Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2904

Search results for: family and marital functioning

2904 Family and Marital Functioning during the Transition to Motherhood

Authors: Fei Wan Ngai

Abstract:

Background: Family and marital functioning has become an important public health issue because it is vital to child development and well-being. Objective: This study was designed to examine the changes in family and marital functioning among Chinese women during the transition to motherhood. Methods: A longitudinal design was used. A convenience sample of 202 Chinese childbearing women completed the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures during pregnancy, at 6 weeks and at 6 months postpartum. Results: The results showed that women experienced substantial decline in their family and marital functioning from pregnancy to 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the need for more attention to family and marital functioning among women after childbirth. Culturally relevant interventions should be developed to assist women in facing the challenges of new motherhood and achieving a better family and marital functioning.

Keywords: family and marital functioning, perinatal period, women

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2903 Examining the Relationship between Family Functioning and Perceived Self-Efficacy

Authors: Fenni Sim

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between family functioning and level of self-efficacy: how family functioning can potentially affect self-efficacy which will eventually lead to better clinical outcomes. The hypothesis was ‘Patients on haemodialysis with perceived higher family functioning are more likely to have higher perceived level of self-efficacy’. Methods: The study was conducted with a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative data collection of survey and semi-structured interview respectively. The General Self-Efficacy scale and SCORE-15 were self-administered by participants. The data will be analysed with correlation analysis method using Microsoft Excel. 79 patients were recruited for the study through random sampling. 6 participants whose results did not reflect the hypothesis were then recruited for the qualitative study. Interpretive phemenological analysis was then used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings: The hypothesis was accepted that higher family functioning leads to higher perceived self-efficacy. The correlation coefficient of -0.21 suggested a mild correlation between the two variables. However, only 4.6% of the variation in perceived self-efficacy is accounted by the variation in family functioning. The qualitative study extrapolated three themes that might explain the variations in the outliers: (1) level of physical functioning affects perceived self-efficacy, (2) instrumental support from family influenced perceived level of family functioning, and self-efficacy, (3) acceptance of illness reflects higher level of self-efficacy. Conclusion: While family functioning does have an impact on perceived self-efficacy, there are many intrapersonal and physical factors that may affect self-efficacy. The concepts of family functioning and self-efficacy are more appropriately seen as complementing each other to help a patient in managing his illness. Healthcare social workers can look at how family functioning is supporting the individual needs of patients with different trajectory of ESRD and the support we can provide to improve one’s self-efficacy.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, coping of illness, family functioning, self efficacy

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2902 Jordanian Men’s and Women’s Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence and Its Correlates with Family Functioning and Demographics

Authors: Fatmeh Alzoubi, Reem Ali

Abstract:

Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics (M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used. The results indicated that Jordanian men and women have a lower score of IPVAS, 40.06 (SD = 8.20), indicating lower acceptance of IPV compared with the literature. Family functioning was 3.12 (SD = 0.46), indicating more healthy families. Family functioning was negatively correlated with IPVAS scores (r = –.22, p = .00). All demographic variables showed small to moderate correlations with IPVAS. Education for both study participants and their spouses had a negative correlation with IPVAS (r = –.27, p = .00) and (r = –.20, p = .00), respectively. Male participants, individuals who were living with extended family, and those living in rural areas had significantly high IPVAS scores, indicating more accepting attitudes toward IPV. Practitioners should provide families with education on the methods of conflict resolution, effective communication within the family, problem-solving approaches, equal role distribution, and appropriate styles of establishing a family.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, Jordanian men and women’s health, attitudes, family functioning

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2901 Emotional Disclosure as Mediator Between Marital Satisfaction and Mental Health Problems in Women with Infertility

Authors: Sadia Saleem

Abstract:

Infertility is a global health concern that may have a long-lasting effect on the psychosocial functioning of an individual. Rich research evidence has shown that women with infertility are at greater risk of adverse psychological experiences than men. The culture plays a risk factor when it comes to infertility. Family is considered as a central focus of a collectivistic culture like Pakistan and having children is the key factor that determines the quality of a marital relationship, individual well-being and overall standing in the society. In this collectivistic cultural context, women usually get the blame and experience more psychological distress and social isolation. A total sample of 121 (M 28.17, SD 4.73) women with primary infertility selected through purposive sampling were tested using Emotional Disclosure Questionnaire, Couple Satisfaction Index and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. The results indicate that negative emotional disclosure positively mediates the relationship between marital satisfaction and mental health problems (p < .001) in women with primary infertility. The results are discussed in terms of psychosocial counseling and family psychoeducation in Pakistani collectivistic cultural context.

Keywords: infertility, couple satisfaction, emotional disclosure, mental health

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2900 The Subjective Experiences of First-Time Chinese Parents' Transition to Parenthood and the Impact on Their Marital Satisfaction

Authors: Amy Yee Kai Wan

Abstract:

The arrival of a new baby to first-time parents is an exciting and joyous occasion, yet, the daunting task of raising the baby and the uncertainty of how it will affect the lives of the couple present a great challenge to them. This study examines the causes of conflicts and needs of the new parents through a qualitative research of five pairs of new parents in Hong Kong. Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted to explore the changes babies brought to their marriages, sources of support they received and found important and assistance they felt would help with their transition to parenthood. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the commonalities and differences between the five couples’ subjective experiences. Narrative analysis was used to compare the experiences of two parents who are the under-functioning parent of the couple, to study the different strategies they employed in response to the over-functioning parent and to analyze how the marital relationships were affected. Four main themes emerged from the study: 1) Change and adjustment in marital relationship, 2) parents’ level of involvement, 3) support in childcaring, and 4) challenges faced by the parents. Results from the study indicated that father involvement in childcaring is an important element in mother’s marital satisfaction Father’s marital satisfaction is dependent upon the mother – her satisfaction with father involvement, which affects the mother’s marital satisfaction. Marital convergence and co-parenting alliance acted as moderators for marital satisfaction. Implications from the study include: i) offering programmes that improve couple relationship and enhance parenting efficacy in tandem to improve overall marital satisfaction, and ii) offering prenatal counselling services or provide education to new parents from prenatal to postnatal period that can help couples reduce discrepancies between expectations and realities of their marital relationship and parenting responsibilities after their baby is born.

Keywords: co-parenting alliance, father involvement, marital convergence, maternal gatekeeping, new parents, transition to parenthood

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2899 Relation Between Marital Adjustment and Parenting: The Moderating Effect of Children´s Temperament

Authors: Ester Ato, Maria Angeles Fernández-Vilar, Maria Dolores Galián

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to analyze the relation between children´s effortful control, marital adjustment and parenting practices in a sample of 345 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. Traditionally, the literature confirms that a higher level of marital conflict has been associated with less effective and less positive parenting, but there are few studies that include the effect that children´s effortful control exert to this relation. To measure marital adjustment, parenting practices and children’s temperament, parents were given the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Spanish version of the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory), and the TMCQ (Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire). The results confirmed that higher marital satisfaction predicted more positive parenting practices, whereas lower marital adjustment scores predicted less parenting support and control. Using a statistical modeling approach, we tested a moderation model that revealed the moderating role of effortful control in the relation between marital adjustment and parenting. Concretely, higher marital satisfaction predicts higher parenting communication and involvement, but only in children with low levels of effortful control. Therefore, a difficult temperament interferes in a less negative way in the family system when parents are satisfied and united. And a better self-regulated child predicts more effective parenting practice regardless of the parents´ marital satisfaction. The clinical implications of the present findings should be considered. Specifically, difficult children must be detected and evaluated in community settings, such as school or community programs, in order to take into account the marital adjustment and parenting practices of their parents, and to be able to design adequate family interventions and prevent future pathologizing patterns.

Keywords: effortful control, marital adjustment, parenting, moderation

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2898 Phases of Marital Conflict among Married Kuwaiti Women

Authors: Hend Almaseb

Abstract:

Gottman proposed a model of marital conflict with three phases: Agenda-Building, Arguing, and Negotiation. Among a sample of 520 married Kuwaiti women, this study examined the relationship between these phases and the following demographic variables: Level of education, Family income, Health, Occupation, and Tribal affiliation. In addition, the study 1) investigated the marital conflict phases the participants reported having experienced or are currently experiencing and 2) identified the variables that predict one of these conflict phases. The results showed a significant relationship between the following: 1) the Agenda-Building phase and Health; 2) the Arguing phase and Family income, Occupation, and Tribal Affiliation; and 3) the Negotiation phase and Level of education. In addition, a linear regression shows a substantial correlation between the two predictor variables (Level of education and Health problems) and the Agenda Building and Negotiation phases and 5) another substantial correlation between Family income and Arguing.

Keywords: clinical social work, Kuwait, marital conflict, women

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2897 Health Satisfaction and Family Impact of Parents of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ekhlas Al Gamal, Tony Long

Abstract:

The impact on the parents of caring for a child with cancer was intense and wide-ranging. A high level of distress and low level or resilience remains during treatment. Even completion of treatment can be a time of increased anxiety and stress for parents particularly with worries about recurrence or relapse. The purpose of this study to examine the associations between parental satisfactions with healthcare provided for their child and the impact of being a caregiver for a child with cancer. Methodology: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was employed using data from Arabic versions of self-report questionnaires which were administered to 113 parents with children with cancer in Jordan during 2015. Findings: the result indicated that Family relationship functioning was ranked as the highest (better functioning) domain while daily activities were ranked as the lowest (poorer functioning) domain. Parents were generally satisfied with the health care provided, but their emotional needs were not met adequately. Parents with better social functioning were more satisfied in all areas of healthcare satisfaction other than emotional needs and communication. Parents who had a child with more emotional and behavioural problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on the family and a poor level of family functioning. Conclusion and Significance: Nurses and other health care providers should emphasis on family centred approach rather than child centred approach.

Keywords: parents, children, cancer, Jordan

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2896 Women's Concerns in Disasters at Family Level in Iranian Context

Authors: Maryam Nakhaei, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Mitra Moodi, Leila Daddoust

Abstract:

Although individuals (men and women) experience disasters in different ways, because of important women’s roles in the family, we aim to shed more light on their issues in doing family. In this report, we present an overview of the main qualitative and quantitative findings of different projects have been conducted in the regions affected by disaster in Iran. This paper explores women’s needs and experiences after disaster at the family level in 'disaster response behavior', 'personal health' including reproductive health and needs of pregnant women, 'livelihood responsibilities', and 'marital relationships'. This clarification can help not only to ensure that their needs are adequately addressed but also to plan family based strategies which consider their strengths.

Keywords: disaster, family, women, Iran

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2895 Experiences of Marital Relationship of Middle-Aged Couples in Hong Kong: Implications for Services Interventions

Authors: Wai M. Shum

Abstract:

There was evidence that the change of marital quality satisfaction was related to the different stages of the family life cycle. Research studies have been largely based on western contexts, which found a curvilinear U-shaped trend in changes of marital satisfaction over the course of a marriage, but little is known about the marital experiences of Hong Kong couples. Through in-depth interviews, this qualitative study explored the marital relationship of middle-aged couples in a satisfying marriage and to identify how couples maintain a satisfying relationship in the local context. Findings from this study suggested twelve themes with some showing consistency with previous literature, such as communication, companionship, trust, and fidelity. The affective aspects of empathetic understanding and perceived empathy were found to have an enormous effect on couples’ bondedness. The high level of differentiation and security served as a basis for unconditional contribution, acceptance, and adjustment to unsolvable issues such that negative emotion would not be escalated. The manifestations of intimacy and commitment in the triangular theory of love were more frequently addressed than passion in striving for marital longevity in the local context. This study challenged the curvilinear trend of marital satisfaction throughout marriage, with couples showing different pathways of marital satisfaction. The study gave insights on martial enrichment, such as facilitating couples to disclose their vulnerabilities, desire for physical intimacy, and passion in the pursuit of enduring marriage instead of an emphasis on skills training on communication and conflict resolution.

Keywords: intimacy, marital relationship, marital satisfaction, middle-aged

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2894 Relational and Personal Variables Predicting Marital Satisfaction

Authors: Sezen Gulec, Bilge Uzun

Abstract:

Almost all of the world population marries at least once in their lifetime. Nevertheless, in reality, only half of all marriages last a lifetime. The most important factor in marriage to manage is the satisfaction that they obtain. It is reality that marital satisfaction does not only related to maintain the relationship but also related to the social and work relationships. In this respect, the purpose of the present research is to find the personal and relational factors predicted marital satisfaction. The sample including 378 (178 male and 200 females) married individuals were administered to marital life scale, multidimensional perfectionism scale, trait forgivingness scale, adjective based personality test and relationship happiness questionnaire. The findings revealed marital happiness, forgiveness and extravertedness and emotional inconsistency factors were found to be significant predictors of marital satisfaction.

Keywords: marital satisfaction, happiness, perfectionism, forgiveness, five factor personality

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2893 Functioning of a Temporarily Single Parent Family System Due to Migration from the Perspective of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

Abstract:

There is a definite lack – in Poland, as well as around the world – of empirical studies of families raising handicapped child, in which one parent migrates. In diagnostics of the functioning of such families emphasis should be placed not only on the difficulties, but most of all it should be indicated what possibilities are there for the family and how it overcomes the difficulties. Migration of a parent on the one hand is a chance to improve the family’s material situation. In certain circumstances this may only be an “escape” into work from the issues associated with the upbringing and rehabilitation of a handicapped child. The aim of the study was to learn the functioning of a temporarily single parent family system as a result of migration of a parent from the perspective of adolescents with cerebral palsy. The study was conducted in the year 2013 in the area of Eastern Poland. It involved an analysis of 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in an intellectual capacity) from families in which at least one of the parents migrates. The study incorporated the diagnostic survey method. These tools were used: Family Evaluation Scales (SOR) adapted for Poland by Andrzej Margasiński. The explorations in this study indicate, that 47% of studied temporarily single parent families are balanced models. This is evidence of the resources at the disposal of the family which, despite the disability of the child and temporary separation, is able to function properly. The conducted studies show, that 37% of temporarily single parent families are imbalanced models in the perception of adolescents with cerebral palsy. These families experience functional difficulties and require psychological and pedagogical support. There is a need for building skills related to effective coping with family stress. Especially considering, that families of an imbalanced type do not use the internal and external resources of the family system. Such a situation may deepen the disarrangement of family life. In intermediate families (16%) there are also temporary difficulties in functioning. Separation anxiety experienced by mothers may disrupt relations and introduce additional stress factors. For that reason it is important to provide support for women with difficulties coping with the emotions associated with raising handicapped adolescents and migratory separation.

Keywords: child with cerebral palsy, family, migration, parents

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2892 The Pursuit of Marital Sustainability Inspiring by Successful Matrimony of Two Distinguishable Indonesian Ethnics as a Learning Process

Authors: Mutiara Amalina Khairisa, Purnama Arafah, Rahayu Listiana Ramli

Abstract:

In recent years, so many cases of divorce increasingly occur. Betrayal in form of infidelity, less communication one another, economically problems, selfishness of two sides, intervening parents from both sides which frequently occurs in Asia, especially in Indonesia, the differences of both principles and beliefs, “Sense of Romantism” depletion, role confict, a large difference in the purpose of marriage,and sex satisfaction are expected as the primary factors of the causes of divorce. Every couple of marriage wants to reach happy life in their family but severe problems brought about by either of those main factors come as a reasonable cause of failure marriage. The purpose of this study is to find out how marital adjustment and supporting factors in ensuring the success of that previous marital adjusment are inseparable two things assumed as a framework can affect the success in marriage becoming a resolution to reduce the desires to divorce. Those two inseparable things are able to become an aspect of learning from the success of the different ethnics marriage to keep holding on wholeness.

Keywords: marital adjustment, marital sustainability, learning process, successful ethnicity differences marriage, basical cultural values

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2891 Marital Expectations, Marital Infidelity and Neuroticism as Predictors of Marital Conflict: Case Study of Igbo Spouses in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ann Ukachi Madukwe, Juliana Chinwendu Njoku

Abstract:

Marital conflict, conceptualized in this study as the ongoing lack of peace and satisfaction in a marital union which threatens marital stability, has become quite prevalent in modern Igbo communities. The frequent incidences of spousal battery, spousal sexual abuse, domestic violence, long term separation and in some cases outright divorce are worrisome indicators of the endemic challenge marital conflict poses in most Igbo communities. This study examined marital expectations, marital infidelity (self and spouse), and neuroticism as predictors of marital conflict. Marital expectation was described as a married person’s appraisal of how well their pre-marital desires were being met by their spouses and within the marriage relationship. It assessed different aspects of personal and interpersonal positive outcomes in a marital union. Marital infidelity referred to the likelihood that married individuals or their spouses could have indulged in intimate activities like passionate kisses and romantic dates with someone other than their spouses. Participants reported on themselves as well as their spouses. The last predictor variable neuroticism was measured as a personality trait that addresses issues of emotional instability especially as it relates to a person’s interactions. Neurotic persons were considered to have high emotional reactivity; they would have strong emotional response to issues that emotionally stable persons might overlook. Participants comprised of Igbo male and female spouses selected from Imo state using randomized cluster sampling method. The study utilized the cross sectional survey design and Stepwise linear multiple regression for data analyses. Findings showed that though marital infidelity by spouse was generally below average and spouses marital expectations were being fulfilled; marital expectations followed by marital infidelity – spouse proved to be significant predictors of marital conflict. Marital conflict reduced as marital expectations got fulfilled and increased as the level of likelihood of marital infidelity by the spouse increased. Spouses in this study also reported an increased level of neuroticism, with males being more neurotic than females. Neuroticism was found to be the least significant predictor of marital conflict compared to marital expectations and marital infidelity – spouse. Finally, the article made recommendations to spouses and marital counsellors regarding especially the need to manage the neurotic tendencies of Igbo spouses.

Keywords: Igbo spouses, marital conflict, marital expectations, Nigeria

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2890 Marital Status and Happiness among Employed People in Thailand

Authors: Sirinan Kittisuksathit, Wannee Hutaphat

Abstract:

This paper investigates employed people in relation to family happiness, work-life balance, and individual happiness. The employed people in this study are categorized by their marital statuses namely, single, married and living together, married and living apart, cohabitation, and divorced. The 13,906 sample of employed people collected in 2015 by using the Self-Administered Questionnaire. The analysis utilizes ANOVA to analyze the differences between group means and their associated procedures. The findings show that two types of employed people are more likely to obtain the highest average happiness scores: married and living together, and cohabitation. The two groups are subsequently followed by single employed people, and divorced employed people. The lowest average happiness scores were achieved by employed people who are married and living apart.

Keywords: employed people, happiness, marital status, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2889 Relationship Demise After Having Children: An Analysis of Abandonment and Nuclear Family Structure vs. Supportive Community Cultures

Authors: John W. Travis

Abstract:

There is an epidemic of couples separating after a child is born into a family, generally with the father leaving emotionally or physically in the first few years after birth. This separation creates high levels of stress for both parents, especially the primary parent, leaving her (or him) less available to the infant for healthy attachment and nurturing. The deterioration of the couple’s bond leaves parents increasingly under-resourced, and the dependent child in a compromised environment, with an increased likelihood of developing an attachment disorder. Objectives: To understand the dynamics of a couple, once the additional and extensive demands of a newborn are added to a nuclear family structure, and to identify effective ways to support all members of the family to thrive. Qualitative studies interviewed men, women, and couples after pregnancy and the early years as a family, regarding key destructive factors, as well as effective tools for the couple to retain a strong bond. In-depth analysis of a few cases, including the author’s own experience, reveal deeper insights about subtle factors, replicated in wider studies. Using a self-assessment survey, many fathers report feeling abandoned, due to the close bond of the mother-baby unit, and in turn, withdrawing themselves, leaving the mother without support and closeness to resource her for the baby. Fathers report various types of abandonment, from his partner to his mother, with whom he did not experience adequate connection as a child. The study identified a key destructive factor to be unrecognized wounding from childhood that was carried into the relationship. The study culminated in the naming of Male Postpartum Abandonment Syndrome (MPAS), describing the epidemic in industrialized cultures with the nuclear family as the primary configuration. A growing family system often collapses without a minimum number of adult caregivers per infant, approximately four per infant (3.87), which allows for proper healing and caretaking. In cases with no additional family or community beyond one or two parents, the layers of abandonment and trauma result in the deterioration of a couple’s relationship and ultimately the family structure. The solution includes engaging community in support of new families. The study identified (and recommends) specific resources to assist couples in recognizing and healing trauma and disconnection at multiple levels. Recommendations include wider awareness and availability of resources for healing childhood wounds and greater community-building efforts to support couples for the whole family to thrive.

Keywords: abandonment, attachment, community building, family and marital functioning, healing childhood wounds, infant wellness, intimacy, marital satisfaction, relationship quality, relationship satisfaction

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2888 Mediation Effect of Mindful Parenting on Parental Self Efficacy and Parent-Child Attachment in Hong Kong

Authors: Man Chung Chu

Abstract:

In the dynamic family interaction, parental self-efficacy is connected with parent-child attachment. Parental self-efficacy and its corresponding behavior played an influential role in the lifespan development of the child. Recently, Mindful parenting is popularly addressed as it lightens parents’ awareness to their own thoughts feelings and behaviors by adapting a nonjudgmental attitude in the present moment being with the child. The effectiveness of mindful parent is considerably significant in enhancing parent-child relationship as well as family functioning. Parenting in early developmental stage is always challenging and essential for later growth, however, literature is rarely exploring the mediation of mindful parenting on the effect of parent self-efficacy on parent-child attachment in preschoolers’ families. The mediation effect of the research shed light on how mindful parenting should head, where parental self-efficacy training should be incorporated together with mindful family program in attempt to yield the best outcome in the family of young-aged children. Two hundred and eight (208) parents, of two to six years old children, were participated in the study and results supported the significance in the mediator effect of mindful parenting in both facets, i.e. Parent-focused - ‘Mindful Discipline’ and Child-focused – ‘Being in the moment with the child’ where parental self-efficacy is a significant predictor of mindful parenting. The implication of the result suggests that mindful parenting would be a therapeutic framework in promoting family functioning and child’s well-being, it would also be a ‘significant helping hand’ in maintaining continuous secure attachment relationship and growing their mindful children in a family.

Keywords: mediation effect, mindful parenting, parental self efficacy, parent-child attachment, preschoolers

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2887 Mediating Role of Burnout in Personality and Marital Satisfaction of Single and Dual Career Couples

Authors: Sara Subhan

Abstract:

Married couples tend to experience various bio-psycho-social issues that may eventually impact the quality of their marital relationship and mental wellbeing. This study aimed to find out the comparison between the single and dual-career couples’ personality, burnout and marital satisfaction. For that purpose Big Five Inventory, Couple Satisfaction Inventory, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure the relationship between variables. The main study was carried out on 200 samples of single and dual-earner couples with the age range of 23-52 (mean= 34.58; standard deviation= 6.51) by using a purposive sampling strategy. The results showed that burnout tendencies like exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy are playing a mediation role between the personality and marital satisfaction of both single and dual career couples. Also, the results revealed that dual-career couples are more likely to have marital satisfaction as compared to single career couples. The results were further discussed in the light of its implications in its cultural context and counseling areas.

Keywords: dual career couples, marital satisfaction, burnout tendencies, personality

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2886 Psychological Nano-Therapy: A New Method in Family Therapy

Authors: Siamak Samani, Nadereh Sohrabi

Abstract:

Psychological nano-therapy is a new method based on systems theory. According to the theory, systems with severe dysfunctions are resistant to changes. Psychological nano-therapy helps the therapists to break this ice. Two key concepts in psychological nano-therapy are nano-functions and nano-behaviors. The most important step in psychological nano-therapy in family therapy is selecting the most effective nano-function and nano-behavior. The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of psychological nano-therapy for family therapy. One group pre-test-post-test design (quasi-experimental Design) was applied for research. The sample consisted of ten families with severe marital conflict. The important character of these families was resistance for participating in family therapy. In this study, sending respectful (nano-function) text massages (nano-behavior) with cell phone were applied as a treatment. Cohesion/respect sub scale from self-report family processes scale and family readiness for therapy scale were used to assess all family members in pre-test and post-test. In this study, one of family members was asked to send a respectful text massage to other family members every day for a week. The content of the text massages were selected and checked by therapist. To compare the scores of families in pre-test and post-test paired sample t-test was used. The results of the test showed significant differences in both cohesion/respect score and family readiness for therapy between per-test and post-test. The results revealed that these families have found a better atmosphere for participation in a complete family therapy program. Indeed, this study showed that psychological nano-therapy is an effective method to make family readiness for therapy.

Keywords: family therapy, family conflicts, nano-therapy, family readiness

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2885 Physical Health, Depression and Related Factors for Elementary School Students in Seoul, South Korea

Authors: Kyung-Sook Bang

Abstract:

Background: The health status of school-age children has a great influence on their growth and life-long health. The purposes of this study were to identify physical and mental health status of late school-age children in Seoul, South Korea and to investigate the related factors for their health. Methods: After gaining the approval from Institutional Review Board (IRB), a cross-sectional study was conducted with elementary students in grade 4 or 5. Questionnaires were distributed to eight elementary schools located different regions of Seoul in November, 2016, and 302 participants were finally included. From all participants, informed consents from the parents, and assents from children were received. Children's socioeconomic status, family functioning, peer relations, physical health symptoms, and depression were measured with self-reported questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson’s correlations, and multiple regression. Results: Children's physical health symptoms and depression were not significantly different, and only their peer relations were significantly different according to their socioeconomic status (t=-3.93, p<.001). Depression showed significant positive correlation with physical health symptoms (r=.720, p<.001) and negative correlations with family functioning (r=-.428, p<.001) and peer relations (r=-.775, p<.001). The multiple regression model, which explained 73.5% of variance, showed peer relations (r2 =.604), physical health symptoms (r2 change=.125), and family functioning (r2 change=.005) as significant predictors for depression. Only the peer relations was significant predictor for their physical health symptoms and explained 50.6% of it. Conclusions: The peer relations was the most important factor in their physical and mental health at this age, and it can be affected by their socioeconomic status. Nursing interventions for promoting social relations and family functioning are required to improve children’s physical and mental health, especially for vulnerable population.

Keywords: child, depression, health, peer relation

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2884 A Study on How Newlyweds Handle the Difference with Parents on Wedding Arrangements and Its Implication for Services in Hong Kong

Authors: K. M. Yuen

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This research examined the literature review of wedding preparation’s challenges and its developmental tasks of family transition under family life cycle. Five interviewees were invited to share their experiences on the differences with their parents in regard to wedding preparations and coping strategies. Some coping strategies and processes were highlighted for facilitating the family to achieve the developmental tasks during the wedding preparation. However, those coping strategies and processes may only act as the step and the behavior, while “concern towards parents” was found to be the essential element behind these behaviors. In addition to pre-marital counseling, a developmental group was suggested to develop under the framework of family life cycle and its related coping strategies on working with the newlyweds who encountered intergenerational differences in regard to their wedding preparations.

Keywords: wedding preparation, difference, parents, family life cycle, developmental tasks, coping strategies, process

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2883 The Effectiveness of Teaching Emotional Intelligence on Reducing Marital Conflicts and Marital Adjustment in Married Students of Tehran University

Authors: Elham Jafari

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emotional intelligence training on reducing marital conflict and marital adjustment in married students of the University of Tehran. This research is an applied type in terms of purpose and a semi-experimental design of pre-test-post-test type with the control group and with follow-up test in terms of the data collection method. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all married students of the University of Tehran. In this study, 30 married students of the University of Tehran were selected by convenience sampling method as a sample that 15 people in the experimental group and 15 people in the control group were randomly selected. The method of data collection in this research was field and library. The data collection tool in the field section was two questionnaires of marital conflict and marital adjustment. To analyze the collected data, first at the descriptive level, using statistical indicators, the demographic characteristics of the sample were described by SPSS software. In inferential statistics, the statistical method used was the test of analysis of covariance. The results showed that the effect of the independent variable of emotional intelligence on the reduction of marital conflicts is statistically significant. And it can be inferred that emotional intelligence training has reduced the marital conflicts of married students of the University of Tehran in the experimental group compared to the control group. Also, the effect of the independent variable of emotional intelligence on marital adjustment was statistically significant. It can be inferred that emotional intelligence training has adjusted the marital adjustment of married students of the University of Tehran in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, marital conflicts, marital compatibility, married students

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2882 The Affect of Ethnic Minority People: A Prediction by Gender and Marital Status

Authors: A. K. M. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yusuf Mahmud, S. H. Mahmud

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The study aimed to investigate whether the affect (experience of feeling or emotion) of ethnic minority people can be predicted by gender and marital status. Toward this end, positive affect and negative affect of 103 adult indigenous persons were measured. Analysis of data in multiple regressions demonstrated that both gender and marital status are significantly associated with positive affect (Gender: β=.318, p < .001; Marital status: β=.201, p < .05), but not with negative affect. Results indicated that the indigenous males have 0.32 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to the indigenous females and that married individuals have 0.20 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to their unmarried counterparts. These findings advance our understanding that gender and marital status inequalities in the experience of emotion are not specific to the mainstream society; rather it is a generalized picture of all societies. In general, men possess more positive affect than females; married persons possess more positive affect than the unmarried persons.

Keywords: positive affect, negative affect, ethnic minority, gender, marital status

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2881 Associations between Parental Marital Quality and Sexual Behaviors among 50,000 Chinese University Students

Authors: Jiashu Shen

Abstract:

With the increase in the prevalence of divorce, the impact of divorce on children’s sexual and reproductive health has received wide attention, while few studies have investigated parent marital relationship. This study aims to study the relation of both parent divorce and perceived parental marital relationship with children’s sexual behaviors among Chinese university or vocational college students. The study used data from “National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019”, an internet-based survey conducted from November 2019 to February 2020, in 241 universities or vocational colleges in China. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess the relationship of perceived parental marital relationship and parents’ divorce of distinct occurrence time with sexual intercourse, risky sexual behaviors, unintended health outcomes and sexual abuse. Among 51,124 university or vocational college students, those whose parents had divorced accounted for 10.72%. Better perceived parental relationship was associated with a lower likelihood to have sexual intercourse (male: OR: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.80-0.86; female: OR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.70-0.75), sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. Divorce was also found to be associated with higher risk of sexual abuse, risky sexual behaviors and unintended health outcomes. The findings highlight the importance of parental marital relationship and divorce in risky sexual behavior among young adults. The findings may provide implications on intervention programs targeting at children with divorced parents from an early stage.

Keywords: college students, divorce, family relationship, sexual behavior

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2880 Family Cohesion, Interpersonal Difficulties and Mental Health Problems in University Students

Authors: Narmeen Ali, Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Cohesion has an exact association with family functioning and enmeshment (togetherness) on one side and disengagement (separateness) on the other. Family cohesion can apprehend as a concerned association that family members have with each other and an affirmation of association inside the family. Family cohesion, assigned as the level of congruity or sympathetic or emotional attachment that relatives have toward each other, and it was seen to be associated with relational well-being and feeling of comfort in the young generation. The cross-sectional research design was used by the researcher to answer the research questions. A stratified sampling technique was used to collect the data from the participants. The data was collected equally from the males and females of different universities and different departments of Lahore, Pakistan. A self-report questionnaire was developed of given literature and which were found to be associated with family cohesion, interpersonal difficulties and mental health problems of university students. The demographic information included age, gender, university’s name, class, family system, parent’s education, parent’s profession, number of siblings and birth order. Correlation shows the negative relation between balanced cohesion and interpersonal difficulties, while interpersonal difficulties have a highly positive relationship with mental health problems. Mental health problems also have a negative correlation with the balanced family cohesion. Gender, family system, depression and anxiety are the significant predictors of interpersonal difficulties scale in university students. And gender showed a significant difference regarding family cohesion and interpersonal difficulty scale, as women reported more interpersonal difficulties than men.

Keywords: family cohesion, interpersonal difficulties, mental health problems, university students

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2879 Analysing Representations of ‘Leftover’ Women in Chinese Media: Taking the Film ‘The Last Woman Standing’ and ‘I Do’ as Examples

Authors: Ting Li Liu

Abstract:

‘Leftover woman’ or ‘3S’ woman is the term used to describe a well-educated, high income, independent woman who is single and never married around 30 years in Chinese society. With the naming of this demographic of ‘leftover women’, their family, dating culture, mate selection and marriage attract public concern. Massive media representations of ‘leftover women’ occur daily; the research aims to present several media representations of women’s anxiety about their singlehood and related marital issues around thirty. The research triangulates two areas of media representation of ‘leftover women’: films and audience reviews on ‘Douban Movie’ website. Drawing on traditional media studies, Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis combined with multimodal techniques is applied to the research to analyze the representations of ‘leftover women’ and their implications for marital culture in China, in conjunction with a feminist perspective. The conference paper will discuss two case studies: the film ‘The last woman standing’ and ‘I Do’. Paying attention to different aspects of ‘leftover women’, the research aims to re-examine the representations of ‘leftover women’ in selected scenes, such as their age anxiety, family, marriage, dating process, careers, etc. The paper also includes public beliefs about ‘leftover women’ from online audience reviews. In conclusion, the emergence of ‘leftover women’ is a reflection of Chinese tradition’s impact on people’s lives and new changes in Chinese families and their attitude to marriage.

Keywords: leftover women, marriage, family, media culture, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
2878 Barriers to Marital Expectation among Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Oyo State

Authors: Adebomi M. Oyewumi, Sunday Amaize

Abstract:

The study was designed to examine the barriers to marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred participants made up forty-four (44) males and fifty-six (56) females, all with varying degrees of hearing impairment. Eight research questions were raised and answered. The instrument used was Marital Expectations Scale with reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tools of frequency count and simple percentage as well as inferential statistics tools of T-TEST and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship existing among the main identified barriers (environmental barrier, communication barrier, hearing loss, unemployment and poor sexuality education) to the marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment. The joint contribution of the independent variables (identified barriers) to the dependent variable (marital expectations) was significant, F = 5.842, P < 0.05, accounting for about 89% of the variance. The relative contribution of the identified barriers to marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment is as follows: environmental barrier (β = 0.808, t = 5.176, P < 0.05), communication barrier (β = 0.533, t = 3.305, P < 0.05), hearing loss (β = 0.550, t = 2.233, P < 0.05), unemployment (β = 0.431, t = 2.102, P < 0.05), poor sexuality education (β = 0.361, t = 1.985, P < 0.05). Environmental barrier proved to be the most potent contributor to the poor marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that society dismantles the nagging environmental barrier through positive identification with individuals suffering from hearing impairment. In this connection, members of society should change their negative attitudes and do away with all the wrong notions about the marital ability of individuals with hearing impairment.

Keywords: environmental barrier, hearing impairment, marriage, marital expectations

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2877 Parents of Mentally Disabled Children in Iran: A Study of Their Parenting Stress Levels and Mental Health

Authors: Mohsen Amiri

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating the relationship between familial functioning, child characteristics, demographic variables and parenting stress and mental health among parents of children with mental disabilities. 200 parents (130 mothers and 70 fathers) were studied and they completed the Parenting Stress Index, General Health Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and demographic questionnaires for parents and children. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis showed that child characteristics, familial functioning and parents demographic factors could predict 8, 4 and 17 percent of variance in parental stress and 3.6, 16 and 10 percent of variance in mental health, respectively. Familial functioning, child characteristics and parental demographic variables correlated with mental health and parental stress and could predict them.

Keywords: parenting stress, mental health, mentally disabled children, familial functioning, demographic variables

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2876 Well-being of Lagos Urban Mini-bus Drivers: The Influence of Age and Marital Status

Authors: Bolajoko I. Malomo, Maryam O. Yusuf

Abstract:

Lagos urban mini-bus drivers play a critical role in the transportation sector. The current major mode of transportation within Lagos metropolis remains road transportation and this confirms the relevance of urban mini-bus drivers in transporting the populace to their various destinations. Other modes of transportation such as the train and waterways are currently inadequate. Various threats to the well-being of urban bus drivers include congested traffic typical of modern day lifestyles, dwindling financial returns due to long hours in traffic, fewer hours of sleep, inadequate diet, time pressure, and assaults related to fare disputes. Several health-related problems have been documented to be associated with urban bus driving. For instance, greater rates of hypertension, obesity and cholesterol level has been reported. Research studies are yet to identify the influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers in Lagos metropolis. A study of this nature is necessary as it is culturally perceived in Nigeria that older and married people are especially influenced by family affiliation and would behave in ways that would project positive outcomes. The study sample consisted of 150 urban mini-bus drivers who were conveniently sampled from six (6) different terminuses where their journey begins and terminates. The well-being questionnaire was administered to participants. The criteria for inclusion in the study included the ability to read in English language and the confirmation that interested participants were on duty and suited to be driving mini-buses. Due to the nature of the job of bus driving, the researcher administered the questionnaires on participants who were free and willing to respond to the survey. All participants were males of various age groups and of different marital statuses. Results of analyses conducted revealed no significant influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers. This indicates that the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers is not influenced by age nor marital status. The findings of this study have cultural implications. It negates the popularly held belief that older and married people care more about their well-being than younger and single people. It brings to fore the need to also identify and consider other factors when certifying people for the job of urban bus driving.

Keywords: age, Lagos metropolis, marital status, well-being of urban mini bus drivers

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
2875 Predicting Marital Burnout Based on Irrational Beliefs and Sexual Dysfunction of Couples

Authors: Elnaz Bandeh

Abstract:

This study aimed to predict marital burnout based on irrational beliefs and sexual dysfunction of couples. The research method was descriptive-correlational, and the statistical population included all couples who consulted to counseling clinics in the fall of 2016. The sample consisted of 200 people who were selected by convenience sampling and answered the Ahwaz Irrational Beliefs Questionnaire, Pines Couple Burnout, and Hudson Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using regression coefficient. The results of regression analysis showed that there was a linear relationship between irrational beliefs and couple burnout and dimensions of helplessness toward change, expectation of approval from others, and emotional irresponsibility were positive and significant predictors of couple burnout. However, after avoiding the problem of power, it was not a significant predictor of marital dissatisfaction. There was also a linear relationship between sexual dysfunction and couple burnout, and sexual dysfunction was a positive and significant predictor of couple burnout. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that irrational beliefs and sexual dysfunction play a role in couple dysfunction.

Keywords: couple burnout, irrational beliefs, sexual dysfunction, marital relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 26