Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Wendy C. Mateo

32 Processing and Economic Analysis of Rain Tree (Samanea saman) Pods for Village Level Hydrous Bioethanol Production

Authors: Dharell B. Siano, Wendy C. Mateo, Victorino T. Taylan, Francisco D. Cuaresma


Biofuel is one of the renewable energy sources adapted by the Philippine government in order to lessen the dependency on foreign fuel and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Rain tree pods were seen to be a promising source of bioethanol since it contains significant amount of fermentable sugars. The study was conducted to establish the complete procedure in processing rain tree pods for village level hydrous bioethanol production. Production processes were done for village level hydrous bioethanol production from collection, drying, storage, shredding, dilution, extraction, fermentation, and distillation. The feedstock was sundried, and moisture content was determined at a range of 20% to 26% prior to storage. Dilution ratio was 1:1.25 (1 kg of pods = 1.25 L of water) and after extraction process yielded a sugar concentration of 22 0Bx to 24 0Bx. The dilution period was three hours. After three hours of diluting the samples, the juice was extracted using extractor with a capacity of 64.10 L/hour. 150 L of rain tree pods juice was extracted and subjected to fermentation process using a village level anaerobic bioreactor. Fermentation with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can fasten up the process, thus producing more ethanol at a shorter period of time; however, without yeast fermentation, it also produces ethanol at lower volume with slower fermentation process. Distillation of 150 L of fermented broth was done for six hours at 85 °C to 95 °C temperature (feedstock) and 74 °C to 95 °C temperature of the column head (vapor state of ethanol). The highest volume of ethanol recovered was established at with yeast fermentation at five-day duration with a value of 14.89 L and lowest actual ethanol content was found at without yeast fermentation at three-day duration having a value of 11.63 L. In general, the results suggested that rain tree pods had a very good potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. Fermentation of rain tree pods juice can be done with yeast and without yeast.

Keywords: fermentation, hydrous bioethanol, fermentation, rain tree pods, village level

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31 First Time Voters Representation of Leadership as Exemplified by 2016 Presidentiables

Authors: Fevy Kae Mateo, Kimberly Javier, Alyzza Marie Palles


Leadership is a process of relationship involving interaction with other people. Leaders emphasise authority, which executes and implements regulations, maintains the rules and leads to a better future. The First Time voters are very significant because there are the stakeholders of the type of leader to be deployed. They also have the capacity of engaging the government and can be the agents of change. The objective of the study is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of leader. Moreover, the study identifies the qualities of a leader. Finally, the study determines first-time voter’s representation of a leader. Focus Group Discussion was carried out into two groups of first time voter’s ages 18 to 21 years old. Verbatim transcripts of the discussion were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Overall results showed super ordinate themes for weaknesses of leader: Lace of transparency in the government, poor communication strategy, and valuing experience over potential and other contributory factor; for strength of a leader: analytical skill, emotional intelligence in political work, analytical ability and economic status on political participation; finally, in the representation of a leader: positive representation of a leader and negative representation of a leader.

Keywords: first time voters, focus group discussion, leadership, qualitative research design

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30 Effect of Plastic Deformation on the Carbide-Free Bainite Transformation in Medium C-Si Steel

Authors: Mufath Zorgani, Carlos Garcia-Mateo, Mohammad Jahazi


In this study, the influence of pre-strained austenite on the extent of isothermal bainite transformation in medium-carbon, high-silicon steel was investigated. Different amounts of deformations were applied at 600°C on the austenite right before quenching to the region, where isothermal bainitic transformation is activated. Four different temperatures of 325, 350, 375, and 400°C considering similar holding time 1800s at each temperature, were selected to investigate the extent of isothermal bainitic transformation. The results showed that the deformation-free austenite transforms to the higher volume fraction of CFB bainite when the isothermal transformation temperature reduced from 400 to 325°C, the introduction of plastic deformation in austenite prior to the formation of bainite invariably involves a delay of the same or identical isothermal treatment. On the other side, when the isothermal transformation temperature and deformation increases, the volume fraction and the plate thickness of bainite decreases and the amount of retained austenite increases. The shape of retained austenite is mostly representing blocky-shape one due to the less amount of transformed bainite. Moreover, the plate-like shape bainite cannot be resolved when the deformation amount reached 30%, and the isothermal transformation temperatures are of 375 and 400°C. The amount of retained austenite and the percentage of its transformation to martensite during the final cooling stage play a significant role in the variation of hardness level for different thermomechanical regimes.

Keywords: ausforming, carbide free bainite, dilatometry, microstructure

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29 Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hollow Silica Particle through DODAB Vesicle Templating

Authors: Eun Ju Park, Wendy Rusli, He Tao, Alexander M. Van Herk, Sanggu Kim


Hollow micro-/nano- structured materials have proven to be promising in wide range of applications, such as catalysis, drug delivery and controlled release, biotechnology, and personal and consumer care. Hollow sphere structures can be obtained through various templating approaches; colloid templates, emulsion templates, multi-surfactant templates, and single crystal templates. Vesicles are generally the self-directed assemblies of amphiphilic molecules including cationic, anionic, and cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions. The directed silica capsule formations were performed at the surface of dioctadecyldimethylammoniumbromide(DODAB) bilayer vesicles as soft template. The size of DODAB bilayer vesicles could be tuned by extrusion of a preheated dispersion of DODAB. The synthesized hollow silica particles were characterized by conventional TEM, cryo-TEM and SEM to determine the morphology and structure of particles and dynamic light scattering (DLS) method to measure the particle size and particle size distribution.

Keywords: characterization, DODAB, hollow silica particle, synthesis, vesicle

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28 Safety System Design and Overfill Protection for Loading Asphalt onto Trucks

Authors: Wendy Ampadu, Ray Diezmos, Hassan Malik, Jeremy Hyslob


There are several technologies out there for use as high-level switches as part of a system for shutting down flow to a vessel. Given that the asphalt truck loading poses issues such as poor visibility, coating, condensation, and fumes, a solution that is robust enough to last in these conditions is often needed in industries. Furthermore, the design of the loading arm, rack, and process equipment should allow for the safety of workers. The objective of this report includes the redesign of structures for use at loading facilities and selecting an overflow technology protection from hot bitumen. The report is based on loading facilities at a Canadian bitumen production company. The engineering design approach was used to create multiple redesign concepts for the loading dock system. Research on overfill systems was also completed by surveying the existing market for technologies and securing quotes from over 20 Canadian and United States instrumentation companies. A final loading dock redesign and level transmitter for overfill protection solution were chosen.

Keywords: bitumen, reliability engineering, safety system, process safety management, asphalt, loading docks, tanker trucks

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27 2021 Study of 529 Donor-Conceived Adults

Authors: Wendy Kramer


How and when a donor-conceived person (DCP) learns about their conception significantly affects their experiences and choices, including whether they'd consider using a donor or donating their own gametes. Objective: We sought to identify factors that positively and negatively impact the experience of being a DCP. We sought to determine if DCP would consider utilizing donor gametes themselves, if unable to conceive spontaneously and if DCP were likely to be donors themselves. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adult DCP was disseminated to members of the Donor Sibling Registry. The survey consisted of 31 items including whether experience as DCP was positive or negative, the willingness to use donor gametes if spontaneous conception was not an option, and questions regarding donating gametes. Results: 529 people (81.7% female) completed the survey, the median age was 28 years (range 18-77 years) and 94.7% were conceived via donor sperm. Most felt "neutral" (31.6%), "positive" (26.3%) or "very positive" (20.8%) about being a DCP regardless of donor type. While most found out about being a DCP after age 18 (63.4%), those with a positive experience were more likely to "have always known" (40.7%). Conclusions: People conceived by donor-assisted reproduction are more likely to have neutral to positive overall feelings surrounding their conception if they are told at a very young age about their donor-conceived origins by a family member. The majority of DCP are willing to adopt but would not consider using donated gametes themselves if unable to conceive spontaneously. DCP are not likely to become donors themselves despite the majority of DCP having a high positive feeling regarding being donor-conceived.

Keywords: donor conception, donor offspring, sperm donation, egg donation, donor-conceived people

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26 The Accuracy of Measures for Screening Adults for Spiritual Suffering in Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review

Authors: Sayna Bahraini, Wendy Gifford, Ian Graham, Liquaa Wazni, Suzettee Bremault-Phillips, Rebekah Hackbusch, Catrine Demers, Mary Egan


Objective: Guidelines for palliative and spiritual care emphasize the importance of screening patients for spiritual suffering. The aim of this review was to synthesize the research evidence on the accuracy of measures used to screen adults for spiritual suffering. Methods: A systematic review has been conducted. We searched five scientific databases to identify relevant articles. Two independent reviewers screened extracted data and assessed study methodological quality. Results: We identified five articles that yielded information on 24 spiritual screening measures. Among all identified measures, the 2-item Meaning/Joy & Self-Described Struggle has the highest sensitivity (82-87%), and the revised Rush protocol has the highest specificity (81-90%). The methodological quality of all included studies was low. Significance of Results: While most of the identified spiritual screening measures are brief (comprise 1 to 12 number of items), few have sufficient accuracy to effectively screen patients for spiritual suffering. We advise clinicians to use their critical appraisal skills and clinical judgment when selecting and using any of the identified measures to screen for spiritual suffering.

Keywords: screening, suffering, spirituality, diagnostic test accuracy, systematic review

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25 Self-Determination Theory at the Workplace: Associations between Need Satisfaction and Employment Outcomes

Authors: Wendy I. E. Wesseling


The unemployment rate has been on the rise since the outbreak of the global financial crisis in 2008. Especially labor market entrants suffer from economic downfall. Despite the abundance of programs and agencies that help to reintegrate unemployed youth, considerable less research attention has been paid to 'fit' between these programs and its participants that ensure a durable labor market transition. According to Self-Determination Theory, need satisfaction is associated with better (mental) adjustment. As such, three hypothesis were formulated: when workers’ needs for competence (H1), relatedness (H2), and autonomy (H3) are satisfied in the workplace, they are more likely to remain employed at the same employer. To test these assumptions, a sample of approximately 800 young people enrolled in a youth unemployment policy participated in a longitudinal study. The unemployment policy was aimed at the development of generic and vocational competences, and had a maximum duration of six months. Need satisfaction during the program was measured, as well as their employment outcomes up to 12 months after completion of the policy. All hypotheses were (partly) supported. Some limitations should be noted. First, since our sample consisted primarily of highly educated white graduates, it remains to be tested whether our results generalize to other groups of unemployed youth. Moreover, we are unable to conclude whether the results are due to the intervention, participants (selection effect), or both, because of the lack of a control group.

Keywords: need satisfaction, person-job fit, self-determination theory, youth unemployment policy

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24 Experiences of 529 Donor-Conceived Adults: Disclosure, Using a Donor, Donating

Authors: Wendy Kramer


How and when a donor-conceived person (DCP) learns about their conception significantly affects their experiences and choices, including whether they'd consider using a donor or donating their own gametes. Objective: We sought to identify factors that positively and negatively impact the experience of being a DCP. We sought to determine if DCP would consider utilizing donor gametes themselves, if unable to conceive spontaneously and if DCP were likely to be donors themselves. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adult DCP was disseminated to members of the Donor Sibling Registry. The survey consisted of 31 items, including whether experience as DCP was positive or negative, the willingness to use donor gametes if spontaneous conception was not an option, and questions regarding donating gametes. Results: 529 people (81.7% female) completed the survey, the median age was 28 years (range 18-77 years), and 94.7% were conceived via donor sperm. Most felt "neutral" (31.6%), "positive" (26.3%) or "very positive" (20.8%) about being a DCP regardless of donor type. While most found out about being a DCP after age 18 (63.4%), those with a positive experience were more likely to "have always known" (40.7%). Conclusions: People conceived by donor-assisted reproduction are more likely to have neutral to overall positive feelings surrounding their conception if they are told at a very young age about their donor-conceived origins by a family member. The majority of DCPs are willing to adopt but would not consider using donated gametes themselves if unable to conceive spontaneously. DCPs are not likely to become donors themselves despite the majority of DCP having a high positive feeling regarding being donor-conceived.

Keywords: donor conception, sperm donation, oocyte donation, donor-conceived people, infertility

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23 Exploring 'Attachment Theory' in the Context of Early Childhood Education

Authors: Wendy Lee


From the mid-twentieth century onward, the notion of ‘attachment’ has been used to define the optimum relationship between young children and their carers; first applied to parents and young children and more recently with early childhood educators and children in their care. However, it is seldom, if ever, asked whether the notion of ‘attachment’ and more especially so-called Attachment Theory, as propounded by John Bowlby and others, provides a sound basis for conceptualising child-adult relationships in early years. Even if appropriate in the context of family, the use of the term raises a number of questions when used in early childhood education. Research has shown that our youngest children (infants) in early childhood centre based care settings, are given the utmost priority to build 'attachments' with their educators. But exactly when, how and why does this priority diminish - and should it (for preschoolers)? This presentation will elaborate on such issues and will argue that there is a need to reconceptualise and redefine how 'quality relationships' should be measured and implemented in the daily practices and pedagogical methods adopted by early childhood educators. Moreover, this presentation will include data collected from the empirical study conducted, that observed various early childhood educators and children in Australian early childhood centres. Lastly, the thoughts, feelings and desires of parents of children in early childhood centre-based care, regarding the term 'attachment' and 'quality relationships' will be shared in the hope that we can take one step closer in bridging the needs of families, children, early childhood centres, educators, and the wider community.

Keywords: attachment, early childhood education, pedagogy, relationships

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22 Designing a Corpus Database to Enhance the Learning of Old English Language

Authors: Raquel Mateo Mendaza, Carmen Novo Urraca


The current paper presents the elaboration of a corpus database that aligns two different corpora in order to simplify the search of information both for researchers and students of Old English. This database comprises the information contained in two main reference corpora, namely the Dictionary of Old English Corpus (DOEC), compiled at the University of Toronto, and the York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English (YCOE). The first one provides information on all surviving texts written in the Old English language. The latter offers the syntactical and morphological annotation of several texts included in the DOEC. Although both corpora are closely related, as the YCOE includes the DOE source text identifier, the main problem detected is that there is not an alignment of texts that allows for the search of whole fragments to be further analysed in terms of morphology and syntax. The database proposed in this paper gathers all this information and presents it in a simple, more accessible, visual, and educational way. The alignment of fragments has been done in an automatized way. However, some problems have emerged during the creating process particularly related to the lack of correspondence in the division of fragments. For this reason, it has been necessary to revise the whole entries manually to obtain a truthful high-quality product and to carefully indicate the gaps encountered in these corpora. All in all, this database contains more than 60,000 entries corresponding with the DOE fragments annotated by the YCOE. The main strength of the resulting product is its research and teaching implications in the study of Old English. The use of this database will help researchers and students in the study of different aspects of the language, such as inflectional morphology, syntactic behaviour of given words, or translation studies, among others. By means of the search of words or fragments, the annotated information on morphology and syntax will be automatically displayed, automatizing, and speeding up the search of data.

Keywords: alignment, corpus database, morphosyntactic analysis, Old English

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21 Characterising the Processes Underlying Emotion Recognition Deficits in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

Authors: Nayra Martin-Key, Erich Graf, Wendy Adams, Graeme Fairchild


Children and adolescents with Conduct Disorder (CD) have been shown to demonstrate impairments in emotion recognition, but it is currently unclear whether this deficit is related to specific emotions or whether it represents a global deficit in emotion recognition. An emotion recognition task with concurrent eye-tracking was employed to further explore this relationship in a sample of male and female adolescents with CD. Participants made emotion categorization judgements for presented dynamic and morphed static facial expressions. The results demonstrated that males with CD, and to a lesser extent, females with CD, displayed impaired facial expression recognition in general, whereas callous-unemotional (CU) traits were linked to specific problems in sadness recognition in females with CD. A region-of-interest analysis of the eye-tracking data indicated that males with CD exhibited reduced fixation times for the eye-region of the face compared to typically-developing (TD) females, but not TD males. Females with CD did not show reduced fixation to the eye-region of the face relative to TD females. In addition, CU traits did not influence CD subjects’ attention to the eye-region of the face. These findings suggest that the emotion recognition deficits found in CD males, the worst performing group in the behavioural tasks, are partly driven by reduced attention to the eyes.

Keywords: attention, callous-unemotional traits, conduct disorder, emotion recognition, eye-region, eye-tracking, sex differences

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20 Transnational Higher Education: Developing a Transnational Student Success Signature for Clinical Medical Students an Action Research Project

Authors: Wendy Maddison


This paper describes an Action Research project which was undertaken to inform professional practice in order to develop a newly created Centre for Student Success in the specific context of transnational medical and nursing education in the Middle East. The objectives were to enhance the academic performance, persistence, integration and personal and professional development of a multinational study body, in particular in relation to preclinical medical students, and to establish a comfortable, friendly and student-driven environment within an Irish medical university recently established in Bahrain. Expatriating a new part of itself into a corner of the world and within a context which could be perceived as the antithesis of itself, in particular in terms of traditional cultural and organisational values, the university has had to innovate in the range of services, programmes and other offerings which engages and supports the academic success of medical and nursing students as they “encounter the world in the classroom” in the context of an Arab Islamic culture but within a European institution of transnational education, engaging with a global learning environment locally. The outcomes of the project resulted in the development of a specific student success ‘signature’ for this particular transnational higher education context.

Keywords: transnational higher education, medical education, action research, student success, Middle Eastern context, student persistence in the global-local, student support mechanisms

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19 The Impact of Teacher's Emotional Intelligence on Students' Motivation to Learn

Authors: Marla Wendy Spergel


The purpose of this qualitative study is to showcase graduated high school students’ to voice on the impact past teachers had on their motivation to learn, and if this impact has affected their post-high-school lives. Through a focus group strategy, 21 graduated high school alumni participated in three separate focus groups. Participants discussed their former teacher’s emotional intelligence skills, which influenced their motivation to learn or not. A focused review of the literature revealed that teachers are a major factor in a student’s motivation to learn. This research was guided by Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation and constructs related to learning and motivation from Carl Rogers’ Humanistic Views of Personality, and from Brain-Based Learning perspectives with a major focus on the area of Emotional Intelligence. Findings revealed that the majority of participants identified teachers who most motivated them to learn and demonstrated skills associated with emotional intelligence. An important and disturbing finding relates to the saliency of negative experiences. Further work is recommended to expand this line of study in Higher Education, perform a long-term study to better gain insight into long-term benefits attributable to experiencing positive teachers, study the negative impact teachers have on students’ motivation to learn, specifically focusing on student anxiety and acquired helplessness.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, learning, motivation, pedagogy

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18 The Factors Affecting the Use of Massive Open Online Courses in Blended Learning by Lecturers in Universities

Authors: Taghreed Alghamdi, Wendy Hall, David Millard


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have recently gained widespread interest in the academic world, starting a wide range of discussion of a number of issues. One of these issues, using MOOCs in teaching and learning in the higher education by integrating MOOCs’ contents with traditional face-to-face activities in blended learning format, is called blended MOOCs (bMOOCs) and is intended not to replace traditional learning but to enhance students learning. Most research on MOOCs has focused on students’ perception and institutional threats whereas there is a lack of published research on academics’ experiences and practices. Thus, the first aim of the study is to develop a classification of blended MOOCs models by conducting a systematic literature review, classifying 19 different case studies, and identifying the broad types of bMOOCs models namely: Supplementary Model and Integrated Model. Thus, the analyses phase will emphasize on these different types of bMOOCs models in terms of adopting MOOCs by lecturers. The second aim of the study is to improve the understanding of lecturers’ acceptance of bMOOCs by investigate the factors that influence academics’ acceptance of using MOOCs in traditional learning by distributing an online survey to lecturers who participate in MOOCs platforms. These factors can help institutions to encourage their lecturers to integrate MOOCs with their traditional courses in universities.

Keywords: acceptance, blended learning, blended MOOCs, higher education, lecturers, MOOCs, professors

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17 Optimal Design of Tuned Inerter Damper-Based System for the Control of Wind-Induced Vibration in Tall Buildings through Cultural Algorithm

Authors: Luis Lara-Valencia, Mateo Ramirez-Acevedo, Daniel Caicedo, Jose Brito, Yosef Farbiarz


Controlling wind-induced vibrations as well as aerodynamic forces, is an essential part of the structural design of tall buildings in order to guarantee the serviceability limit state of the structure. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the optimal design parameters of a Tuned Inerter Damper (TID) based system for the control of wind-induced vibration in tall buildings. The control system is based on the conventional TID, with the main difference that its location is changed from the ground level to the last two story-levels of the structural system. The TID tuning procedure is based on an evolutionary cultural algorithm in which the optimum design variables defined as the frequency and damping ratios were searched according to the optimization criteria of minimizing the root mean square (RMS) response of displacements at the nth story of the structure. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to represent the dynamic action of the wind in the time domain in which a time-series derived from the Davenport spectrum using eleven harmonic functions with randomly chosen phase angles was reproduced. The above-mentioned methodology was applied on a case-study derived from a 37-story prestressed concrete building with 144 m height, in which the wind action overcomes the seismic action. The results showed that the optimally tuned TID is effective to reduce the RMS response of displacements up to 25%, which demonstrates the feasibility of the system for the control of wind-induced vibrations in tall buildings.

Keywords: evolutionary cultural algorithm, Monte Carlo simulation, tuned inerter damper, wind-induced vibrations

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16 Understanding Indonesian Smallholder Dairy Farmers’ Decision to Adopt Multiple Farm: Level Innovations

Authors: Rida Akzar, Risti Permani, Wahida , Wendy Umberger


Adoption of farm innovations may increase farm productivity, and therefore improve market access and farm incomes. However, most studies that look at the level and drivers of innovation adoption only focus on a specific type of innovation. Farmers may consider multiple innovation options, and constraints such as budget, environment, scarcity of labour supply, and the cost of learning. There have been some studies proposing different methods to combine a broad variety of innovations into a single measurable index. However, little has been done to compare these methods and assess whether they provide similar information about farmer segmentation by their ‘innovativeness’. Using data from a recent survey of 220 dairy farm households in West Java, Indonesia, this study compares and considers different methods of deriving an innovation index, including expert-weighted innovation index; an index derived from the total number of adopted technologies; and an index of the extent of adoption of innovation taking into account both adoption and disadoption of multiple innovations. Second, it examines the distribution of different farming systems taking into account their innovativeness and farm characteristics. Results from this study will inform policy makers and stakeholders in the dairy industry on how to better design, target and deliver programs to improve and encourage farm innovation, and therefore improve farm productivity and the performance of the dairy industry in Indonesia.

Keywords: adoption, dairy, household survey, innovation index, Indonesia, multiple innovations dairy, West Java

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15 Dow Polyols near Infrared Chemometric Model Reduction Based on Clustering: Reducing Thirty Global Hydroxyl Number (OH) Models to Less Than Five

Authors: Wendy Flory, Kazi Czarnecki, Matthijs Mercy, Mark Joswiak, Mary Beth Seasholtz


Polyurethane Materials are present in a wide range of industrial segments such as Furniture, Building and Construction, Composites, Automotive, Electronics, and more. Dow is one of the leaders for the manufacture of the two main raw materials, Isocyanates and Polyols used to produce polyurethane products. Dow is also a key player for the manufacture of Polyurethane Systems/Formulations designed for targeted applications. In 1990, the first analytical chemometric models were developed and deployed for use in the Dow QC labs of the polyols business for the quantification of OH, water, cloud point, and viscosity. Over the years many models have been added; there are now over 140 models for quantification and hundreds for product identification, too many to be reasonable for support. There are 29 global models alone for the quantification of OH across > 70 products at many sites. An attempt was made to consolidate these into a single model. While the consolidated model proved good statistics across the entire range of OH, several products had a bias by ASTM E1655 with individual product validation. This project summary will show the strategy for global model updates for OH, to reduce the number of models for quantification from over 140 to 5 or less using chemometric methods. In order to gain an understanding of the best product groupings, we identify clusters by reducing spectra to a few dimensions via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP). Results from these cluster analyses and a separate validation set allowed dow to reduce the number of models for predicting OH from 29 to 3 without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: hydroxyl, global model, model maintenance, near infrared, polyol

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14 Revitalization of Sign Language through Deaf Theatre: A Linguistic Analysis of an Art Form Which Combines Physical Theatre, Poetry, and Sign Language

Authors: Gal Belsitzman, Rose Stamp, Atay Citron, Wendy Sandler


Sign languages are considered endangered. The vitality of sign languages is compromised by its unique sociolinguistic situation, in which hearing parents that give birth to deaf children usually decide to cochlear implant their child. Therefore, these children don’t acquire their natural language – Sign Language. Despite this, many sign languages, such as Israeli Sign Language (ISL) are thriving. The continued survival of similar languages under threat has been associated with the remarkable resilience of the language community. In particular, deaf literary traditions are central in reminding the community of the importance of the language. One example of a deaf literary tradition which has received increased popularity in recent years is deaf theatre. The Ebisu Sign Language Theatre Laboratory, developed as part of the multidisciplinary Grammar of the Body Research Project, is the first deaf theatre company in Israel. Ebisu Theatre combines physical theatre and sign language research, to allow for a natural laboratory to analyze the creative use of the body. In this presentation, we focus on the recent theatre production called ‘Their language’ which tells of the struggle faced by the deaf community to use their own natural language in the education system. A thorough analysis unravels how linguistic properties are integrated with the use of poetic devices and physical theatre techniques in this performance, enabling wider access by both deaf and hearing audiences, without interpretation. Interviews with the audience illustrate the significance of this art form which serves a dual purpose, both as empowering for the deaf community and educational for the hearing and deaf audiences, by raising awareness of community-related issues.

Keywords: deaf theatre, empowerment, language revitalization, sign language

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13 Increasing Sexual Safety Awareness and Capacity for Mental Health Professionals

Authors: Tara Hunter, Kristine Concepcion, Wendy Cheng, Brianna Pike, Jane Estoesta, Anne Stuart


In 2015, Family Planning NSW was contracted by the NSW Ministry of Health to design and deliver Sexual Safety Policy training (SSPT) to mental health professionals across NSW. The training was based on their current guidelines and developed in consultation with an expert reference group. From October 2015 to April 2017 it was delivered to over 2,400 mental health professionals with a view to supporting implementation of consistent prevention and intervention related to sexual safety in the mental health setting. An evaluation was undertaken to determine the knowledge and confidence of participants related to sexual safety before and after the training, and whether any improvements were translated into changes in practice. Participants were invited to complete a survey prior to the training, upon completion and three to six months thereafter. Telephone interviews were conducted among service managers and mental health champions six months post-training. Prior to training, the majority of mental health professionals reported being slightly to moderately confident in identifying a sexual safety incident. When asked on their understanding of sexual safety, gender sensitive practice and trauma informed care, they reported no confidence, slight confidence and moderate confidence. Immediately after the training, 54.5% reported being very confident and 10.9% extremely confident in identifying a sexual safety incident. More than half felt very confident or extremely confident in their understanding of sexual safety principles. The impact survey (six months later) found that the majority of participants (91%) were highly confident in identifying a sexual safety incident. Telephone interviewees reported a change in workplace culture and increased awareness after the training. Mental health professionals experienced increased knowledge and confidence about sexual safety principles following the training and were able to implement positive changes and concrete actions to better address sexual safety issues in their workplace.

Keywords: sexual safety, mental health professionals, trauma informed care, policy training

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12 'I Broke the Line Back to the Ancient Ones': Rethinking Intersectional Theory through Wounded Histories in Once Were Warriors (1994) and Whale Rider (2002).

Authors: Kerry Mackereth


Kimberle Crenshaw’s theory of intersectionality has become immensely influential in the fields of women’s and gender studies. However, intersectionality’s widespread use among feminist scholars and activists has been accompanied by critiques of its reliance upon subject categorization. These critiques are of particular import when connected to Wendy Brown’s characterization of identity politics as static 'wounded attachments'. Together, these critiques show how the gridlock model proposed by intersectionality’s primary metaphor, the traffic accident at the intersection, is useful for identifying discrimination but not for remembering historical injustices or imagining feminist and anti-racist resistance. Through the lens of New Zealand Maori film, focusing upon Once Were Warriors (1994) and Whale Rider (2002), this article examines how wounded histories need not be passively reproduced by contemporaneously oppressed groups. Instead, the metaphor of the traffic intersection should be complemented by the metaphor of the wound. Against Brown’s characterization of wounded attachments as negative, static identities, Gloria Anzaldua’s account of the borderland between the United States and Mexico as “una herida abierta”, an open wound, offers an alternative reading of the wound. Through Anzaldua’s and Hortense Spillers’ political thought, the wound is reconceptualized as not only a site of suffering but also as a regenerative space. The coexistence of deterioration and regeneration at the site of the wound underpins the narrative arc of both Once Were Warriors and Whale Rider. In both films, the respective child protagonists attempt to reconcile the pain of wounded histories with the imagination of cultural regeneration. The metaphor of the wound thus serves as an alternative theoretical resource for mapping experiences of oppression, one that enriches feminist theory by balancing the remembrance of historical grievance with the forging of hopeful political projects.

Keywords: gender theory, historical grievance, intersectionality, New Zealand film, postcolonialism

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11 Teaching for Gender and Sexual Diversity and Inclusion: Pre-Service Teacher Education

Authors: Wendy Carr, Blye Frank


We believe it is our responsibility as educators and teacher educators to teach inclusively with respect to all areas pertaining to human rights, including those related to sexual and gender diversity. How do faculties of education prepare pre-service teachers to support their diverse students? How do they integrate content and practices into their programs and cultures? The presenters will outline some of the work undertaken in their faculty of education to enhance its language, curriculum and practices regarding sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) and some of the lessons learned. Implementation of an ambitious campaign in recent years has raised awareness and built capacity and culture related to SOGI inclusion for students, faculty and staff. The work came about in part because of significant changes to federal and provincial human rights legislation, in part because recent studies show that many teachers feel their university education did not prepare them for the SOGI diversity they encountered in schools, and in part because it was simply the right thing to do. Knowledgeable, inclusive and socially responsible educators are needed to ensure that all students feel seen, safe and supported because the research shows that homophobia, biphobia and transphobia continue to be rampant in Canadian schools. Presenters will outline how education and support were provided for preservice teachers and how faculty, faculty advisors and staff engaged in professional learning. They will also share some of the lessons learned from a 3-year research study tracking preservice teachers’ perspectives on preparedness for the classroom. We believe that education faculties, teacher regulators and other education stakeholders need to integrate inclusive language and practices relative to gender and sexual diversity in order to ensure socially just environments for students and educators at all levels. Our hope is that the work in our faculty can inspire and also be informed by what is happening on other campuses around the world.

Keywords: gender and sexuality, human rights, inclusive education, teacher education

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10 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Children

Authors: Jing-Jing Wang, Yang Gao, Heather H. M. Kwok, Wendy Y. J. Huang


Objectives: Intellectual disability (ID) ranks among the top 20 most costly disorders. A child with ID creates a wide set of challenges to the individual, family, and society, and overweight and obesity aggravate those challenges. People with ID have the right to attain optimal health like the rest of the population. They should be given priority to eliminate existing health inequities. Childhood obesity epidemic and associated factors among children, in general, has been well documented, while knowledge about overweight and obesity in children with ID is scarce. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 524 Chinese children with ID (males: 68.9%, mean age: 12.2 years) in Hong Kong in 2015. Children’s height and weight were measured at school. Parents, in the presence of their children, completed a self-administered questionnaire at home about the children’s physical activity (PA), eating habits, and sleep duration in a typical week as well as parenting practices regarding children’s eating and PA, and their socio-demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression estimated the potential risk factors for children being overweight. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with ID was 31.3%, which was higher than their general counterparts (18.7%-19.9%). Multivariate analyses revealed that the risk factors of overweight and obese in children with ID included: comorbidity with autism, the maternal side being overweight or obese, parenting practices with less pressure to eat more, children having shorter sleep duration, longer periods of sedentary behavior, and higher intake frequencies of sweetened food, fried food, and meats, fish, and eggs. Children born in other places, having snacks more frequently, and having irregular meals were also more likely to be overweight or obese, with marginal significance. Conclusions: Children with ID are more vulnerable to being overweight or obese than their typically developing counterparts. Identified risk factors in this study highlight a multifaceted approach to the involvement of parents as well as the modification of some children’s questionable behaviors to help them achieve a healthy weight.

Keywords: prevalence, risk factors, obesity, children with disability

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9 Sexual Dimorphism in the Sensorial Structures of the Antenna of Thygater aethiops (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Its Relation with Some Corporal Parameters

Authors: Wendy Carolina Gomez Ramirez, Rodulfo Ospina Torres


Thygater aethiops is a species of solitary bee with a neotropical distribution that has been adapted to live in urban environments. This species of bee presents a marked sexual dimorphism since the males have antenna almost as long as their body different from the females that present antenna with smaller size. In this work, placoid sensilla were studied, which are structures that appear in the antenna and are involved in the detection of substances both, for reproduction and for the search of food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between these sensory structures in the different sexes, for which males and females were captured. Later some body measures were taken such as fresh weight with abdomen and without it, since the weight could be modified by the stomach content; other measures were taken as the total antenna length and length of the flagellum and flagelomere. After negative imprints of the antenna were made using nail polish, the imprint was cut with a microblade and mounted onto a microscope slide. The placoid sensilla were visible on the imprint, so they were counted manually on the 100x objective lens of the optical microscope. Initially, the males presented a specific distribution pattern in two types of sensilla: trichoid and placoid, the trichoid were found aligned in the dorsal face of the antenna and the placoid were distributed along the entire antenna; that was different to the females since they did not present a distribution pattern the sensilla were randomly organized. It was obtained that the males, because they have a longer antenna, have a greater number of sensilla in relation to the females. Additionally, it was found that there was no relationship between the weight and the number of sensilla, but there was a positive relationship between the length of the antenna, the length of the flagellum and the number of sensilla. The relationship between the number of sensilla per unit area in each of the sexes was also calculated, which showed that, on average, males have 4.2 ± 0.38 sensilla per unit area and females present 2.2 ± 0.20 and likewise a significant difference between sexes. This dimorphism found may be related to the sexual behavior of the species, since it has been demonstrated that males are more adapted to the perception of substances related to reproduction than to the search of food.

Keywords: antenna, olfactory organ, sensilla, sexual dimorphism, solitary bees

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8 Building Mental Health Literacy in Pre-Service and in-Service Teacher Education Programs

Authors: Wendy Carr, Blye Frank


Many educators do not feel prepared to address the student mental health challenges they face in their schools, and they point to gaps in their teacher education programs. Meanwhile, approximately 20 percent of children and youth in many countries will develop a mental illness in their lifetime, many of those who require care do not obtain rapid access to the help they require. Studies in the last decade show that mental health literacy is making a difference in schools by improving students' knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking skills. Mental health literacy is defined as understanding how to obtain and maintain positive mental health; knowing about mental disorders and their treatments; decreasing stigma related to mental disorders, and enhancing help-seeking efficacy. How can we ensure that new (pre-service) teachers start their careers with a rudimentary level of mental health literacy and that practicing (in-service) teachers develop their knowledge and skills so that they, in turn, can support their students to become mental health literate Presenters will describe how they worked with colleagues across Canada to co-create a freely available, flexible, online curriculum resource to address this gap in teacher education and better prepare educators for today’s classrooms. They will also report on the results of two research studies that demonstrate the significant and sustained increases in understanding about mental health and mental illness, reductions in stigma and improvement in help-seeking attitudes. The presenters will describe how a mental health literacy curriculum has been integrated into a Canadian faculty of education’s teacher education program. Concurrently, their faculty has been instrumental in leading a provincial professional development strategy whereby almost every school district in the province has taken part in a cascading model based on preparing trainers of trainers. The goal of these sessions has been to improve mental health knowledge levels of teachers (and, in turn, their students), to improve attitudes and reduce stigma among students and staff, and to improve access to care for youth in need of services.

Keywords: improving access to mental health care, mental health education, teacher education, teacher professional development

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7 Increased Envy and Schadenfreude in Parents of Newborns

Authors: Ana-María Gómez-Carvajal, Hernando Santamaría-García, Mateo Bernal, Mario Valderrama, Daniela Lizarazo, Juliana Restrepo, María Fernanda Barreto, Angélica Parra, Paula Torres, Diana Matallana, Jaime Silva, José Santamaría-García, Sandra Baez


Higher levels of oxytocin are associated with better performance on social cognition tasks. However, higher levels of oxytocin have also been associated with increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. Considering these antecedents, this study aims to explore social emotions (i.e., envy and schadenfreude) and other components of social cognition (i.e. ToM and empathy), in women in the puerperal period and their respective partners, compared to a control group of men and women without children or partners. Control women should be in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or taking oral contraceptives as they allow oxytocin levels to remain stable. We selected this population since increased levels of oxytocin are present in both mothers and fathers of newborn babies. Both groups were matched by age, sex, and education level. Twenty-two parents of newborns (11 women, 11 men) and 15 controls (8 women, 7 men) performed an experimental task designed to trigger schadenfreude and envy. In this task, each participant was shown a real-life photograph and a description of two target characters matched in age and gender with the participant. The task comprised two experimental blocks. In the first block, participants read 15 sentences describing fortunate events involving either character. After reading each sentence, participants rated the event in terms of how much envy they felt for the character (1=no envy, 9=extreme envy). In the second block, participants read and reported the intensity of their pleasure (schadenfreude, 1=no pleasure, 9=extreme pleasure) in response to 15 unfortunate events happening to the characters. Five neutral events were included in each block. Moreover, participants were assessed with ToM and empathy tests. Potential confounding variables such as general cognitive functioning, stress levels, hours of sleep and depression symptoms were also measured. Results showed that parents of newborns showed increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. These effects are not explained by any confounding factor. Moreover, no significant differences were found in ToM or empathy tests. Our results offer unprecedented evidence of specific differences in envy and schadenfreude levels in parents of newborns. Our findings support previous studies showing a negative relationship between oxytocin levels and negative social emotions. Further studies should assess the direct relationship between oxytocin levels in parents of newborns and the performance in social emotions tasks.

Keywords: envy, empathy, oxytocin, schadenfreude, social emotions, theory of mind

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6 Level of Understanding of the Catholic Doctrines in Relation to the Way of Life of Ignatian Graduates

Authors: Maria Wendy Mendoza-Solomo


The study assessed the level of understanding of catholic doctrines in relation to the way of life of Ignatian graduates of Ateneo de Naga University (ADNU). It was conducted to find out if ADNU is successful in leading their students to a deeper moral understanding of the world centered on Jesus Christ through their curriculum, academic programs, activities and practices. This study further evaluated if their graduates live out their Catholic commitment to Christ in their current way of life. It also determined the factors that affected their level of understanding of Catholic doctrines and their current way of life. The descriptive, qualitative, evaluative and correlational analyses determined the level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines and the current way of life of 390 graduates. It also correlated the level of understanding to moral life and worship. The factors that affected the graduates’ level of understanding and their current way of life were measured. A researcher-made instrument was distributed to the respondents either using the traditional way or the online survey to reach out graduates across the globe. Major findings were (1) The weighted mean of graduates’ level of understanding of Catholic doctrines was 4.63. (2) Along moral life, 4.07 while along worship, 3.83. (3) The Catholic doctrines and moral life had Pearson r value of 0.79. The doctrines and worship, 0.87; and worship and moral life, 0.89. (4) The understanding of the doctrines was affected highly by the teacher factor with 4.09 mean. The moral life and worship were affected highly by the teacher and technological factors both ranked 1.5 (4.04). (5) Along Catholic doctrines, the teacher factor had 0.90 r value; and environmental, -0.40. Along moral life, teacher had r value of -0.30; technological (-0.92), socio-economic (-0.93), political (-0.83), and environmental (-0.90). Along worship, the teacher had 0.36 Pearson r value, technological and socio-economic (-0.78), political (-0.73) and environmental (-0.72). Major conclusions were: (1) Graduates had very high level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines as summarized in the Creed which is grounded in the Sacred Scriptures. (2) They live out this Catholic commitment to Christ by obeying the Commandments very extensively but needed more participation in religious and parish activities. They have overwhelming spirituality and religiosity in terms of receiving of sacraments and sacramental practices except reading the Bible and reflecting on its passages. (3) The graduates’ level of understanding of the Catholic doctrines had very strong correlation with their current way of life. (4) Teacher, socio-economic, technological, environmental, and political factors significantly affected their understanding of the Catholic doctrines and their current way of life. (5) The teacher factor had very strong relationship with the doctrines; technological and political, weak; environmental, moderate; and socio-economic, very weak relationship. The teacher factor had weak relationship but the other factors had very strong relationship with moral life and strong relationship with worship.

Keywords: Catholic doctrines, Ignatian graduates, relationship, way of life

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5 Multi-Objective Optimization (Pareto Sets) and Multi-Response Optimization (Desirability Function) of Microencapsulation of Emamectin

Authors: Victoria Molina, Wendy Franco, Sergio Benavides, José M. Troncoso, Ricardo Luna, Jose R. PéRez-Correa


Emamectin Benzoate (EB) is a crystal antiparasitic that belongs to the avermectin family. It is one of the most common treatments used in Chile to control Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon. However, the sea lice acquired resistance to EB when it is exposed at sublethal EB doses. The low solubility rate of EB and its degradation at the acidic pH in the fish digestive tract are the causes of the slow absorption of EB in the intestine. To protect EB from degradation and enhance its absorption, specific microencapsulation technologies must be developed. Amorphous Solid Dispersion techniques such as Spray Drying (SD) and Ionic Gelation (IG) seem adequate for this purpose. Recently, Soluplus® (SOL) has been used to increase the solubility rate of several drugs with similar characteristics than EB. In addition, alginate (ALG) is a widely used polymer in IG for biomedical applications. Regardless of the encapsulation technique, the quality of the obtained microparticles is evaluated with the following responses, yield (Y%), encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading capacity (LC%). In addition, it is important to know the percentage of EB released from the microparticles in gastric (GD%) and intestinal (ID%) digestions. In this work, we microencapsulated EB with SOL (EB-SD) and with ALG (EB-IG) using SD and IG, respectively. Quality microencapsulation responses and in vitro gastric and intestinal digestions at pH 3.35 and 7.8, respectively, were obtained. A central composite design was used to find the optimum microencapsulation variables (amount of EB, amount of polymer and feed flow). In each formulation, the behavior of these variables was predicted with statistical models. Then, the response surface methodology was used to find the best combination of the factors that allowed a lower EB release in gastric conditions, while permitting a major release at intestinal digestion. Two approaches were used to determine this. The desirability approach (DA) and multi-objective optimization (MOO) with multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). Both microencapsulation techniques allowed to maintain the integrity of EB in acid pH, given the small amount of EB released in gastric medium, while EB-IG microparticles showed greater EB release at intestinal digestion. For EB-SD, optimal conditions obtained with MOO plus MCDM yielded a good compromise among the microencapsulation responses. In addition, using these conditions, it is possible to reduce microparticles costs due to the reduction of 60% of BE regard the optimal BE proposed by (DA). For EB-GI, the optimization techniques used (DA and MOO) yielded solutions with different advantages and limitations. Applying DA costs can be reduced 21%, while Y, GD and ID showed 9.5%, 84.8% and 2.6% lower values than the best condition. In turn, MOO yielded better microencapsulation responses, but at a higher cost. Overall, EB-SD with operating conditions selected by MOO seems the best option, since a good compromise between costs and encapsulation responses was obtained.

Keywords: microencapsulation, multiple decision-making criteria, multi-objective optimization, Soluplus®

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4 Dyadic Video Evidence on How Emotions in Parent Verbal Bids Affect Child Compliance in a British Sample

Authors: Iris Sirirada Pattara-Angkoon, Rory Devine, Anja Lindberg, Wendy Browne, Sarah Foley, Gabrielle McHarg, Claire Hughes


Introduction: The “Terrible Twos” is a phrase used to describe toddlers 18-30 months old. It characterizes a transition from high dependency to their caregivers in infancy to more autonomy and mastery of the body and environment. Toddlers at this age may also show more willfulness and stubbornness that could predict a future trajectory leading to conduct disorders. Thus, an important goal for this age group is to promote responsiveness to their caregivers (i.e., compliance). Existing literature tends to focus on praise to increase desirable child behavior. However, this relationship is not always straightforward as some studies have found no or negative association between praise and child compliance. Research suggests positive emotions and affection showed through body language (e.g., smiles) and actions (e.g., hugs, kisses) along with positive parent-child relationship can strengthen the praise and child compliance association. Nonetheless, few studies have examined the influences of positive emotionality within the speech. This is important as implementing verbal positive emotionality is easier than physical adjustments. The literature also tends not to include fathers in the study sample as mothers were traditionally the primary caregiver. However, as child-caring duties are increasing shared equally between mothers and fathers, it is important to include fathers within the study as studies have frequently found differences between female and male caregiver characteristics. Thus, the study will address the literary gap in two ways: 1. explore the influences of positive emotionality in parental speech and 2. include an equal sample of mothers and fathers. Positive emotionality is expected to positively correlate with and predict child compliance. Methodology: This study analyzed toddlers (18-24 months) in their dyadic interactions with mothers and fathers. A Duplo (block) task was used where parents had to work with their children to build the Duplo according to the given photo for four minutes. Then, they would be told to clean up the blocks. Parental positive emotionality in different speech types (e.g., bids, praises, affirmations) and child compliance were measured. Results: The study found that mothers (M = 28.92, SD = 12.01) were significantly more likely than fathers (M = 23.01, SD = 12.28) to use positive verbal emotionality in their speech, t(105) = 4.35, p< .001. High positive emotionality in bids during Duplo task and Clean Up was positively correlated with more child compliance in each task, r(273) = .35, p< .001 and r(264) = .58, p< .001, respectively. Overall, parental positive emotionality in speech significantly predicted child compliance, F(6, 218) = 13.33, p< .001, R² = .27) with emotionality in verbal bids (t = 6.20, p< .001) and affirmations (t = 3.12, p = .002) being significant predictors. Conclusion: Positive verbal emotions may be useful for increasing compliance in toddlers. This can be beneficial for compliance interventions as well as to the parent-child relationship quality through reduction of conflict and child defiance. As this study is correlational in nature, it will be important for future research to test the directional influence of positive emotionality within speech.

Keywords: child temperament, compliance, positive emotion, toddler, verbal bids

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3 Reproductive Biology and Lipid Content of Albacore Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) in the Western Indian Ocean

Authors: Zahirah Dhurmeea, Iker Zudaire, Heidi Pethybridge, Emmanuel Chassot, Maria Cedras, Natacha Nikolic, Jerome Bourjea, Wendy West, Chandani Appadoo, Nathalie Bodin


Scientific advice on the status of fish stocks relies on indicators that are based on strong assumptions on biological parameters such as condition, maturity and fecundity. Currently, information on the biology of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the Indian Ocean is scarce. Consequently, many parameters used in stock assessment models for Indian Ocean albacore originate largely from other studied stocks or species of tuna. Inclusion of incorrect biological data in stock assessment models would lead to inappropriate estimates of stock status used by fisheries manager’s to establish future catch allowances. The reproductive biology of albacore tuna in the western Indian Ocean was examined through analysis of the sex ratio, spawning season, length-at-maturity (L50), spawning frequency, fecundity and fish condition. In addition, the total lipid content (TL) and lipid class composition in the gonads, liver and muscle tissues of female albacore during the reproductive cycle was investigated. A total of 923 female and 867 male albacore were sampled from 2013 to 2015. A bias in sex-ratio was found in favour of females with fork length (LF) <100 cm. Using histological analyses and gonadosomatic index, spawning was found to occur between 10°S and 30°S, mainly to the east of Madagascar from October to January. Large females contributed more to reproduction through their longer spawning period compared to small individuals. The L50 (mean ± standard error) of female albacore was estimated at 85.3 ± 0.7 cm LF at the vitellogenic 3 oocyte stage maturity threshold. Albacore spawn on average every 2.2 days within the spawning region and spawning months from November to January. Batch fecundity varied between 0.26 and 2.09 million eggs and the relative batch fecundity (mean  standard deviation) was estimated at 53.4 ± 23.2 oocytes g-1 of somatic-gutted weight. Depending on the maturity stage, TL in ovaries ranged from 7.5 to 577.8 mg g-1 of wet weight (ww) with different proportions of phospholipids (PL), wax esters (WE), triacylglycerol (TAG) and sterol (ST). The highest TL were observed in immature (mostly TAG and PL) and spawning capable ovaries (mostly PL, WE and TAG). Liver TL varied from 21.1 to 294.8 mg g-1 (ww) and acted as an energy (mainly TAG and PL) storage prior to reproduction when the lowest TL was observed. Muscle TL varied from 2.0 to 71.7 g-1 (ww) in mature females without a clear pattern between maturity stages, although higher values of up to 117.3 g-1 (ww) was found in immature females. TL results suggest that albacore could be viewed predominantly as a capital breeder relying mostly on lipids stored before the onset of reproduction and with little additional energy derived from feeding. This study is the first one to provide new information on the reproductive development and classification of albacore in the western Indian Ocean. The reproductive parameters will reduce uncertainty in current stock assessment models which will eventually promote sustainability of the fishery.

Keywords: condition, size-at-maturity, spawning behaviour, temperate tuna, total lipid content

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