Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 220

Search results for: corn stover

220 Biological Treatment of Corn Stover with Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii and Lentinula edudes to Improve Digestibility

Authors: Aydan Atalar, Nurcan Cetinkaya

Abstract:

Corn stover is leftover of the leaves, stalk, husks and tassels in the field after harvesting the grain combined. Corn stover is a low-quality roughage but has mostly been used as roughage source for feeding ruminant animals in developing countries including Turkey; however, it can also be used to make biofuels as in developed countries. The objectives of the present study were to improve the digestibility of corn stover by the treatment of white rod fungus mainly Pleurotus osteritus (PO), Pleurotus eryingii (PE) and Lantinula edudes (LE) at different incubation times and also to determine the most effective fungus and incubation time to prepare fermeted corn stover for ruminant nutrition. The choped corn stover was treated with PO, PE and LE and incubated for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in incubator at 26 0C. After each incubation time dry matter(DM), organic matter(OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent lignin (ADL), in-vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) were determined. The mean IVTDMD and IVTOMD levels were increased by PO, PE and LE treatments in increasing order of incubation times. The obtained IVTDM values were 59.45, 60.51, 60.82 and 60.18 %; 59.45, 70.55, 67.18 and 66.96 %; 59.45, 70.55, 67.18 and 66,96 %; 59.45, 74.90, 69.18 % ; 59.45, 76.50, 71.24 and 73.04 for control, PO, PE and LE treatments at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively. The obtained IVTOMD values were 56.45,60.26,60.82and 60.18 %; 56.45, 68.70, 67.18 and 66.96 %; 56.45, 71.26, 69.18 and 69.28 %; 56.45, 73.23, 71.24 and 73.04 % for control, PO, PE and LE treatments at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days incubation times respectively. The most effective fungus was PO and the incubation time was 30 days. In conclusion, PO treatment of corn stover with 30 days incubation may be used to prepare fermented corn stover for ruminant nutrition.

Keywords: biological treatment, corn stover, digestibility, Lantinula edudes, Pleurotus eryingii, Pleurotus osteritus

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
219 Influence of Biochar Application on Growth, Dry Matter Yield and Nutrition of Corn (Zea mays L.) Grown on Sandy Loam Soils of Gujarat, India

Authors: Pravinchandra Patel

Abstract:

Sustainable agriculture in sandy loam soil generally faces large constraints due to low water holding and nutrient retention capacity, and accelerated mineralization of soil organic matter. There is need to increase soil organic carbon in the soil for higher crop productivity and soil sustainability. Recently biochar is considered as sixth element and work as a catalyst for increasing crop yield, soil fertility, soil sustainability and mitigation of climate change. Biochar was generated at the Sansoli Farm of Anand Agricultural University, Gujarat, India by pyrolysis at temperatures (250-400°C) in absence of oxygen using slow chemical process (using two kilns) from corn stover (Zea mays, L), cluster bean stover (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and Prosopis julifera wood. There were 16 treatments; 4 organic sources (3 biochar; corn stover biochar (MS), cluster bean stover (CB) & Prosopis julifera wood (PJ) and one farmyard manure-FYM) with two rate of application (5 & 10 metric tons/ha), so there were eight treatments of organic sources. Eight organic sources was applied with the recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) (80-40-0 kg/ha N-P-K) while remaining eight organic sources were kept without RDF. Application of corn stover biochar @ 10 metric tons/ha along with RDF (RDF+MS) increased dry matter (DM) yield, crude protein (CP) yield, chlorophyll content and plant height (at 30 and 60 days after sowing) than CB and PJ biochar and FYM. Nutrient uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Cu were significantly increased with the application of RDF + corn stover @ 10 metric tons/ha while uptake of N and Mn were significantly increased in RDF + corn stover @ 5 metric tons/ha. It was found that soil application of corn stover biochar @ 10 metric tons/ha along with the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (RDF+MS ) exhibited the highest impact in obtaining significantly higher dry matter and crude protein yields and larger removal of nutrients from the soil and it also beneficial for built up nutrients in soil. It also showed significantly higher organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity in sandy loam soil. The lower dose of corn stover biochar @ 5 metric tons/ha (RDF+ MS) was also remained the second highest for increasing dry matter and crude protein yields of forage corn crop which ultimately resulted in larger removals of nutrients from the soil. This study highlights the importance of mixing of biochar along with recommended dose of fertilizers on its synergistic effect on sandy loam soil nutrient retention, organic carbon content and water holding capacity hence, the amendment value of biochar in sandy loam soil.

Keywords: biochar, corn yield, plant nutrient, fertility status

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
218 Investigation of Influence of Maize Stover Components and Urea Treatment on Dry Matter Digestibility and Fermentation Kinetics Using in vitro Gas Techniques

Authors: Anon Paserakung, Chaloemphon Muangyen, Suban Foiklang, Yanin Opatpatanakit

Abstract:

Improving nutritive values and digestibility of maize stover is an alternative way to increase their utilization in ruminant and reduce air pollution from open burning of maize stover in the northern Thailand. The present study, 2x3 factorial arrangements in completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of maize stover components (whole and upper stover; cut above 5th node). Urea treatment at levels 0, 3, and 6% DM on dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics of maize stover using in vitro gas production. After 21 days of urea treatment, results illustrated that there was no interaction between maize stover components and urea treatment on 48h in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). IVDMD was unaffected by maize stover components (P > 0.05), average IVDMD was 55%. However, using whole maize stover gave higher cumulative gas and gas kinetic parameters than those of upper stover (P<0.05). Treating maize stover by ensiling with urea resulted in a significant linear increase in IVDMD (P<0.05). IVDMD increased from 42.6% to 53.9% when increased urea concentration from 0 to 3% and maximum IVDMD (65.1%) was observed when maize stover was ensiled with 6% urea. Maize stover treated with urea at levels of 0, 3, and 6% linearly increased cumulative gas production at 96h (31.1 vs 50.5 and 59.1 ml, respectively) and all gas kinetic parameters excepted the gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (P<0.50). The results indicate that maize stover treated with 6% urea enhance in vitro dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics. This study provides a practical approach to increasing utilization of maize stover in feeding ruminant animals.

Keywords: maize stover, urea treatment, ruminant feed, gas production

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217 In-House Enzyme Blends from Polyporus ciliatus CBS 366.74 for Enzymatic Saccharification of Pretreated Corn Stover

Authors: Joseph A. Bentil, Anders Thygesen, Lene Langea, Moses Mensah, Anne Meyer

Abstract:

The study investigated the saccharification potential of in-house enzymes produced from a white-rot basidiomycete strain, Polyporus ciliatus CBS 366.74. The in-house enzymes were produced by growing the fungus on mono and composite substrates of cocoa pod husk (CPH) and green seaweed (GS) (Ulva lactuca sp.) with and without the addition of 25mM ammonium nitrate at 4%w/v substrate concentration in submerged condition for 144 hours. The crude enzyme extracts preparations (CEE 1-5 and CEE 1-5+AN) obtained from the fungal cultivation process were sterile-filtered and used as enzyme sources for enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated corn stover using a commercial cocktail enzyme, Cellic Ctec3, as benchmark. The hydrolysis was conducted at 50ᵒC with 50mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5 based on enzyme dosages of 5 and 10 CMCase Units/g biomass at 1%w/v dry weight substrate concentration at time points of 6, 24, and 72 hours. The enzyme activity profile of the in-house enzymes varied among the growth substrates with the composite substrates (50-75% GS and AN inclusion), yielding better enzyme activities, especially endoglucanases (0.4-0.5U/mL), β-glucosidases (0.1-0.2 U/mL), and xylanases (3-10 U/mL). However, nitrogen supplementation had no significant effect on enzyme activities of crude extracts from 100% GS substituted substrates. From the enzymatic hydrolysis, it was observed that the in-house enzymes were capable of hydrolysing the pretreated corn stover at varying degrees; however, the saccharification yield was less than 10%. Consequently, theoretical glucose yield was ten times lower than Cellic Ctec3 at both dosage levels. There was no linear correlation between glucose yield and enzyme dosage for the in-house enzymes, unlike the benchmark enzyme. It is therefore recommended that the in-house enzymes are used to complement the dosage of commercial enzymes to reduce the cost of biomass saccharification.

Keywords: enzyme production, hydrolysis yield, feedstock, enzyme blend, Polyporus ciliatus

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
216 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Premixing Methods in Anaerobic Digestor with Corn Stover

Authors: M. Sagarika, M. Chandra Sekhar

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Agricultural residues are producing in large quantities in India and account for abundant but underutilized source of renewable biomass in agriculture. In India, the amount of crop residues available is estimated to be approximately 686 million tons. Anaerobic digestion is a promising option to utilize the surplus agricultural residues and can produce biogas and digestate. Biogas is mainly methane (CH4), which can be utilized as an energy source in replacement for fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, in other hand, digestate contains high amounts of nutrients, can be employed as fertilizer. Solid state anaerobic digestion (total solids ≥ 15%) is suitable for agricultural residues, as it reduces the problems like stratification and floating issues that occur in liquid anaerobic digestion (total solids < 15%). The major concern in solid-state anaerobic digestion is the low mass transfer of feedstock and inoculum that resulting in low performance. To resolve this low mass transfer issue, effective mixing of feedstock and inoculum is required. Mechanical mixing using stirrer at the time of digestion process can be done, but it is difficult to operate the stirring of feedstock with high solids percentage and high viscosity. Complete premixing of feedstock and inoculum is an alternative method, which is usual in lab scale studies but may not be affordable due to high energy demand in large-scale digesters. Developing partial premixing methods may reduce this problem. Current study is to improve the performance of solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover at feedstock to inoculum ratios 3 and 5, by applying partial premixing methods and to compare the complete premixing method with two partial premixing methods which are two alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum and three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum where higher inoculum ratios in the top layers. From experimental studies it is observed that, partial premixing method with three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum yielded good methane.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, premixing methods, methane yield, corn stover, volatile solids

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
215 Effect of Different By-Products on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Parameters of Growing Simmental Crossbred Cattle

Authors: Fei Wang, Jie Meng, Qingxiang Meng

Abstract:

China is rich in straw and by-product resources, whose utilization has always been a hot topic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding soybean straw and wine distiller’s grain as a replacement for corn stover on performance of beef cattle. Sixty Simmental×local crossbred bulls averaging 12 months old and 335.7 ± 39.1 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups (15 animals per group) and allocated to a diet with 40% maize stover (MSD), a diet with 40% wrapping package maize silage (PMSD), a diet with 12% soybean straw plus 28% maize stover (SSD) and a diet with 12% wine distiller’s grain plus 28% maize stover (WDD). Bulls were fed ad libitum an TMR consisting of 36.0% maize, 12.5% of DDGS, 5.0% of cottonseed meal, 4.0% of soybean meal and 40.0% of by-product as described above. Treatment period lasted for 22 weeks, consisting of 1 week of dietary adaptation. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for PMSD group than MSD and SSD groups during 0-7 week and 8-14week, and PMSD and WDD groups had higher (P < 0.05) DMI values than MSD and SSD groups during the whole period. Average daily gain (ADG) values were 1.56, 1.72, 1.68 and 1.58 kg for MSD, PMSD, SSD and WDD groups respectively, although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). The value of blood sugar concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for MSD group than WDD group, and the blood urea nitrogen concentration of SSD group was lower (P < 0.05) than MSD and WDD groups. No significant difference (P > 0.05) of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides or total protein content was observed among the different groups. Ten bulls with similar body weight were selected at the end of feeding trial and slaughtered for measurement of slaughtering performance, carcass quality and meat chemical composition. SSD group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) shear force value and cooking loss than MSD and PMSD groups. The pH values of MSD and SSD groups were lower (P < 0.05) than PMSD and WDD groups. WDD group had a higher fat color brightness (L*) value than PMSD and SSD groups. There were no significant differences in dressing percentage, meat percentage, top grade meat weight, ribeye area, marbling score, meat color and meat chemical compositions among different dietary treatments. Based on these results, the packed maize stover silage showed a potential of improving the average daily gain and feed intake of beef cattle. Soybean straw had a significant effect on improving the tenderness and reducing cooking loss of beef. In general, soybean straw and packed maize stover silage would be beneficial to nitrogen deposition and showed a potential to substitute maize stover in beef cattle diets.

Keywords: beef cattle, by-products, carcass quality, growth performance

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214 The Existence of Beauveria bassiana in the Third Generation of Corn Seedling

Authors: Itji Diana Daud, Nuniek Widiayani

Abstract:

The fungus Beauveria bassiana can be endophytic in maize. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots after a month planting. This phenomenon was shown until the third generation of the corn. The result from laboratory shows that B. bassiana appear in F1, F2 and F3 in order 70, 80 and 90% in the roots, 80% in the stems in all generation, 90, 80 and 70% in leaves. In CFU’s ml-1 of B. bassiana in corn seed, show F1 was 8.9 x 106, F2 was 8.1 x 106 and F3 was 7.8 x 106. The research showed that B. Bassiana as endophyte still remain to the third generation. Innovation to the corn seed which is endophyte seed is essential to protect from the attack of corn borer and to avoid the usage of insecticide.

Keywords: endophytic, recovered, third generation, Beauveria bassiana

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
213 Oil Palm Leaf and Corn Stalk, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characterization

Authors: Zawawi Daud

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Agro waste can be defined as waste from agricultural plant. Oil palm leaf and corn stalk can be categorized as ago waste material. At first, the comparison between oil palm leaf and corn stalk by mechanical properties from soda pulping process. After that, focusing on surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both material have a potential due to mechanical properties (tensile, tear, burst and fold) and surface characterization but corn stalk shows more in strength and compactness due to fiber characterization compared to oil palm leaf. This study promoting the green technology in develop a friendly product and suitable to be used as an alternative pulp in paper making industry.

Keywords: fiber, oil palm leaf, corn stalk, green technology

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212 Comparison of White Sauce Prepared from Native and Chemically Modified Corn and Pearl Millet Starches

Authors: Marium Shaikh, Tahira M. Ali, Abid Hasnain

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Physical and sensory properties of white sauces prepared from native and chemically modified corn and pearl millet starches were compared. Interestingly, no syneresis was observed in hydroxypropylated corn and pearl millet starch containing white sauce even after nine days of cold storage (4 °C), while other modifications also reduced the syneresis significantly in comparison to their native counterparts. White sauce containing succinylated corn starch showed least oil separation due to its greater emulsion stability. Light microscopy was used to visualize the size and shape of fat globules, and it was found that they were most homogenously distributed in succinylated and hydroxypropylated samples. Sensory results revealed that chemical modification of corn and pearl millet starch improved the consistency, thickness and overall acceptability of white sauces. Viscosity profiles showed that pasting parameters of native pearl millet starch are almost similar to native corn starch suggesting pearl millet starch as an alternative of corn starch. Also, white sauce prepared from modified pearl millet starch showed better cold storage stability in terms of various textural attributes like hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness.

Keywords: corn starch, pearl millet, hydroxypropylation, succinylation, white sauce

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
211 Utilization of Rice and Corn Bran with Dairy By-Product in Tarhana Production

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nihat Akin

Abstract:

Tarhana is a traditional Turkish fermented food. It is widely consumed as soup and includes many different ingredients such as wheat flour, various vegetables, and spices, yoghurt, bakery yeast. It can also be enriched by adding other ingredients. Thus, its nutritional properties can be enhanced. In this study, tarhana was supplemented with two different types of brans (rice bran and corn bran) and WPC (whey protein concentrate powder) to improve its nutritional and functional properties. Some chemical properties of tarhana containing two different brans and their levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) and WPC (0, 5, 10%) were investigated. The results indicated that addition of WPC increased ash content in tarhanas which were fortified with rice and corn bran. The highest antioxidant and phenolic content values were obtained with addition of rice bran in tarhana formulation. Compared to tarhana with corn bran, rice bran addition gave higher oil content values. The cellulose content of tarhana samples was determined between 0.75% and 2.74% and corn bran showed an improving effect on cellulose contents of samples. In terms of protein content, addition of WPC into the tarhana raised protein content for the samples.

Keywords: corn, rice, tarhana, whey

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
210 The Response to Various Planting Conditions of Thein Corn Inbred Lines

Authors: K. Boonlertnirun, C. Rawdsiri, R. Suvannasara, S. Boonlertnirun

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Thein corn variety well adapted to several planting conditions is usually accepted by most farmers. The objectives of this work were to evaluate yield potential of Thein corn inbred line grown in various nitrogen rates and plant conditions for selecting good inbred lines to be germ plasm for further breeding program. Split plot design with three replications was utilized as experimental design, three planting conditions: normal (control), low nitrogen, and high plant density condition, and sixteen inbred lines of Thein corn were used as main and subplot respectively. The results showed that no interaction between inbred line and planting condition in terms of yield. Correlation between planting conditions based on yield of inbred line was positive at medium level. Thein corn inbreds, namely L7, L5, L16, and L14 lines were tolerant to low nitrogen condition because they could produce high yield under all planting conditions and they were selected to be germ plasm for further breeding program.

Keywords: inbred line, planting condition, Thein corn, planting conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
209 Development of Corn (Zea mays L.) Stalk Geotextile Net for Soil Erosion Mitigation

Authors: Cristina S. Decano, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Melissa E. Agulto, Helen F. Gavino

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This study aimed to introduce new natural fiber to be used in the production of geotextile net for mitigation of soil erosion. Fiber extraction from the stalks was the main challenge faced during the processing of stalks to ropes. Thus, an investigation on the extraction procedures of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk under biological and chemical retting was undertaken. Results indicated significant differences among percent fiber yield as affected by the retting methods used with values of 15.07%, 12.97%, 11.60%, and 9.01%, for dew, water, chemical (1 day after harvest and15 days after harvest), respectively, with the corresponding average extracting duration of 70, 82, 89, and 94 minutes. Physical characterization of the developed corn stalk geotextile net resulted to average mass per unit area of 806.25 g/m2 and 241% water absorbing capacity. The effect of corn stalk geotextile net in mitigating soil erosion was evaluated in a laboratory experiment for 30o and 60o inclinations with three treatments: bare soil (A1), corn stalk geotextile net (A2) and combined cornstalk geotextile net and vegetation cover (A3). Results revealed that treatment A2 and A3 significantly decreased sediment yield and an increase in terms of soil loss reduction efficiency. The cost of corn stalk geotextile net is Php 62.41 per square meter.

Keywords: corn stalk, natural geotextile, retting, soil erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
208 Fracture Toughness Properties and FTIR Analysis of Corn Fiber Green Composites

Authors: Ahmed Hashim, Aseel Abdullah

Abstract:

In this work, the fracture toughness of new green composite based on bio-PMMA resin reinforced with randomly short corn natural fiber of constant weight fraction by 10% wt was investigated. The corn fiber surface was modified by mercerization treatment with two different concentrations of sodium hydroxide (3, and 5% NaOH) for 1.5 and 3 hours respectively. The effect of mercerization treatment on the fracture behavior of the green composites was analyzed by FTIR spectra. NaOH concentration of 3% for 1.5 hrs. That was used for corn fiber green composite should the highest improvement in terms of plane strain fracture toughness KIC which increased by 62 % compared to untreated fiber composite material. On the other hand, increased both concentrations of alkali solution to 5% NaOH and time of soaking to 3 hrs. reduced the values of KIC lower than the value of the unfilled material.

Keywords: green composites, fracture toughness, corn natural fiber, bio-PMMA

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207 Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers

Authors: E. Taslak, C. Kocatepe, O. Arıkan, C. F. Kumru

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In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.

Keywords: breakdown voltage, corn oil, dissipation factor, mineral oil, power loss, relative dielectric constant, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
206 Impact of Corn Gluten Hydrolysate on Seedling Growth

Authors: Jyotika Chopra, Dinesh Goyal

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A study was initiated to examine the effects of corn gluten hydrolysate on seedlings growth and its development. Corn gluten is the byproduct of starch industry rich in proteins was hydrolysed by acid and alkali, and the impact of hydrolysate was studied on seed germination of Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulagris (Fabaceae) and Triticum aestivum and Oryza sativa (Gramineae). For this, the optimum hydrolysis was obtained by 4NHCl and 4M NaOH where insoluble protein in gluten was broken down to glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid which was initially confirmed by biuret test, xanthoproteic, solubility and chromatographic tests. The seeds of above families were separately treated with different dilutions of corn gluten hydrolysate ranging from 1-100% to see effects produced by these dilutions on seed germination, plumule, and radical growth. The seedlings were put in the Petri plates and placed in the optimized conditions of temperature (37˚C) and photoperiod of 16:8 hours. The results indicate the plumule of all seeds shows the increase in growth pattern up to 25.75%. Whereas radical shows the increase in growth up to 25.88% till 10% of dilution of corn and wheat gluten hydrolysate with respect to water as blank. Further, there is decrease in growth from 30- 100% of dilutions of both, the hydrolysate indicates the inhibitory effects which unveil about the careful usage of gluten hydrolysate.

Keywords: corn gluten, characterization, hydrolysis, seedling growth

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205 Utilization of Complete Feed Based on Ammoniated Corn Waste on Bali Cattle Peformance

Authors: Elihasridas, Rusmana Wijaya Setia Ninggrat

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This research aims to study the utilization of ammoniated corn waste complete ration for substitution basal ration of natural grass in Bali cattle. Four treatments (complete feed ration consisted of: R1=40% natural grass + 60% concentrate (control), R2= 50% natural grass+50% concentrate, R3=60% natural grass+40% concentrate and R4=40% ammoniated corn waste+60% concentrate) were employed in this experiment. This experiment was arranged in a latin square design. Observed variables included dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain and feed conversion. Data were analyzed by using the Analysis of Variance following a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The DMI for R1was 7,15kg/day which was significantly (P < 0,05) higher than R2 (6,32 kg/day) and R3(6,07 kg/day), but was not significantly different (P < 0,05) from R4 (7,01 kg/day). Average daily gain for R1(0,75 kg/day) which was significantly (P < 0,05) higher than R2(0,66 kg/day) and R3 (0,61 kg/day),but was not significantly different (P > 0,05) from R4(0,74 kg/day). Feed conversion was not significantly affected (P > 0,05) by ration. It was concluded that ammoniated corn waste complete ration (40% ammoniated corn waste + 60% concentrate) could be utilized for substitution natural grass basal ration.

Keywords: ammoniated corn waste, bali cattle, complete feed, daily gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
204 Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids from Corn Silk (Zea mays L.) in Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Authors: Fitri Ayu, Nadia, Tanti, Putri, Fatkhan, Pasid Harlisa, Suparmi

Abstract:

Acne is a skin abnormal conditions experienced by many teens, this is caused by various factors such as the climate is hot, humid and excessive sun exposure can aggravate acne because it will lead to excess oil production. Flavonoids form complex compounds against extracellular proteins that disrupt the integrity of bacterial cell membrane in a way denature bacterial cell proteins and bacterial cell membrane damage. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of corn silk extract with a concentration of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % in vitro by measuring the inhibition of the growth of bacteria Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis then compared with the standard antibiotic clindamycin. Extracts tested by Disk Diffusion Method, in which the blank disc soaked with their respective corn silk extract concentration for 15-30 minutes and then the medium of bacteria that have been planted with Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis in the given disk that already contains extracts with various concentration. Incubated for 24 hours and then measured the growth inhibition zone Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Corn silk contains flavonoids, is shown by the test of flavonoids in corn silk extract by using a tube heating and without heating. Flavonoid in corn silk potentially as anti acne by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause acne. Corn silk extract concentration which has the highest antibacterial activity is then performed in a cream formulation and evaluation test of physical and chemical properties of the resulting cream preparation.

Keywords: antibacterial, flavonoid, corn silk, acne

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
203 Utilization of Sugar Factory Waste as an Organic Fertilizer on Growth and Production of Baby Corn

Authors: Marliana S. Palad

Abstract:

The research purpose is to view and know the influence of giving blotong against growth and production of baby corn. The research was arranged as a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The first is fertilizer type: blotong (B1), blotong+EM4 (B2) and bokashi blotong (B3), while of the blotong dose assigned as the second factor: blotong 5 ton ha -1 (D1), blotong 10 ton ha-1 (D2) and blotong 15 ton ha-1 (D3). The research result indicated that bokashi blotong gives the best influence compare to blotong+EM4 against all parameters. Interaction between fertilizers does 10 ton ha-1 to the bokashi. Blotong gives the best influence to the baby corn production 4.41 ton ha-1, bokasi blotong best anyway influence on baby corn vegetative growth, that is: plant height 113.00 cm, leaves number 8 (eight) pieces and stem diameter 6.02 cm. Results of analysis of variance showed that giving of bokashi blotong (B3) showed a better effect on the growth and production of baby corn and highly significant for plant height age of 60 days after planting, leaf number aged 60 days after planting, cob length cornhusk and without cornhusk, diameter stems and cobs, cob weight with cornhusk and without cornhusk and production are converted into ton ha-1. This is due to bokashi blotong has organic content of C, N, P, and K totalling more than the maximum treatment blotong (B1) and the blotong+EM4 (B2). Based on the research result, it can be summarised that sugar factory waste called blotong can be used to make bokashi as organic fertilizer, so the baby corn can growth and production better.

Keywords: blotong, bokashi, organic fertilizer, sugar factory waste

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202 Potential of Intercropping Corn and Cowpea to Ratooned Sugarcane for Food and Forage

Authors: Maricon E. Gepolani, Edna A. Aguilar, Pearl B. Sanchez, Enrico P. Supangco

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Intercropping farming system and biofertilizer application are sustainable agricultural practices that increase farm productivity by improving the yield performance of the components involved in the production system. Thus, this on-farm trial determined the yield and forage quality of corn and cowpea with and without biofertilizer application when intercropped with ratooned sugarcane. Intercropping corn and cowpea without biofertilizer application had no negative effect on the vegetative growth of sugarcane. However, application of biofertilizer on intercrops decreased tiller production at 117 days after stubble shaving (DASS), consequently reducing the estimated tonnage yield of sugarcane. The yield of intercrops and forage production of Cp3 cowpea variety increased when intercropped to ratooned sugarcane. In contrast, intercropping PSB 97-92 corn variety to ratooned sugarcane reduced its forage production, but when biofertilizer was applied to intercropped Cp5 cowpea variety, the forage production increased. Profitability (income equivalent ratio) of intercropping for both corn and cowpea are higher than monocropping and are thus suitable intercrops to ratooned sugarcane. Unaffected tiller count (a determinant of sugarcane tonnage yield) when biofertilizer was not applied to intercrops and a reduced tiller count with biofertilizer application to intercrops implies the need to develop a nutrient management practices specific for intercropping systems.

Keywords: biofertilizer, corn, cowpea, intercropping system, ratooned sugarcane

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201 Effect of Dehydration Methods of the Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Functional Properties of Starch Flour Extracted from Maize

Authors: Olakunle M. Makanjuola, Adebola Ajayi

Abstract:

Effect of the dehydrated method on proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch was evaluated. The study was carried and to determine the proximate, functional and mineral properties of corn starch produced using three different drying methods namely (sun) (oven) and (cabinet) drying methods. The corn starch was obtained by cleaning, steeping, milling, sieving, dewatering and drying corn starch was evaluated for proximate composition, functional properties, and mineral properties to determine the nutritional properties, moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and carbohydrate were in the range of 9.35 to 12.16, 6.5 to 10.78 1.08 to 2.5, 1.08 to 2.5, 4.0 to 5.2, 69.58 to 75.8% respectively. Bulk density range between 0.610g/dm3 to 0.718 g/dm3, water, and oil absorption capacities range between 116.5 to 117.25 and 113.8 to 117.25 ml/g respectively. Swelling powder had value varying from 1.401 to 1.544g/g respectively. The results indicate that the cabinet method had the best result item of the quality attribute.

Keywords: starch flour, maize, dehydration, cabinet dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
200 Effect of Peppermint Essential Oil versus a Mixture of Formic and Propionic Acids on Corn Silage Volatile Fatty Acid Score

Authors: Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Ali Hodjatpanah Montazeri, Alireza Vakili, Mansoor Tahmasbei

Abstract:

To compare peppermint essential oil versus a mixture of formic and propionic acids a study was conducted to their effects on volatile fatty acid proportion and VFA score of corn silage. Chopped whole crop corn (control) was treated with peppermint essential oil (240 mg kg-1 DM) or a mixture of formic and propionic acids (2:1) at 0.4% of fresh forage weight, and ensiled for 30 days. Then, silage extract was provided and the concentration of each VFA was determined using gas chromatography. The VFA score was calculated according to the patented formula proposed by Dairy One Scientific Committee. The score is calculated based on the positive impact of lactic and acetic acids versus the negative effect of butyric acid to achieve a single value for evaluating silage quality. The essential oil declined pH and increased the concentration of lactic and acetic acids in the silage extract. All corn silages evaluated in this study had a VFA score between 6 through 8. However, silage with peppermint essential oils had lower volatile fatty acids score than those of the other treatments. Both of applied additives caused a significant improvement in silage aerobic stability.

Keywords: peppermint, essential oil, corn silage, VFA (volatile fatty acids)

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
199 The Existence of Field Corn Networks on the Thailand-Burma Border under the Patron-Client Contract Farming System

Authors: Kettawa Boonprakarn, Jedsarid Sangkaphan, Bejapornd Deekhuntod, Nuntharat Suriyo

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the existence of field corn networks on the Thailand-Burma border under the patron-client contract farming system. The data of this qualitative study were collected through in-depth interviews with nine key informants. The results of the study revealed that the existence of the field corn networks was associated with the relationship where farmers had to share their crops with protectors in the areas under the influence of the KNU (Karen National Union) and the DKBA (Democratic Karen Buddhist Army) or Burmese soldiers. A Mae Liang, the person who starts a network has a connection with a Thaokae, Luk Rai Hua Chai or the head of a group of farmers, and farmers. They are under the patron-client system with trust and loyalty that enable the head of the group and the farmers in the Burma border side to remain under the same Mae Liang even though the business has been passed down to later generations.

Keywords: existence, field-corn networks, patron-client system, contract farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
198 Genome of Bio-Based Construction Adhesives and Complex Rheological Behavior

Authors: Ellie Fini, Mahour Parast, Daniel Oldham, Shahrzad Hosseinnezhad

Abstract:

This paper investigates the relationship between molecular species of four different bio-based adhesives (made from Swine Manure, Miscanthus Pellet, Corn Stover, and Wood Pellet) and their rheological behavior before and after they undergo extensive oxidative aging. To study the effect of oxidative aging on the chemical structure of bio-adhesives, Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared) was utilised. In addition, a Drop Shape Analyser, Rotational Viscometer, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer were used to evaluate the surface properties and rheological behaviour of each bio-adhesive. Overall, bio-adhesives were found to be significantly different in terms of their ageing characteristics. Accordingly, their surface and rheological properties were found to be ranked differently before and after ageing. The results showed that the bio-adhesive from swine manure is less susceptible to aging compared to plant-based bio-oils. This can be further attributed to the chemical structure and the high lipid contents of the bio-adhesive from swine manure, making it less affected by oxidative ageing.

Keywords: bio-adhesive, rheology, bio-mass, material genome

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
197 The Effects of Planting Date on the Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L.) Cultivar, Single Cross 704

Authors: Mehranoosh Gholipoor

Abstract:

The effects of planting date on performance and yield components of maize single cross 704 was carried out in 2003.this experiment was designed in randomized complete block pattern with 3 replications in the field of College campus of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in Gorgan. Treatments consisted of four planting dates (May5, May19, June4 and June19) respectively. The results showed that the planting on June4 were the best time for planting date in the field of seed performance and many other measurement qualities while planting date on June19 had the lowest seed performance in corn, due to a severe reduction in seed numbers had the highest In 1000 seed weight. Between the planting date on May 5 and May19 were observed no significant differences

Keywords: corn, planting date, performance and yield components

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
196 Expression Level of Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding/DREB Gene of Some Local Corn Cultivars from Kisar Island-Maluku Indonesia Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

Authors: Hermalina Sinay, Estri L. Arumingtyas

Abstract:

The research objective was to determine the expression level of dehydration responsive element binding/DREB gene of local corn cultivars from Kisar Island Maluku. The study design was a randomized block design with single factor consist of six local corn cultivars obtained from farmers in Kisar Island and one reference varieties wich has been released by the government as a drought-tolerant varieties and obtained from Cereal Crops Research Institute (ICERI) Maros South Sulawesi. Leaf samples were taken is the second leaf after the flag leaf at the 65 days after planting. Isolation of total RNA from leaf samples was carried out according to the protocols of the R & A-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit and was used as a template for cDNA synthesis. The making of cDNA from total RNA was carried out according to the protocol of One-Step Reverse Transcriptase PCR Premix Kit. Real Time-PCR was performed on cDNA from reverse transcription followed the procedures of Real MODTM Green Real-Time PCR Master Mix Kit. Data obtained from the real time-PCR results were analyzed using relative quantification method based on the critical point / Cycle Threshold (CP / CT). The results of gene expression analysis of DREB gene showed that the expression level of the gene was highest obtained at Deep Yellow local corn cultivar, and the lowest one was obtained at the Rubby Brown Cob cultivar. It can be concluded that the expression level of DREB gene of Deep Yellow local corn cultivar was highest than other local corn cultivars and Srikandi variety as a reference variety.

Keywords: expression, level, DREB gene, local corn cultivars, Kisar Island, Maluku

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
195 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, cassava wastes, corn cob, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
194 Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Ultrasounds Pretreatments on Biogas Production from Corn Cob

Authors: N. Pérez-Rodríguez, D. García-Bernet, A. Torrado-Agrasar, J. M. Cruz, A. B. Moldes, J. M. Domínguez

Abstract:

World economy is based on non-renewable, fossil fuels such as petroleum and natural gas, which entails its rapid depletion and environmental problems. In EU countries, the objective is that at least 20% of the total energy supplies in 2020 should be derived from renewable resources. Biogas, a product of anaerobic degradation of organic substrates, represents an attractive green alternative for meeting partial energy needs. Nowadays, trend to circular economy model involves efficiently use of residues by its transformation from waste to a new resource. In this sense, characteristics of agricultural residues (that are available in plenty, renewable, as well as eco-friendly) propitiate their valorisation as substrates for biogas production. Corn cob is a by-product obtained from maize processing representing 18 % of total maize mass. Corn cob importance lies in the high production of this cereal (more than 1 x 109 tons in 2014). Due to its lignocellulosic nature, corn cob contains three main polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Crystalline, highly ordered structures of cellulose and lignin hinders microbial attack and subsequent biogas production. For the optimal lignocellulose utilization and to enhance gas production in anaerobic digestion, materials are usually submitted to different pretreatment technologies. In the present work, enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasounds and combination of both technologies were assayed as pretreatments of corn cob for biogas production. Enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment was started by adding 0.044 U of Ultraflo® L feruloyl esterase per gram of dry corncob. Hydrolyses were carried out in 50 mM sodium-phosphate buffer pH 6.0 with a solid:liquid proportion of 1:10 (w/v), at 150 rpm, 40 ºC and darkness for 3 hours. Ultrasounds pretreatment was performed subjecting corn cob, in 50 mM sodium-phosphate buffer pH 6.0 with a solid: liquid proportion of 1:10 (w/v), at a power of 750W for 1 minute. In order to observe the effect of the combination of both pretreatments, some samples were initially sonicated and then they were enzymatically hydrolysed. In terms of methane production, anaerobic digestion of the corn cob pretreated by enzymatic hydrolysis was positive achieving 290 L CH4 kg MV-1 (compared with 267 L CH4 kg MV-1 obtained with untreated corn cob). Although the use of ultrasound as the only pretreatment resulted detrimentally (since gas production decreased to 244 L CH4 kg MV-1 after 44 days of anaerobic digestion), its combination with enzymatic hydrolysis was beneficial, reaching the highest value (300.9 L CH4 kg MV-1). Consequently, the combination of both pretreatments improved biogas production from corn cob.

Keywords: biogas, corn cob, enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
193 Evaluation of Superabsorbent Application on Corn Yield under Deficit Irrigation

Authors: Davoud Khodadadi Dehkordi

Abstract:

This research was planned in order to study the effect of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent and their effect on grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index. In this study, 3 different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent effects of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on biologic and grain yield of corn were significant. In addition, independent effect of irrigation treatments at 5% level on harvest index was significant. But independent effect of Superabsorbent treatments on harvest index was not significant.

Keywords: corn, deficit irrigation, superabsorbent, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
192 High Purity Lignin for Asphalt Applications: Using the Dawn Technology™ Wood Fractionation Process

Authors: Ed de Jong

Abstract:

Avantium is a leading technology development company and a frontrunner in renewable chemistry. Avantium develops disruptive technologies that enable the production of sustainable high value products from renewable materials and actively seek out collaborations and partnerships with like-minded companies and academic institutions globally, to speed up introductions of chemical innovations in the marketplace. In addition, Avantium helps companies to accelerate their catalysis R&D to improve efficiencies and deliver increased sustainability, growth, and profits, by providing proprietary systems and services to this regard. Many chemical building blocks and materials can be produced from biomass, nowadays mainly from 1st generation based carbohydrates, but potential for competition with the human food chain leads brand-owners to look for strategies to transition from 1st to 2nd generation feedstock. The use of non-edible lignocellulosic feedstock is an equally attractive source to produce chemical intermediates and an important part of the solution addressing these global issues (Paris targets). Avantium’s Dawn Technology™ separates the glucose, mixed sugars, and lignin available in non-food agricultural and forestry residues such as wood chips, wheat straw, bagasse, empty fruit bunches or corn stover. The resulting very pure lignin is dense in energy and can be used for energy generation. However, such a material might preferably be deployed in higher added value applications. Bitumen, which is fossil based, are mostly used for paving applications. Traditional hot mix asphalt emits large quantities of the GHG’s CO₂, CH₄, and N₂O, which is unfavorable for obvious environmental reasons. Another challenge for the bitumen industry is that the petrochemical industry is becoming more and more efficient in breaking down higher chain hydrocarbons to lower chain hydrocarbons with higher added value than bitumen. This has a negative effect on the availability of bitumen. The asphalt market, as well as governments, are looking for alternatives with higher sustainability in terms of GHG emission. The usage of alternative sustainable binders, which can (partly) replace the bitumen, contributes to reduce GHG emissions and at the same time broadens the availability of binders. As lignin is a major component (around 25-30%) of lignocellulosic material, which includes terrestrial plants (e.g., trees, bushes, and grass) and agricultural residues (e.g., empty fruit bunches, corn stover, sugarcane bagasse, straw, etc.), it is globally highly available. The chemical structure shows resemblance with the structure of bitumen and could, therefore, be used as an alternative for bitumen in applications like roofing or asphalt. Applications such as the use of lignin in asphalt need both fundamental research as well as practical proof under relevant use conditions. From a fundamental point of view, rheological aspects, as well as mixing, are key criteria. From a practical point of view, behavior in real road conditions is key (how easy can the asphalt be prepared, how easy can it be applied on the road, what is the durability, etc.). The paper will discuss the fundamentals of the use of lignin as bitumen replacement as well as the status of the different demonstration projects in Europe using lignin as a partial bitumen replacement in asphalts and will especially present the results of using Dawn Technology™ lignin as partial replacement of bitumen.

Keywords: biorefinery, wood fractionation, lignin, asphalt, bitumen, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
191 Contribution of the Corn Milling Industry to a Global and Circular Economy

Authors: A. B. Moldes, X. Vecino, L. Rodriguez-López, J. M. Dominguez, J. M. Cruz

Abstract:

The concept of the circular economy is focus on the importance of providing goods and services sustainably. Thus, in a future it will be necessary to respond to the environmental contamination and to the use of renewables substrates by moving to a more restorative economic system that drives towards the utilization and revalorization of residues to obtain valuable products. During its evolution our industrial economy has hardly moved through one major characteristic, established in the early days of industrialization, based on a linear model of resource consumption. However, this industrial consumption system will not be maintained during long time. On the other hand, there are many industries, like the corn milling industry, that although does not consume high amount of non renewable substrates, they produce valuable streams that treated accurately, they could provide additional, economical and environmental, benefits by the extraction of interesting commercial renewable products, that can replace some of the substances obtained by chemical synthesis, using non renewable substrates. From this point of view, the use of streams from corn milling industry to obtain surface-active compounds will decrease the utilization of non-renewables sources for obtaining this kind of compounds, contributing to a circular and global economy. However, the success of the circular economy depends on the interest of the industrial sectors in the revalorization of their streams by developing relevant and new business models. Thus, it is necessary to invest in the research of new alternatives that reduce the consumption of non-renewable substrates. In this study is proposed the utilization of a corn milling industry stream to obtain an extract with surfactant capacity. Once the biosurfactant is extracted, the corn milling stream can be commercialized as nutritional media in biotechnological process or as animal feed supplement. Usually this stream is combined with other ingredients obtaining a product namely corn gluten feed or may be sold separately as a liquid protein source for beef and dairy feeding, or as a nutritional pellet binder. Following the productive scheme proposed in this work, the corn milling industry will obtain a biosurfactant extract that could be incorporated in its productive process replacing those chemical detergents, used in some point of its productive chain, or it could be commercialized as a new product of the corn manufacture. The biosurfactants obtained from corn milling industry could replace the chemical surfactants in many formulations, and uses, and it supposes an example of the potential that many industrial streams could offer for obtaining valuable products when they are manage properly.

Keywords: biosurfactantes, circular economy, corn, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 141