markets. Growers had additional concerns stemming from negative past experience with hybrid poplar as an unprofitable endeavor for pulp and paper production. Additional barriers identified included overall land availability and the availability of water and water rights for irrigation in dry areas of the region. Since the beginning of the project, oil and natural gas prices have plummeted due to rapid increases in domestic production. This has exacerbated the problem with economic viability by making biofuels even less competitive than fossil fuels. However, the AHB project has identified intermediate market opportunities to use poplar as a renewable source for other biochemicals produced by petroleum refineries, such as acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ethylene. These chemicals can be produced at a lower cost with higher yields and higher, more-stable prices. Despite these promising market opportunities, the survey results suggest that it will still be challenging to induce growers to adopt hybrid poplar. Early adopters will be needed to establish an initial feedstock supply for a budding industry. Through demonstration sites and outreach events to various stakeholder groups, the project attracted interest from wastewater treatment facilities, since these facilities are already growing hybrid poplar plantations for applying biosolids and treated wastewater for further purification, clarification, and nutrient control through hybrid poplar’s phytoremediation capabilities. Since these facilities are already using hybrid poplar, selling the wood as feedstock for a biorefinery would be an added bonus rather than something requiring a high rate of return to compete with other crops and land uses. By holding regional workshops and conferences with wastewater professionals, AHB Extension has found strong interest from wastewater treatment operators. In conclusion, there are several significant barriers to developing a successful system for producing biofuels from hybrid poplar, with the largest barrier being economic viability. However, there is potential for wastewater treatment facilities to serve as early adopters for hybrid poplar production for intermediate biochemicals and eventually biofuels.

Keywords: hybrid poplar, biofuels, biochemicals, wastewater treatment

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73 Production of Bioethanol through Hydrolysis of Agro-Industrial Banana Crop Residues

Authors: Sánchez Acuña, Juan Camilo, Granados Gómez, Mildred Magaly, Navarrete Rodríguez, Luisa Fernanda

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Nowadays, the main biofuels source production as bioethanol is food crops. This means a high competition between foods and energy production. For this reason, it is necessary to take into account the use of new raw materials friendly to the environment. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of the agro-industrial banana crop residues in the production of bioethanol. A factorial design of 24 was used, the design has variables such as pH, time and concentration of hydrolysis, another variable is the time of fermentation that is of 7 or 15 days. In the hydrolysis phase, the pH is acidic (H2SO4) or basic (NaOH), the time is 30 or 15 minutes and the concentration is 0.1 or 0.5 M. It was observed that basic media, low concentrations, fermentation, and higher pretreatment times produced better performance in terms of biofuel obtained.

Keywords: bioethanol, biofuels, banana waste, hydrolysis

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72 Capability of Marine Macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for Wastewater Phytoremediation and Biofuel Recovery

Authors: Zhipeng Chen, Lingfeng Wang, Shuang Qiu, Shijian Ge

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Macroalgae are larger in size compared with microalgae; hence, they imposed lower separation and drying costs. To explore the potential for enhancing cultivation conditions in macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum (C. linum)-based bioreactor for nutrient recovery from municipal wastewaters and examine the biochemical composition of the macroalgae for the potential downstream production of biofuels, screening experiments were performed. This study suggested that C. linum grew well on primary (PW), secondary (SW), and centrate wastewater (CW). A step feeding approach was shown to significantly enhance biomass productivity when grown on 10% CW; meanwhile, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies increased to 86.8 ± 1.1% and 92.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The CO₂-supplemented SW cultures were 1.20 times more productive than the corresponding controls without CO₂ supplementation. These findings demonstrate that C. linum could represent a promising and efficient wastewater treatment alternative which could also provide a feedstock for downstream processing to biofuels.

Keywords: biofuel production, macroalgae, nutrient removal, wastewater

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71 Agro-Industrial Waste as a Source of Catalyst Production

Authors: Brenda Cecilia Ledesma, Andrea Beltramone

Abstract:

This work deals with the bio-waste valorization approach for catalyst development, the use of products derived from biomass as raw material and the obtaining of biofuels. In this research, activated carbons were synthesized from the orange peel using different synthesis conditions. With the activated carbons obtained with the best structure and texture, PtIr bimetallic catalysts were prepared. Carbon activation was carried out through a chemical process with phosphoric acid as an activating agent, varying the acid concentration, the ratio substrate/activating agent and time of contact between them. The best support was obtained using a carbonization time of 1 h, the temperature of carbonization of 470oC, the phosphoric acid concentration of 50 wt.% and a BET area of 1429 m2/g. Subsequently, the metallic nanoparticles were deposited in the activated carbon to use the solid as a catalytic material for the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-DMF. The catalyst presented an excellent performance for biofuels generation.

Keywords: orange peel, bio-waste valorization, platinum, iridium, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

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70 Assessing Social Sustainability for Biofuels Supply Chains: The Case of Jet Biofuel in Brazil

Authors: Z. Wang, F. Pashaei Kamali, J. A. Posada Duque, P. Osseweijer

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Globally, the aviation sector is seeking for sustainable solutions to comply with the pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Jet fuels derived from biomass are generally perceived as a sustainable alternative compared with their fossil counterparts. However, the establishment of jet biofuels supply chains will have impacts on environment, economy, and society. While existing studies predominantly evaluated environmental impacts and techno-economic feasibility of jet biofuels, very few studies took the social / socioeconomic aspect into consideration. Therefore, this study aims to provide a focused evaluation of social sustainability for aviation biofuels with a supply chain perspective. Three potential jet biofuel supply chains based on different feedstocks, i.e. sugarcane, eucalyptus, and macauba were analyzed in the context of Brazil. The assessment of social sustainability is performed with a process-based approach combined with input-output analysis. Over the supply chains, a set of social sustainability issues including employment, working condition (occupational accident and wage level), labour right, education, equity, social development (GDP and trade balance) and food security were evaluated in a (semi)quantitative manner. The selection of these social issues is based on two criteria: (1) the issues are highly relevant and important to jet biofuel production; (2) methodologies are available for assessing these issues. The results show that the three jet biofuel supply chains lead to a differentiated level of social effects. The sugarcane-based supply chain creates the highest number of jobs whereas the biggest contributor of GDP turns out to be the macauba-based supply chain. In comparison, the eucalyptus-based supply chain stands out regarding working condition. It is also worth noting that biojet fuel supply chain with high level of social benefits could result in high level of social concerns (such as occupational accident, violation of labour right and trade imbalance). Further research is suggested to investigate the possible interactions between different social issues. In addition, the exploration of a wider range of social effects is needed to expand the comprehension of social sustainability for biofuel supply chains.

Keywords: biobased supply chain, jet biofuel, social assessment, social sustainability, socio-economic impacts

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69 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

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Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

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68 Biochemical Characterization and Structure Elucidation of a New Cytochrome P450 Decarboxylase

Authors: Leticia Leandro Rade, Amanda Silva de Sousa, Suman Das, Wesley Generoso, Mayara Chagas Ávila, Plinio Salmazo Vieira, Antonio Bonomi, Gabriela Persinoti, Mario Tyago Murakami, Thomas Michael Makris, Leticia Maria Zanphorlin

Abstract:

Alkenes have an economic appeal, especially in the biofuels field, since they are precursors for drop-in biofuels production, which have similar chemical and physical properties to the conventional fossil fuels, with no oxygen in their composition. After the discovery of the first P450 CYP152 OleTJE in 2011, reported with its unique property of decarboxylating fatty acids (FA), by using hydrogen peroxide as a cofactor and producing 1-alkenes as the main product, the scientific and technological interest in this family of enzymes vastly increased. In this context, the present work presents a new decarboxylase (OleTRN) with low similarity with OleTJE (32%), its biochemical characterization, and structure elucidation. As main results, OleTRN presented a high yield of expression and purity, optimum reaction conditions at 35 °C and pH from 6.5 to 8.0, and higher specificity for oleic acid. Besides that, structure-guided mutations were performed and according to the functional characterizations, it was observed that some mutations presented different specificity and chemoselectivity by varying the chain-length of FA substrates from 12 to 20 carbons. These results are extremely interesting from a biotechnological perspective as those characteristics could diversify the applications and contribute to designing better cytochrome P450 decarboxylases. Considering that peroxygenases have the potential activity of decarboxylating and hydroxylating fatty acids and that the elucidation of the intriguing mechanistic involved in the decarboxylation preferential from OleTJE is still a challenge, the elucidation of OleTRN structure and the functional characterizations of OleTRN and its mutants contribute to new information about CYP152. Besides that, the work also contributed to the discovery of a new decarboxylase with a different selectivity profile from OleTJE, which allows a wide range of applications.

Keywords: P450, decarboxylases, alkenes, biofuels

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67 A Feasibility Study of Producing Biofuels from Textile Sludge by Torrefaction Technology

Authors: Hua-Shan Tai, Yu-Ting Zeng

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In modern and industrial society, enormous amounts of sludge from various of industries are constantly produced; currently, most of the sludge are treated by landfill and incineration. However, both treatments are not ideal because of the limited land for landfill and the secondary pollution caused by incineration. Consequently, treating industrial sludge appropriately has become an urgent issue of environmental protection. In order to solve the problem of the massive sludge, this study uses textile sludge which is the major source of waste sludge in Taiwan as raw material for torrefaction treatments. To investigate the feasibility of producing biofuels from textile sludge by torrefaction, the experiments were conducted with temperatures at 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350°C, with heating rates of 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min, and with residence time of 30 and 60 minutes. The results revealed that the mass yields after torrefaction were approximately in the range of 54.9 to 93.4%. The energy densification ratios were approximately in the range of 0.84 to 1.10, and the energy yields were approximately in the range of 45.9 to 98.3%. The volumetric densities were approximately in the range of 0.78 to 1.14, and the volumetric energy densities were approximately in the range of 0.65 to 1.18. To sum up, the optimum energy yield (98.3%) can be reached with terminal temperature at 150 °C, heating rate of 20°C/min, and residence time of 30 minutes, and the mass yield, energy densification ratio as well as volumetric energy density were 92.2%, 1.07, and 1.15, respectively. These results indicated that the solid products after torrefaction are easy to preserve, which not only enhance the quality of the product, but also achieve the purpose of developing the material into fuel.

Keywords: biofuel, biomass energy, textile sludge, torrefaction

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66 Influence of Densification Process and Material Properties on Final Briquettes Quality from FastGrowing Willows

Authors: Peter Križan, Juraj Beniak, Ľubomír Šooš, Miloš Matúš

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Biomass treatment through densification is very suitable and important technology before its effective energy recovery. Densification process of biomass is significantly influenced by various technological and also material parameters which are ultimately reflected on the final solid Biofuels quality. The paper deals with the experimental research of the relationship between technological and material parameters during densification of fast-growing trees, roundly fast-rowing willow. The main goal of presented experimental research is to determine the relationship between pressing pressure raw material fraction size from a final briquettes density point of view. Experimental research was realized by single-axis densification. The impact of fraction size with interaction of pressing pressure and stabilization time on the quality properties of briquettes was determined. These parameters interaction affects the final solid biofuels (briquettes) quality. From briquettes production point of view and also from densification machines constructions point of view is very important to know about mutual interaction of these parameters on final briquettes quality. The experimental findings presented here are showing the importance of mentioned parameters during the densification process.

Keywords: briquettes density, densification, fraction size, pressing pressure, stabilization time

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65 Chemistry and Sources of Solid Biofuel Derived Ambient Aerosols during Cooking and Non-Cooking Hours in Rural Area of Khairatpur, North-Central India

Authors: Sudha Shukla, Bablu Kumar, Gyan Prakash Gupta, U. C. Kulshrestha

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Air pollutants emitted from solid biofuels during cooking are the major contributors to poor air quality, respiratory problems, and radiative forcing, etc. in rural areas of most of developing countries. The present study reports the chemical characteristics and sources of ambient aerosols and traces gases during cooking and non-cooking hours emitted during biofuel combustion in a village in North-Central India. Fine aerosol samples along with gaseous species (Sox, NOx, and NH₃) were collected during September 2010-March 2011 at Khairatpur village (KPV) which is located in the Uttar Pradesh state in North-Central India. Results indicated that most of the major ions in aerosols and Sox, NOx, and NH₃ gases were found to be higher during cooking hours as compared to non-cooking hours suggesting that solid biofuel combustion is an important source of air pollution. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that combustion of solid biofuel, vehicular emissions, and brick kilns were the major sources of fine aerosols and trace gases in the village. A health survey was conducted to find out the relation between users of biofuels and their health effects and the results revealed that most of the women in the village were suffering from diseases associated with biofuel combustion during cooking.

Keywords: ambient aerosols, biofuel combustion, cooking, health survey, rural area

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64 Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department's Marginalized Lands

Authors: Ross J. Maestas

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Biofuels are derived from multiple renewable bioenergy feedstocks including animal fats, wood, starchy grains, and oil seeds. Transportation agencies have considered growing the latter two on underutilized and nontraditional lands that they manage, such as in the Right of Way (ROW), abandoned weigh stations, and at maintenance yards. These crops provide the opportunity to generate revenue or supplement fuel once converted and offer a solution to increasing fuel costs and instability by creating a ‘home-grown’ alternative. Biofuels are non-toxic, biodegradable, and emit less Green House Gasses (GHG) than fossil fuels, therefore allowing agencies to meet sustainability goals and regulations. Furthermore, they enable land managers to achieve soil erosion and roadside aesthetic strategies. The research sought to understand if the cultivation of a biofuel feedstock within the Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department’s (AHTD) managed and marginalized lands is feasible by identifying potential land areas and crops. To determine potential plots the parcel data was downloaded from Arkansas’s GIS office. ArcGIS was used to query the data for all variations of the names of property owned by AHTD and a KML file was created that identifies the queried parcel data in Google Earth. Furthermore, biofuel refineries in the state were identified to optimize the harvest to transesterification process. Agricultural data was collected from federal and state agencies and universities to assess various oil seed crops suitable for conversion and suited to grow in Arkansas’s climate and ROW conditions. Research data determined that soybean is the best adapted biofuel feedstock for Arkansas with camelina and canola showing possibilities as well. Agriculture is Arkansas’s largest industry and soybean is grown in over half of the state’s counties. Successful cultivation of a feedstock in the aforementioned areas could potentially offer significant employment opportunity for which the skilled farmers already exist. Based on compiled data, AHTD manages 21,489 acres of marginalized land. The result of the feasibility assessment offer suggestions and guidance should AHTD decide to further investigate this type of initiative.

Keywords: Arkansas highways, biofuels, renewable energy initiative, marginalized lands

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63 Improve of Biomass Properties through Torrefaction Process

Authors: Malgorzata Walkowiak, Magdalena Witczak, Wojciech Cichy

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Biomass is an important renewable energy source in Poland. As a biofuel, it has many advantages like renewable in noticeable time and relatively high energy potential. But disadvantages of biomass like high moisture content and hygroscopic nature causes that gaining, transport, storage and preparation for combustion become troublesome and uneconomic. Thermal modification of biomass can improve hydrophobic properties, increase its calorific value and natural resistance. This form of thermal processing is known as torrefaction. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the pre-heat treatment of wood and plant lignocellulosic raw materials on the properties of solid biofuels. The preliminary studies included pine, beech and willow wood and other lignocellulosic raw materials: mustard, hemp, grass stems, tobacco stalks, sunflower husks, Miscanthus straw, rape straw, cereal straw, Virginia Mallow straw, rapeseed meal. Torrefaction was carried out using variable temperatures and time of the process, depending on the material used. It was specified the weight loss and the ash content and calorific value was determined. It was found that the thermal treatment of the tested lignocellulosic raw materials is able to provide solid biofuel with improved properties. In the woody materials, the increase of the lower heating value was in the range of 0,3 MJ/kg (pine and beech) to 1,1 MJ/kg (willow), in non-woody materials – from 0,5 MJ/kg (tobacco stalks, Miscanthus) to 3,5 MJ/kg (rapeseed meal). The obtained results indicate for further research needs, particularly in terms of conditions of the torrefaction process.

Keywords: biomass, lignocellulosic materials, solid biofuels, torrefaction

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62 Biofuel Production via Thermal Cracking of Castor Methyl Ester

Authors: Roghaieh Parvizsedghy, Seyed Mojtaba Sadrameli

Abstract:

Diminishing oil reserves, deteriorating health standards because of greenhouse gas emissions and associated environmental impacts have emerged biofuel production. Vegetable oils are proved to be valuable feedstock in these growing industries as they are renewable and potentially inexhaustible sources. Thermal Cracking of vegetable oils (triglycerides) leads to production of biofuels which are similar to fossil fuels in terms of composition but their combustion and physical properties have limits. Acrolein (very poisonous gas) and water production during cracking of triglycerides occurs because of presence of glycerin in their molecular structure. Transesterification of vegetable oil is a method to extract glycerol from triglycerides structure and produce methyl ester. In this study, castor methyl ester was used for thermal cracking in order to survey the efficiency of this method to produce bio-gasoline and bio-diesel. Thus, several experiments were designed by means of central composite method. Statistical studies showed that two reaction parameters, namely cracking temperature and feed flowrate, affect products yield significantly. At the optimized conditions (480 °C and 29 g/h) for maximum bio-gasoline production, 88.6% bio-oil was achieved which was distilled and separated as bio-gasoline (28%) and bio-diesel (48.2%). Bio-gasoline exposed a high octane number and combustion heat. Distillation curve and Reid vapor pressure of bio-gasoline fell in the criteria of standard gasoline (class AA) by ASTM D4814. Bio-diesel was compatible with standard diesel by ASTM D975. Water production was negligible and no evidence of acrolein production was distinguished. Therefore, thermal cracking of castor methyl ester could be used as a method to produce valuable biofuels.

Keywords: bio-diesel, bio-gasoline, castor methyl ester, thermal cracking, transesterification

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61 Structural and Morphological Characterization of the Biomass of Aquatics Macrophyte (Egeria densa) Submitted to Thermal Pretreatment

Authors: Joyce Cruz Ferraz Dutra, Marcele Fonseca Passos, Rubens Maciel Filho, Douglas Fernandes Barbin, Gustavo Mockaitis

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The search for alternatives to control hunger in the world, generated a major environmental problem. Intensive systems of fish production can cause an imbalance in the aquatic environment, triggering the phenomenon of eutrophication. Currently, there are many forms of growth control aquatic plants, such as mechanical withdrawal, however some difficulties arise for their final destination. The Egeria densa is a species of submerged aquatic macrophyte-rich in cellulose and low concentrations of lignin. By applying the concept of second generation energy, which uses lignocellulose for energy production, the reuse of these aquatic macrophytes (Egeria densa) in the biofuels production can turn an interesting alternative. In order to make lignocellulose sugars available for effective fermentation, it is important to use pre-treatments in order to separate the components and modify the structure of the cellulose and thus facilitate the attack of the microorganisms responsible for the fermentation. Therefore, the objective of this research work was to evaluate the structural and morphological transformations occurring in the biomass of aquatic macrophytes (E.densa) submitted to a thermal pretreatment. The samples were collected in an intensive fish growing farm, in the low São Francisco dam, in the northeastern region of Brazil. After collection, the samples were dried in a 65 0C ventilation oven and milled in a 5mm micron knife mill. A duplicate assay was carried, comparing the in natural biomass with the pretreated biomass with heat (MT). The sample (MT) was submitted to an autoclave with a temperature of 1210C and a pressure of 1.1 atm, for 30 minutes. After this procedure, the biomass was characterized in terms of degree of crystallinity and morphology, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that there was a decrease of 11% in the crystallinity index (% CI) of the pretreated biomass, leading to the structural modification in the cellulose and greater presence of amorphous structures. Increases in porosity and surface roughness of the samples were also observed. These results suggest that biomass may become more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes of fermenting microorganisms. Therefore, the morphological transformations caused by the thermal pretreatment may be favorable for a subsequent fermentation and, consequently, a higher yield of biofuels. Thus, the use of thermally pretreated aquatic macrophytes (E.densa) can be an environmentally, financially and socially sustainable alternative. In addition, it represents a measure of control for the aquatic environment, which can generate income (biogas production) and maintenance of fish farming activities in local communities.

Keywords: aquatics macrophyte, biofuels, crystallinity, morphology, pretreatment thermal

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60 Investigating the Effect of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating on Diesel Engine with Lemon Oil Biofuel

Authors: V. Karthickeyan

Abstract:

The demand for energy is anticipated to increase, due to growing urbanization, industrialization, upgraded living standards and cumulatively increasing human population. The general public is becoming gradually aware of the diminishing fossil fuel resources along with the environmental issues, and it has become clear that biofuel is intended to make significant support to the forthcoming energy needs of the native and industrial sectors. Nowadays, the investigation on biofuels obtained from peels of fruits and vegetables have gained the consideration as an environment-friendly alternative to diesel. In the present work, biofuel was produced from non-edible Lemon Oil (LO) using steam distillation process. LO is characterized by its beneficial aspects like low kinematic viscosity and enhanced calorific value which provides better fuel atomization and evaporation. Furthermore, the heating values of the biofuels are approximately equal to diesel. A single cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine was used for this experimentation. An engine modification technique namely Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) was attempted. Combustion chamber components were thermally coated with ceramic material namely partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). The benefit of thermal barrier coating is to diminish the heat loss from engine and transform the collected heat into piston work. Performance characteristics like Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) were analyzed. Combustion characteristics like in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were analyzed. In addition, the following engine emissions namely nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke were measured. The acquired performance combustion and emission characteristics of uncoated engine were compared with PSZ coated engine. From the results, it was perceived that the LO biofuel may be considered as the prominent alternative in the near prospect with thermal barrier coating technique to enrich the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine.

Keywords: ceramic material, thermal barrier coating, biofuel and diesel engine

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59 Saccharification and Bioethanol Production from Banana Pseudostem

Authors: Elias L. Souza, Noeli Sellin, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza

Abstract:

Among the different forms of reuse and recovery of agro-residual waste is the production of biofuels. The production of second-generation ethanol has been evaluated and proposed as one of the technically viable alternatives for this purpose. This research work employed the banana pseudostem as biomass. Two different chemical pre-treatment methods (acid hydrolisis with H2SO4 2% w/w and alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH 3% w/w) of dry and milled biomass (70 g/L of dry matter, ms) were assessed, and the corresponding reducing sugars yield, AR, (YAR), after enzymatic saccharification, were determined. The effect on YAR by increasing the dry matter (ms) from 70 to 100 g/L, in dry and milled biomass and also fresh, were analyzed. Changes in cellulose crystallinity and in biomass surface morphology due to the different chemical pre-treatments were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The acid pre-treatment resulted in higher YAR values, whether related to the cellulose content under saccharification (RAR = 79,48) or to the biomass concentration employed (YAR/ms = 32,8%). In a comparison between alkaline and acid pre-treatments, the latter led to an increase in the cellulose content of the reaction mixture from 52,8 to 59,8%; also, to a reduction of the cellulose crystallinity index from 51,19 to 33,34% and increases in RAR (43,1%) and YAR/ms (39,5%). The increase of dry matter (ms) bran from 70 to 100 g/L in the acid pre-treatment, resulted in a decrease of average yields in RAR (43,1%) and YAR/ms (18,2%). Using the pseudostem fresh with broth removed, whether for 70 g/L concentration or 100 g/L in dry matter (ms), similarly to the alkaline pre-treatment, has led to lower average values in RAR (67,2% and 42,2%) and in YAR/ms (28,4% e 17,8%), respectively. The acid pre-treated and saccharificated biomass broth was detoxificated with different activated carbon contents (1,2 and 4% w/v), concentrated up to AR = 100 g/L and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield values (YP/AR) and productivity (QP) in ethanol were determined and compared to those values obtained from the fermentation of non-concentrated/non-detoxificated broth (AR = 18 g/L) and concentrated/non-detoxificated broth (AR = 100 g/L). The highest average value for YP/AR (0,46 g/g) was obtained from the fermentation of non-concentrated broth. This value did not present a significant difference (p<0,05) when compared to the YP/RS related to the broth concentrated and detoxificated by activated carbon 1% w/v (YP/AR = 0,41 g/g). However, a higher ethanol productivity (QP = 1,44 g/L.h) was achieved through broth detoxification. This value was 75% higher than the average QP determined using concentrated and non-detoxificated broth (QP = 0,82 g/L.h), and 22% higher than the QP found in the non-concentrated broth (QP = 1,18 g/L.h).

Keywords: biofuels, biomass, saccharification, bioethanol

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58 Locally Produced Solid Biofuels – Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Competitiveness with Conventional Ways of Individual Space Heating

Authors: Jiri Beranovsky, Jaroslav Knapek, Tomas Kralik, Kamila Vavrova

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The paper deals with the results of research focused on the complex aspects of the use of intentionally grown biomass on agricultural land for the production of solid biofuels as an alternative for individual household heating. . The study primarily deals with the analysis of CO2 emissions of the logistics cycle of biomass for the production of energy pellets. Growing, harvesting, transport and storage are evaluated in the pellet production cycle. The aim is also to take into account the consumption profile during the year in terms of heating of common family houses, which are typical end-market segment for these fuels. It is assumed that in family houses, bio-pellets are able to substitute typical fossil fuels, such as brown coal and old wood burning heating devices and also electric boilers. One of the competing technology with the pellets are heat pumps. The results show the CO2 emissions related with considered fuels and technologies for their utilization. Comparative analysis is aimed biopellets from intentionally grown biomass, brown coal, natural gas and electricity used in electric boilers and heat pumps. Analysis combines CO2 emissions related with individual fuels utilization with costs of these fuels utilization. Cost of biopellets from intentionally grown biomass is derived from the economic models of individual energy crop plantations. At the same time, the restrictions imposed by EU legislation on Ecodesign's fuel and combustion equipment requirements and NOx emissions are discussed. Preliminary results of analyzes show that to achieve the competitiveness of pellets produced from specifically grown biomass, it would be necessary to either significantly ecological tax on coal (from about 0.3 to 3-3.5 EUR/GJ), or to multiply the agricultural subsidy per area. In addition to the Czech Republic, the results are also relevant for other countries, such as Bulgaria and Poland, which also have a high proportion of solid fuels for household heating.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, heating costs, energy crop, pellets, brown coal, heat pumps, economical evaluation

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57 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos

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The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: emissions, ethanol, gasoline, engine, performance

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56 Biochar from Empty Fruit Bunches Generated in the Palm Oil Extraction and Its Nutrients Contribution in Cultivated Soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia

Authors: Alvarado M. Lady G., Ortiz V. Yaylenne, Quintero B. Quelbis R.

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The oil palm sector has seen significant growth in Colombia after the insertion of policies to stimulate the use of biofuels, which eventually contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) that deteriorate not only the environment but the health of people. However, the policy of using biofuels has been strongly questioned by the impacts that can generate; an example is the increase of other more harmful GHGs like the CH₄ that underlies the amount of solid waste generated. Casanare's department is estimated be one of the major producers of palm oil of the country given that has recently expanded its sowed area, which implies an increase in waste generated primarily in the industrial stage. For this reason, the following study evaluated the agronomic potential of the biochar obtained from empty fruit bunches and its nutritional contribution in cultivated soils with Elaeis guineensis in Casanare, Colombia. The biochar was obtained by slow pyrolysis of the clusters in a retort oven at an average temperature of 190 °C and a residence time of 8 hours. The final product was taken to the laboratory for its physical and chemical analysis as well as a soil sample from a cultivation of Elaeis guineensis located in Tauramena-Casanare. With the results obtained plus the bibliographical reports of the nutrient demand in this cultivation, the possible nutritional contribution of the biochar was determined. It is estimated that the cultivation requirements of nitrogen is 12.1 kg.ha⁻¹, potassium is 59.3 kg.ha⁻¹, magnesium is -31.5 kg.ha⁻¹ and phosphorus is 5.6 kg.ha⁻¹ obtaining a biochar contribution of 143.1 kg.ha⁻¹, 1204.5 kg.ha⁻¹, 39.2 kg.ha⁻¹ and 71.6 kg.ha⁻¹ respectively. The incorporation of biochar into the soil would significantly improve the concentrations of N, P, K and Mg, nutrients considered important in the yield of palm oil, coupled with the importance of nutrient recycling in agricultural production systems sustainable. The biochar application improves the physical properties of soils, mainly in the humidity retention. On the other hand, it regulates the availability of nutrients for plants absorption, with economic savings in the application of synthetic fertilizers and water by irrigation. It also becomes an alternative to manage agricultural waste, reducing the involuntary emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment by decomposition in the field, reducing the CO₂ content in the atmosphere.

Keywords: biochar, nutrient recycling, oil palm, pyrolysis

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55 Bringing the World to Net Zero Carbon Dioxide by Sequestering Biomass Carbon

Authors: Jeffrey A. Amelse

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Many corporations aspire to become Net Zero Carbon Carbon Dioxide by 2035-2050. This paper examines what it will take to achieve those goals. Achieving Net Zero CO₂ requires an understanding of where energy is produced and consumed, the magnitude of CO₂ generation, and proper understanding of the Carbon Cycle. The latter leads to the distinction between CO₂ and biomass carbon sequestration. Short reviews are provided for prior technologies proposed for reducing CO₂ emissions from fossil fuels or substitution by renewable energy, to focus on their limitations and to show that none offer a complete solution. Of these, CO₂ sequestration is poised to have the largest impact. It will just cost money, scale-up is a huge challenge, and it will not be a complete solution. CO₂ sequestration is still in the demonstration and semi-commercial scale. Transportation accounts for only about 30% of total U.S. energy demand, and renewables account for only a small fraction of that sector. Yet, bioethanol production consumes 40% of U.S. corn crop, and biodiesel consumes 30% of U.S. soybeans. It is unrealistic to believe that biofuels can completely displace fossil fuels in the transportation market. Bioethanol is traced through its Carbon Cycle and shown to be both energy inefficient and inefficient use of biomass carbon. Both biofuels and CO₂ sequestration reduce future CO₂ emissions from continued use of fossil fuels. They will not remove CO₂ already in the atmosphere. Planting more trees has been proposed as a way to reduce atmospheric CO₂. Trees are a temporary solution. When they complete their Carbon Cycle, they die and release their carbon as CO₂ to the atmosphere. Thus, planting more trees is just 'kicking the can down the road.' The only way to permanently remove CO₂ already in the atmosphere is to break the Carbon Cycle by growing biomass from atmospheric CO₂ and sequestering biomass carbon. Sequestering tree leaves is proposed as a solution. Unlike wood, leaves have a short Carbon Cycle time constant. They renew and decompose every year. Allometric equations from the USDA indicate that theoretically, sequestrating only a fraction of the world’s tree leaves can get the world to Net Zero CO₂ without disturbing the underlying forests. How can tree leaves be permanently sequestered? It may be as simple as rethinking how landfills are designed to discourage instead of encouraging decomposition. In traditional landfills, municipal waste undergoes rapid initial aerobic decomposition to CO₂, followed by slow anaerobic decomposition to methane and CO₂. The latter can take hundreds to thousands of years. The first step in anaerobic decomposition is hydrolysis of cellulose to release sugars, which those who have worked on cellulosic ethanol know is challenging for a number of reasons. The key to permanent leaf sequestration may be keeping the landfills dry and exploiting known inhibitors for anaerobic bacteria.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, net zero, sequestration, biomass, leaves

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54 A New Tactical Optimization Model for Bioenergy Supply Chain

Authors: Birome Holo Ba, Christian Prins, Caroline Prodhon

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Optimization is an important aspect of logistics management. It can reduce significantly logistics costs and also be a good tool for decision support. In this paper, we address a planning problem specific to biomass supply chain. We propose a new mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model dealing with different feed stock production operations such as harvesting, packing, storage, pre-processing and transportation, with the objective of minimizing the total logistic cost of the system on a regional basis. It determines the optimal number of harvesting machine, the fleet size of trucks for transportation and the amount of each type of biomass harvested, stored and pre-processed in each period to satisfy demands of refineries in each period. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposal model with a numerical example, a case study in Aube (France department), which gives preliminary and interesting, results on a small test case.

Keywords: biomass logistics, supply chain, modelling, optimization, bioenergy, biofuels

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53 Testing of Gas Turbine KingTech with Biodiesel

Authors: Nicolas Lipchak, Franco Aiducic, Santiago Baieli

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The present work is a part of the research project called ‘Testing of gas turbine KingTech with biodiesel’, carried out by the Department of Industrial Engineering of the National Technological University at Buenos Aires. The research group aims to experiment with biodiesel in a gas turbine Kingtech K-100 to verify the correct operation of it. In this sense, tests have been developed to obtain real data of parameters inherent to the work cycle, to be used later as parameters of comparison and performance analysis. In the first instance, the study consisted in testing the gas turbine with a mixture composition of 50% Biodiesel and 50% Diesel. The parameters arising from the measurements made were compared with the parameters of the gas turbine with a composition of 100% Diesel. In the second instance, the measured parameters were used to calculate the power generated and the thermal efficiency of the Kingtech K-100 turbine. The turbine was also inspected to verify the status of the internals due to the use of biofuels. The conclusions obtained allow empirically demonstrate that it is feasible to use biodiesel in this type of gas turbines, without the use of this fuel generates a loss of power or degradation of internals.

Keywords: biodiesel, efficiency, KingTech, turbine

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52 Promoting Biofuels in India: Assessing Land Use Shifts Using Econometric Acreage Response Models

Authors: Y. Bhatt, N. Ghosh, N. Tiwari

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Acreage response function are modeled taking account of expected harvest prices, weather related variables and other non-price variables allowing for partial adjustment possibility. At the outset, based on the literature on price expectation formation, we explored suitable formulations for estimating the farmer’s expected prices. Assuming that farmers form expectations rationally, the prices of food and biofuel crops are modeled using time-series methods for possible ARCH/GARCH effects to account for volatility. The prices projected on the basis of the models are then inserted to proxy for the expected prices in the acreage response functions. Food crop acreages in different growing states are found sensitive to their prices relative to those of one or more of the biofuel crops considered. The required percentage improvement in food crop yields is worked to offset the acreage loss.

Keywords: acreage response function, biofuel, food security, sustainable development

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51 Equilibrium Modeling of a Two Stage Downdraft Gasifier Using Different Gasification Fluids

Authors: F. R. M. Nascimento, E. E. S. Lora, J. C. E. Palácio

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A mathematical model to investigate the performance of a two stage fixed bed downdraft gasifier operating with air, steam and oxygen mixtures as the gasifying fluid has been developed. The various conditions of mixtures for a double stage fluid entry, have been performed. The model has been validated through a series of experimental tests performed by NEST – The Excellence Group in Thermal and Distributed Generation of the Federal University of Itajubá. Influence of mixtures are analyzed through the Steam to Biomass (SB), Equivalence Ratio (ER) and the Oxygen Concentration (OP) parameters in order to predict the best operating conditions to obtain adequate output gas quality, once is a key parameter for subsequent gas processing in the synthesis of biofuels, heat and electricity generation. Results show that there is an optimal combination in the steam and oxygen content of the gasifying fluid which allows the user find the best conditions to design and operate the equipment according to the desired application.

Keywords: air, equilibrium, downdraft, fixed bed gasification, mathematical modeling, mixtures, oxygen steam

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50 Li-Ion Batteries vs. Synthetic Natural Gas: A Life Cycle Analysis Study on Sustainable Mobility

Authors: Guido Lorenzi, Massimo Santarelli, Carlos Augusto Santos Silva

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The growth of non-dispatchable renewable energy sources in the European electricity generation mix is promoting the research of technically feasible and cost-effective solutions to make use of the excess energy, produced when the demand is low. The increasing intermittent renewable capacity is becoming a challenge to face especially in Europe, where some countries have shares of wind and solar on the total electricity produced in 2015 higher than 20%, with Denmark around 40%. However, other consumption sectors (mainly transportation) are still considerably relying on fossil fuels, with a slow transition to other forms of energy. Among the opportunities for different mobility concepts, electric (EV) and biofuel-powered vehicles (BPV) are the options that currently appear more promising. The EVs are targeting mainly the light duty users because of their zero (Full electric) or reduced (Hybrid) local emissions, while the BPVs encourage the use of alternative resources with the same technologies (thermal engines) used so far. The batteries which are applied to EVs are based on ions of Lithium because of their overall good performance in energy density, safety, cost and temperature performance. Biofuels, instead, can be various and the major difference is in their physical state (liquid or gaseous). In this study gaseous biofuels are considered and, more specifically, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) produced through a process of Power-to-Gas consisting in an electrochemical upgrade (with Solid Oxide Electrolyzers) of biogas with CO2 recycling. The latter process combines a first stage of electrolysis, where syngas is produced, and a second stage of methanation in which the product gas is turned into methane and then made available for consumption. A techno-economic comparison between the two alternatives is possible, but it does not capture all the different aspects involved in the two routes for the promotion of a more sustainable mobility. For this reason, a more comprehensive methodology, i.e. Life Cycle Assessment, is adopted to describe the environmental implications of using excess electricity (directly or indirectly) for new vehicle fleets. The functional unit of the study is 1 km and the two options are compared in terms of overall CO2 emissions, both considering Cradle to Gate and Cradle to Grave boundaries. Showing how production and disposal of materials affect the environmental performance of the analyzed routes is useful to broaden the perspective on the impacts that different technologies produce, in addition to what is emitted during the operational life. In particular, this applies to batteries for which the decommissioning phase has a larger impact on the environmental balance compared to electrolyzers. The lower (more than one order of magnitude) energy density of Li-ion batteries compared to SNG implies that for the same amount of energy used, more material resources are needed to obtain the same effect. The comparison is performed in an energy system that simulates the Western European one, in order to assess which of the two solutions is more suitable to lead the de-fossilization of the transport sector with the least resource depletion and the mildest consequences for the ecosystem.

Keywords: electrical energy storage, electric vehicles, power-to-gas, life cycle assessment

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