Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5300

Search results for: engine efficiency

5300 Determination of Optimum Torque of an Internal Combustion Engine by Exergy Analysis

Authors: Veena Chaudhary, Rakesh P. Gakkhar


In this study, energy and exergy analysis are applied to the experimental data of an internal combustion engine operating on conventional diesel cycle. The experimental data are collected using an engine unit which enables accurate measurements of fuel flow rate, combustion air flow rate, engine load, engine speed and all relevant temperatures. First and second law efficiencies are calculated for different engine speed and compared. Results indicate that the first law (energy) efficiency is maximum at 1700 rpm whereas exergy efficiency is maximum and exergy destruction is minimum at 1900 rpm.

Keywords: diesel engine, exergy destruction, exergy efficiency, second law of thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
5299 Calculation and Comparison of a Turbofan Engine Performance Parameters with Various Definitions

Authors: O. Onal, O. Turan


In this paper, some performance parameters of a selected turbofan engine (JT9D) are analyzed. The engine is a high bypass turbofan engine which powers a wide-body aircraft and it produces 206 kN thrust force (thrust/weight ratio is 5.4). The objective parameters for the engine include calculation of power, specific fuel consumption, specific thrust, engine propulsive, thermal and overall efficiencies according to the various definitions given in the literature. Furthermore, in the case study, wasted energy from the exhaust is calculated at the maximum power setting (i.e. take off phase) for the engine.

Keywords: turbofan, power, efficiency, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
5298 Modeling and Optimization of Performance of Four Stroke Spark Ignition Injector Engine

Authors: A. A. Okafor, C. H. Achebe, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. G. Ozoegwu


The performance of an engine whose basic design parameters are known can be predicted with the assistance of simulation programs into the less time, cost and near value of actual. This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine. The essence of this research work is to develop a mathematical model for the analysis of engine performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine before embarking on full scale construction, this will ensure that only optimal parameters are in the design and development of an engine and also allow to check and develop the design of the engine and it’s operation alternatives in an inexpensive way and less time, instead of using experimental method which requires costly research test beds. To achieve this, equations were derived which describe the performance parameters (sfc, thermal efficiency, mep and A/F). The equations were used to simulate and optimize the engine performance of the model for various engine speeds. The optimal values obtained for the developed bivariate mathematical models are: sfc is 0.2833kg/kwh, efficiency is 28.77% and a/f is 20.75.

Keywords: bivariate models, engine performance, injector engine, optimization, performance parameters, simulation, spark ignition

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
5297 The Effect of Mean Pressure on the Performance of a Low-Grade Heat-Driven Thermoacoustic Cooler

Authors: Irna Farikhah


Converting low-grade waste heat into useful energy such as sound energy which can then be used to generate acoustic power in a thermoacoustic engine has become an attracting issue for researchers. The generated power in thermoacoustic engine can be used for driving a thermoacoustic cooler when they are installed in a tube. This cooler system can be called as a heat-driven thermoacoustic cooler. In this study, low heating temperature of the engine is discussed. In addition, having high efficiency of the whole cooler is also essential. To design a thermoacoustic cooler having high efficiency with using low-grade waste heat for the engine, the effect of mean pressure is investigated. By increasing the mean pressure, the heating temperature to generate acoustic power can be decreased from 557 °C to 300 °C. Moreover, the efficiency of the engine and cooler regenerators attain 67% and 47% of the upper limit values, respectively and 49% of the acoustical work generated by the engine regenerator is utilized in the cooler regenerator. As a result, the efficiency of the whole cooler becomes 15% of the upper limit value.

Keywords: cooler, mean pressure, performance, thermoacoustic

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
5296 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin


The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: diesel engine, dual fuel diesel engine, emission reduction, technical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
5295 Energy Efficiency Improvement of Excavator with Independent Metering Valve by Continuous Mode Changing Considering Engine Fuel Consumption

Authors: Sang-Wook Lee, So-Yeon Jeon, Min-Gi Cho, Dae-Young Shin, Sung-Ho Hwang


Hydraulic system of excavator gets working energy from hydraulic pump which is connected to output shaft of engine. Recently, main control valve (MCV) which is composed of several independent metering valve (IMV) has been introduced for better energy efficiency of the hydraulic system so that fuel efficiency of the excavator can be improved. Excavator with IMV has 5 operating modes depending on the quantity of regeneration flow. In this system, the hydraulic pump is controlled to supply demanded flow which is needed to operate each mode. Because the regenerated flow supply energy to actuators, the hydraulic pump consumes less energy to make same motion than one that does not regenerate flow. The horse power control is applied to the hydraulic pump of excavator for maintaining engine start under a heavy load and this control makes the flow of hydraulic pump reduced. When excavator is in complex operation such as loading or unloading soil, the hydraulic pump discharges small quantity of working fluid in high pressure. At this operation, the engine of excavator does not run at optimal operating line (OOL). The engine needs to be operated on OOL to improve fuel efficiency and by controlling hydraulic pump the engine can drive on OOL. By continuous mode changing of IMV, the hydraulic pump is controlled to make engine runs on OOL. The simulation result of this study shows that fuel efficiency of excavator with IMV can be improved by considering engine OOL and continuous mode changing algorithm.

Keywords: continuous mode changing, engine fuel consumption, excavator, fuel efficiency, IMV

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5294 ANSYS Investigation on Stability and Performance of a Solar Driven Inline Alpha Stirling Engine

Authors: Joseph Soliman, Youssef Attia, Khairy Megalla


The stable operation of an inline Stirling engine will be achieved when both engine configurations and operating conditions are optimum. This paper presents stability and performance investigation of an inline Stirling engine using ANSYS. Dynamic motion of engine pistons such as the displacer and the power piston are both obtained. For engine design, the optimum parameters are given such as engine specifications, engine characteristics and working conditions to yield the maximum efficiency and reliability. The prototype was built and tested and it is used as a validation case. The comparison of both experimental and simulation results are provided and discussed. Results were found to be encouraging to initiate a Stirling engine project for 3 kW power output. The working fluids are air, hydrogen, nitrogen and helum.

Keywords: stirling engine, solar energy, new energy, dynamic motion

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5293 An Approach towards Elementary Investigation on HCCI Technology

Authors: Jitendra Sharma


Here a Homogeneous Charge is used as in a spark-ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine. HCCI has a homogeneous charge and have no problems associated with soot and Nox but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) values with HCCI. The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an attractive technology because of its high efficiency and low emissions. However, HCCI lakes a direct combustion trigger making control of combustion timing challenging, especially during transients. To aid in HCCI engine control we present a simple model of the HCCI combustion process valid over a range of intake pressures, intake temperatures, equivalence ratios and engine speeds. HCCI a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low Knox and particulate matter emissions. The homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising new engine technology that combines elements of the diesel and gasoline engine operating cycles. HCCI as a way to increase the efficiency of the gasoline engine. The attractive properties are increased fuel efficiency due to reduced throttling losses, increased expansion ratio and higher thermodynamic efficiency. With the advantages there are some mechanical limitations to the operation of the HCCI engine. The implementation of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to gasoline engines is constrained by many factors. The main drawback of HCCI is the absence of direct combustion timing control. Therefore all the right conditions for auto ignition have to be set before combustion starts. This paper describes the past and current research done on HCCI engine. Many research got considerable success in doing detailed modeling of HCCI combustion. This paper aims at studying the fundamentals of HCCI combustion, the strategy to control the limitation of HCCI engine.

Keywords: HCCI, diesel engine, combustion, elementary investigation

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5292 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, V. R. Sanal Kumar


In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine , alpha stirling engine , beta double piston stirling engine , electricity from stirling engine

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5291 In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery of an I. C. Engine Using Water Injection

Authors: Jayakrishnan U.


A concept of adding two strokes to a four stroke Otto or Diesel engine cycle presented here for the waste heat recovery in a four stroke internal combustion engine. Four stroke Diesel cycle and Otto cycle engines have very low thermal efficiency due to high amount of energy loss in exhaust and also on the cooling of the engine. It is estimated about 35 percent of fuel energy is lost in exhaust of engine and 30 percent in cooling of engine. So by modifying a four-stroke Otto or Diesel engine by adding two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle is presented here. Water injection is used to get an additional power stroke by partial compression of the exhaust gases at the end of third stroke in a four stroke I.C.Engine. It is the conversion of a four-stroke cycle to a six-stroke cycle. By taking a four stroke petrol engine of known dimensions, an ideal thermodynamic model is used to analyse and calculate the events of exhaust gas compression and following two strokes of water injection. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during exhaust stroke and analysing it on various points, an optimum amount of exhaust gas re-compression and amount of water injection can be found for maximizing efficiency and fuel economy. It is achieved by changing the exhaust valve timing and finding an optimum amount of exhaust re-compression, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). Specific fuel consumption of the engine also decreases increasing the fuel economy. The valve closing timings for maximum MEPsteam is limited by either 1 bar or dew point temperature of expansion gas or moisture mixture to avoid moisture formation. By modifying the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle by adding two water injection stroke has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, engine efficiency, six-stroke cycle, water injection, specific fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
5290 Comparative Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Fins Using Ansys Software

Authors: Aakash Kumar R. G., Anees K. Ahamed, Raj M. Mohan


Effective engine cooling can improve the engine’s life and efficacy. The design of the fin of the cylinder head and block determines the cooling mechanism of air cooled engine. The heat conduction takes place through the engine parts and convection of heat from the surface of the fins takes place with air as the heat transferring medium. The air surrounding the cooling fins helps in removal of heat built up by the air cooled engine. If the heat removal rate is inadequate, it will result in lower engine efficiency and high thermal stresses in the engine. The main drawback of the air cooled engine is the low heat transfer rate of the cooling fins .This work is based on scrutiny of previous researches that involves enhancing of heat transfer rate of cooling fins. The current research is about augmentation of heat transfer rate of longitudinal rectangular fin profiles by varying the length of the fin and diameter of holes on the fins. Thermal and flow analysis is done for two different models of fins. One is simple fin without holes and the other is perforated (consist of holes). It can be inferred from the research that the fins with holes have a higher fin efficiency than the fins without holes. The geometry of the fin is done in CREO. The heat transfer analysis is done using ANSYS software.

Keywords: fins, heat transfer, perforated fins, thermal analysis, thermal flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
5289 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare


Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
5288 Analysis of Fuel Efficiency in Heavy Construction Compaction Machine and Factors Affecting Fuel Efficiency

Authors: Amey Kulkarni, Paavan Shetty, Amol Patil, B. Rajiv


Fuel Efficiency plays a very important role in overall performance of an automobile. In this paper study of fuel efficiency of heavy construction, compaction machine is done. The fuel Consumption trials are performed in order to obtain the consumption of fuel in performing certain set of actions by the compactor. Usually, Heavy Construction machines are put to work in locations where refilling the fuel tank is not an easy task and also the fuel is consumed at a greater rate than a passenger automobile. So it becomes important to have a fuel efficient machine for long working hours. The fuel efficiency is the most important point in determining the future scope of the product. A heavy construction compaction machine operates in five major roles. These five roles are traveling, Static working, High-frequency Low amplitude compaction, Low-frequency High amplitude compaction, low idle. Fuel consumption readings for 1950 rpm, 2000 rpm & 2350 rpm of the engine are taken by using differential fuel flow meter and are analyzed. And the optimum RPM setting which fulfills the fuel efficiency, as well as engine performance criteria, is considered. Also, other factors such as rear end gears, Intake and exhaust restriction for an engine, vehicle operating techniques, air drag, Tribological aspects, Tires are considered for increasing the fuel efficiency of the compactor. The fuel efficiency of compactor can be precisely calculated by using Differential Fuel Flow Meter. By testing the compactor at different combinations of Engine RPM and also considering other factors such as rear end gears, Intake and exhaust restriction of an engine, vehicle operating techniques, air drag, Tribological aspects, The optimum solution was obtained which lead to significant improvement in fuel efficiency of the compactor.

Keywords: differential fuel flow meter, engine RPM, fuel efficiency, heavy construction compaction machine

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5287 Development of a Plug-In Hybrid Powertrain System with Double Continuously Variable Transmissions

Authors: Cheng-Chi Yu, Chi-Shiun Chiou


This study developed a plug-in hybrid powertrain system which consisted of two continuous variable transmissions. By matching between the engine, motor, generator, and dual continuous variable transmissions, this integrated power system can take advantages of the components. The hybrid vehicle can be driven by the internal combustion engine, or electric motor alone, or by these two power sources together when the vehicle is driven in hard acceleration or high load. The energy management of this integrated hybrid system controls the power systems based on rule-based control strategy to achieve better fuel economy. When the vehicle driving power demand is low, the internal combustion engine is operating in the low efficiency region, so the internal combustion engine is shut down, and the vehicle is driven by motor only. When the vehicle driving power demand is high, internal combustion engine would operate in the high efficiency region; then the vehicle could be driven by internal combustion engine. This strategy would operate internal combustion engine only in optimal efficiency region to improve the fuel economy. In this research, the vehicle simulation model was built in MATLAB/ Simulink environment. The analysis results showed that the power coupled efficiency of the hybrid powertrain system with dual continuous variable transmissions was better than that of the Honda hybrid system on the market.

Keywords: plug-in hybrid power system, fuel economy, performance, continuously variable transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
5286 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel


Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

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5285 Modeling and Simulation of Multiphase Evaporation in High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Ali Raza, Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Imran Shafi


Diesel engines are most efficient and reliable in terms of efficiency, reliability, and adaptability. Most of the research and development up till now have been directed towards High Speed Diesel Engine, for Commercial use. In these engines, objective is to optimize maximum acceleration by reducing exhaust emission to meet international standards. In high torque low speed engines, the requirement is altogether different. These types of engines are mostly used in Maritime Industry, Agriculture Industry, Static Engines Compressors Engines, etc. On the contrary, high torque low speed engines are neglected quite often and are eminent for low efficiency and high soot emissions. One of the most effective ways to overcome these issues is by efficient combustion in an engine cylinder. Fuel spray dynamics play a vital role in defining mixture formation, fuel consumption, combustion efficiency and soot emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the fuel spray characteristics and atomization process in high torque low speed diesel engine is of great importance. Evaporation in the combustion chamber has a rigorous effect on the efficiency of the engine. In this paper, multiphase evaporation of fuel is modeled for high torque low speed engine using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes. Two distinct phases of evaporation are modeled using modeling soft wares. The basic model equations are derived from the energy conservation equation and Naiver-Stokes equation. O’Rourke model is used to model the evaporation phases. The results obtained showed a generous effect on the efficiency of the engine. Evaporation rate of fuel droplet is increased with the increase in vapor pressure. An appreciable reduction in size of droplet is achieved by adding the convective heat effects in the combustion chamber. By and large, an overall increase in efficiency is observed by modeling distinct evaporation phases. This increase in efficiency is due to the fact that droplet size is reduced and vapor pressure is increased in the engine cylinder.

Keywords: diesel fuel, CFD, evaporation, multiphase

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5284 Geared Turbofan with Water Alcohol Technology

Authors: Abhinav Purohit, Shruthi S. Pradeep


In today’s world, aviation industries are using turbofan engines (permutation of turboprop and turbojet) which meet the obligatory requirements to be fuel competent and to produce enough thrust to propel an aircraft. But one can imagine increasing the work output of this particular machine by reducing the input power. In striving to improve technologies, especially to augment the efficiency of the engine with some adaptations, which can be crooked to new concepts by introducing a step change in the turbofan engine development. One hopeful concept is, to de-couple the fan with the help of reduction gear box in a two spool shaft engine from the rest of the machinery to get more work output with maximum efficiency by reducing the load on the turbine shaft. By adapting this configuration we can get an additional degree of freedom to better optimize each component at different speeds. Since the components are running at different speeds we can get hold of preferable efficiency. Introducing water alcohol mixture to this concept would really help to get better results.

Keywords: emissions, fuel consumption, more power, turbofan

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5283 Bench Tests of Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Aircraft Diesel Engine under Propeller Characteristics Conditions

Authors: A. Majczak, G. Baranski, K. Pietrykowski


Due to the growing popularity of light aircraft, it has become necessary to develop aircraft engines for this type of construction. One of engine system, designed to increase efficiency and reduce weight, is the engine with opposed pistons. In such an engine, the combustion chamber is formed by two pistons moving in one cylinder. Therefore, this type of engines run in a two-stroke cycle, so they have many advantages such as high power and torque, high efficiency, or a favorable power-to-weight ratio. Tests of one of the available aircraft engines with opposing piston system fueled with diesel oil were carried out on an engine dynamometer equipped with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring and testing equipment. In order to get to know the basic parameters of the engine, the tests were carried out under partial load conditions for the following torque values: 40, 60, 80, 100 Nm. The rotational speed was changed from 1600 to 2500 rpm. Measurements were also taken for designated points of propeller characteristics. During the tests, the engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, intake manifold pressure, and oil pressure were recorded. On the basis of the measurements carried out for particular loads, the power curve, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves were determined. Characteristics of charge pressure as a function of rotational speed as well as power, torque, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves for propeller characteristics were also prepared. The obtained characteristics make it possible to select the optimal points of engine operation.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine testing, opposed piston

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5282 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto


In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

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5281 Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Using Acetylene Gas in CI Engine

Authors: S. Sivakumar, Ashwin Bala, S. Prithviraj, K. Panthala Rajakumaran, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar


Studies reveal that acetylene gas derived from hydrolysis of calcium carbide has similar properties to that of diesel. However, the self-ignition temperature of acetylene gas is higher than that of diesel. Early investigations reveal that acetylene gas could be used as alternative fuel mode. In the present work, acetylene gas of 31/min were inducted and diesel was injected into the combustion chamber of a single cylinder air cooled diesel engine. It was observed that the higher calorific value of acetylene gas improves the brake thermal efficiency at full load conditions. The CO and HC emissions were higher at part load conditions as compared to conventional diesel. The Nox emission level was higher and smoke emission was lower during dual fuel mode under all operating conditions. It is concluded that dual fuel mode of acetylene gas and diesel improves the brake thermal efficiency and reduces smoke in diesel engine.

Keywords: acetylene gas, diesel engine, Nox emission, CO emission, HC emission

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5280 Investigating Constructions and Operation of Internal Combustion Engine Water Pumps

Authors: Michał Gęca, Konrad Pietrykowski, Grzegorz Barański


The water pump in the compression-ignition internal combustion engine transports a hot coolant along a system of ducts from the engine block to the radiator where coolant temperature is lowered. This part needs to maintain a constant volumetric flow rate. Its power should be regulated to avoid a significant drop in pressure if a coolant flow decreases. The internal combustion engine cooling system uses centrifugal pumps for suction. The paper investigates 4 constructions of engine pumps. The pumps are from diesel engine of a maximum power of 75 kW. Each of them has a different rotor shape, diameter and width. The test stand was created and the geometry inside the all 4 engine blocks was mapped. For a given pump speed on the inverter of the electric engine motor, the valve position was changed and volumetric flow rate, pressure, and power were recorded. Pump speed was regulated from 1200 RPM to 7000 RPM every 300 RPM. The volumetric flow rates and pressure drops for the pump speeds and efficiencies were specified. Accordingly, the operations of each pump were mapped. Our research was to select a pump for the aircraft compression-ignition engine. There was calculated a pressure drop at a given flow on the block and radiator of the designed aircraft engine. The water pump should be lightweight and have a low power demand. This fact shall affect the shape of a rotor and bearings. The pump volumetric flow rate was assumed as 3 kg/s (previous AVL BOOST research model) where the temperature difference was 5°C between the inlet (90°C) and outlet (95°C). Increasing pump speed above the boundary flow power defined by pressure and volumetric flow rate does not increase it but pump efficiency decreases. The maximum total pump efficiency (PCC) is 45-50%. When the pump is driven by low speeds with a 90% closed valve, its overall efficiency drops to 15-20%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft engine, diesel engine, flow, water pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
5279 Efficient Energy Management: A Novel Technique for Prolonged and Persistent Automotive Engine

Authors: Chakshu Baweja, Ishaan Prakash, Deepak Giri, Prithwish Mukherjee, Herambraj Ashok Nalawade


The need to prevent and control rampant and indiscriminate usage of energy in present-day realm on earth has motivated active research efforts aimed at understanding of controlling mechanisms leading to sustained energy. Although much has been done but complexity of the problem has prevented a complete understanding due to nonlinear interaction between flow, heat and mass transfer in terrestrial environment. Therefore, there is need for a systematic study to clearly understand mechanisms controlling energy-spreading phenomena to increase a system’s efficiency. The present work addresses the issue of sustaining energy and proposes a devoted technique of optimizing energy in the automotive domain. The proposed method focus on utilization of the mechanical and thermal energy of an automobile IC engine by converting and storing energy due to motion of a piston in form of electrical energy. The suggested technique utilizes piston motion of the engine to generate high potential difference capable of working as a secondary power source. This is achieved by the use of a gear mechanism and a flywheel.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, energy, electromagnetic induction, efficiency, gear ratio, hybrid vehicle, engine shaft

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5278 Waste Heat Recovery System

Authors: A. Ramkumar, Anvesh Sagar, Preetham P. Karkera


Globalization in the modern era is dependent on the International logistics, the economic and reliable means is provided by the ocean going merchant vessel. The propulsion system which drives this massive vessels has gone through leaps and bounds of evolution. Most reliable system of propulsion adopted by the majority of vessels is by marine diesel engine. Since the first oil crisis of 1973, there is demand in increment of efficiency of main engine. Due to increase in the oil prices ship-operators explores for reduction in the operational cost of ship. And newly adopted IMO’s EEDI & SEEMP rules calls for the effective measures taken in this regard. The main engine of a ship suffers a lot of thermal losses, they mainly occur due to exhaust gas waste heat, radiation and cooling. So to increase the overall efficiency of system, we have to look into the solution to harnessing this waste energy of main engine to increase the fuel economy. During the course of research, engine manufacturers have developed many waste heat recovery systems. In our paper we see about additional options to harness this waste heat. The exhaust gas of engine coming out from the turbocharger still holds enough heat to go to the exhaust gas economiser to produce steam. This heat of exhaust gas can be used to heat a liquid of less boiling point after coming out from the turbocharger. The vapour of this secondary liquid can be superheated by a bypass exhaust or exhaust of turbocharger. This vapour can be utilized to rotate the turbine which is coupled to a generator. And the electric power for ship service can be produced with proper configuration of system. This can be included in PMS of ship. In this paper we seek to concentrate on power generation with use of exhaust gas. Thereby taking out the load on the main generator and increasing the efficiency of the system. This will help us to comply with the new rules of IMO. Our method helps to develop clean energy.

Keywords: EEDI–energy efficiency design index, IMO–international maritime organization PMS-power management system, SEEMP–ship energy efficiency management plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
5277 Power Efficiency Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Thermodynamic Gas Cycle

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihil


In this study, the performance of a thermodynamic gas cycle of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is considered and presented in terms of power efficiency curves. The dissipation mechanisms considered include: fluid friction modeled by means of the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, heat transfer leakage directly from the hot reservoir to the cold heat reservoir, and constant velocity of the MHD generator. The study demonstrates that power and efficiency vanish at the extremes of both slow and fast operating conditions. These points are demonstrated on power efficiency curves and the locus of efficiency at maximum power and the locus of maximum efficiency. Qualitatively, the considered loss mechanisms have a similar effect on the efficiency at maximum power operation and on maximum efficiency operation, thus these efficiencies are reduced, even for small values of the loss mechanisms.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic generator, electrical efficiency, maximum power, maximum efficiency, heat engine

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5276 Modeling and Simulation of Secondary Breakup and Its Influence on Fuel Spray in High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Mohsin Raza, Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Imran Shafi


High torque low-speed diesel engine has a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. In literature, it’s found that lot of work has been done for the high-speed diesel engine and research on High Torque low-speed is rare. The fuel injection plays a key role in the efficiency of engine and reduction in exhaust emission. The fuel breakup plays a critical role in air-fuel mixture and spray combustion. The current study explains numerically an important phenomenon in spray combustion which is deformation and breakup of liquid drops in compression ignition internal combustion engine. The secondary breakup and its influence on spray and characteristics of compressed gas in-cylinder have been calculated by using simulation software in the backdrop of high torque low-speed diesel like conditions. The secondary spray breakup is modeled with KH - RT instabilities. The continuous field is described by turbulence model and dynamics of the dispersed droplet is modeled by Lagrangian tracking scheme. The results by using KH - RT model are compared against other default methods in OpenFOAM and published experimental data from research and implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). These numerical simulation, done in OpenFoam and Matlab, results are analyzed for the complete 720- degree 4 stroke engine cycle at a low engine speed, for favorable agreement to be achieved. Results thus obtained will be analyzed for better evaporation in near nozzle region. The proposed analyses will further help in better engine efficiency, low emission and improved fuel economy.

Keywords: diesel fuel, KH-RT, Lagrangian , Open FOAM, secondary breakup

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5275 Investigating the Effects of Cylinder Disablement on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy and Exhaust Temperature Management

Authors: Hasan Ustun Basaran


Diesel engines are widely used in transportation sector due to their high thermal efficiency. However, they also release high rates of NOₓ and PM (particulate matter) emissions into the environment which have hazardous effects on human health. Therefore, environmental protection agencies have issued strict emission regulations on automotive diesel engines. Recently, these regulations are even increasingly strengthened. Engine producers search novel on-engine methods such as advanced combustion techniques, utilization of renewable fuels, exhaust gas recirculation, advanced fuel injection methods or use exhaust after-treatment (EAT) systems in order to reduce emission rates on diesel engines. Although those aforementioned on-engine methods are effective to curb emission rates, they result in inefficiency or cannot decrease emission rates satisfactorily at all operating conditions. Therefore, engine manufacturers apply both on-engine techniques and EAT systems to meet the stringent emission norms. EAT systems are highly effective to diminish emission rates, however, they perform inefficiently at low loads due to low exhaust gas temperatures (below 250°C). Therefore, the objective of this study is to demonstrate that engine-out temperatures can be elevated above 250°C at low-loaded cases via cylinder disablement. The engine studied and modeled via Lotus Engine Simulation (LES) software is a six-cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. Exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates are predicted at 1200 rpm engine speed and several low loaded conditions using LES program. It is seen that cylinder deactivation results in a considerable exhaust temperature rise (up to 100°C) at low loads which ensures effective EAT management. The method also improves fuel efficiency through reduced total pumping loss. Decreased total air induction due to inactive cylinders is thought to be responsible for improved engine pumping loss. The technique reduces exhaust gas flow rate as air flow is cut off on disabled cylinders. Still, heat transfer rates to the after-treatment catalyst bed do not decrease that much since exhaust temperatures are increased sufficiently. Simulation results are promising; however, further experimental studies are needed to identify the true potential of the method on fuel consumption and EAT improvement.

Keywords: cylinder disablement, diesel engines, exhaust after-treatment, exhaust temperature, fuel efficiency

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5274 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Palm Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Jalpit B. Prajapati, Ketankumar G. Patel


Palm oil may be employed in diesel engine as an alternative fuel. Biofuel has so far been backed by government policies in the quest for low carbon fuel in the near future and promises to ensure energy security through partially replacing fossil fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics by using palm oil in diesel engine. The properties of palm oil can be compared favorably with the characteristics required for internal combustion engine fuels especially diesel engine. Experiments will be performed for fixed compression ratio i.e. 18 using biodiesel-diesel blends i.e. B0, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 with load variation from no load to full load and compared with base cases i.e. engine using diesel as a fuel. The parameters studied in performance characteristics are brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, in emission characteristics are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. After experimental results B20 (20% palm oil and 80% diesel) is best in performance, but NOx formation is little higher in B20.

Keywords: palm biodiesel, performance, emission, diesel-biodiesel blend

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5273 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin


A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

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5272 A Novel Combustion Engine, Design and Modeling

Authors: M. A. Effati, M. R. Hojjati, M. Razmdideh


Nowadays, engine developments have focused on internal combustion engine design call for increased engine power, reduced engine size and improved fuel economy, simultaneously. In this paper, a novel design for combustion engine is proposed. Two combustion chambers were designed in two sides of cylinder. Piston was designed in a way that two sides of piston would transfer heat energy due to combustion to linear motion. This motion would convert to rotary motion through the designed mechanism connected to connecting rod. Connecting rod operation was analyzed to evaluate applied stress in 3000, 4500 and 6000 rpm. Boundary conditions including generated pressure in each side of cylinder in these 3 situations was calculated.

Keywords: combustion engine, design, finite element method, modeling

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5271 The Effects of Displacer-Cylinder-Wall Conditions on the Performance of a Medium-Temperature-Differential γ-Type Stirling Engine

Authors: Wen-Lih Chen, Chao-Kuang Chen, Mao-Ju Fang, Hsiang-Cheng Hsu


In this study, we conducted CFD simulation to study the gas cycle of a medium-temperature-differential (MTD) γ-type Stirling engine. Mesh compression and expansion as well as overset mesh techniques are employed to simulate the moving parts of the engine. Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model has been adopted because the model is not prone to generate excessive turbulence upon impingement regions. Hence, wall heat transfer rates at the hot and cold ends will not be overestimated. The effects of several different displacer-cylinder-wall temperature setups, including smooth and finned walls, on engine performance are investigated. The results include temperature contours, pressure versus volume diagrams, and variations of heat transfer rates, indicated power, and efficiency. It is found that displacer-wall heat transfer is one of the most important factors on engine performance, and some wall-temperature setups produce better results than others.

Keywords: CFD, finned wall, MTD Stirling engine, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 209