Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Suhas Kongare

9 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare


Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

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8 Survey: Topology Hiding in Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

Authors: Akshay Suhas Phalke, Manohar S. Chaudhari


In this paper, we have discussed the multipath routing with its variants. Our purpose is to discuss the different types of the multipath routing mechanism. Here we also put the taxonomy of the multipath routing. Multipath routing is used for the alternate path routing, reliable transmission of data and for better utilization of network resources. We also discussed the multipath routing for topology hiding such as TOHIP. In multipath routing, different parameters such as energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio, shortest path routing, fault tolerance play an important role. We have discussed a number of multipath routing protocol based on different parameters lastly.

Keywords: multi-path routing, WSN, topology, fault detection, trust

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7 Applications of Green Technology and Biomimicry in Civil Engineering with a Maglev Car Elevator

Authors: Sameer Ansari, Suhas Nitsure


Biomimicry has made a big move into the built environment by adapting nature's solutions to human designs and inventions. We can examine numerous aspects of the built environment right from generating energy, fed by rainwater and powered by sun to over all land use impacts. This paper discusses the potential of a man made building which will work for the welfare of humans and reduce the impact of the harmful environment on us which we ourselves created for us. Building services inspired by nature such as building walls from homeostasis in organisms, natural ventilation from termites, artificial aggregates from natural aggregates, solar panels from photosynthesis and building structure itself compared to tree as a cantilever. Environmental services such as using CO2 as a feedstock for construction related activities, using Ornilux glasses and  saving birds from collision with buildings, using prefabricated steel for fast building members- save time and also negligible waste as no formwork is used. Maglev inspired car elevators in building which is unique and giving all together new direction to technology.

Keywords: biomimicry, green technology, maglev car elevator, civil engineering

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6 A CFD Study of the Performance Characteristics of Vented Cylinders as Vortex Generators

Authors: R. Kishan, R. M. Sumant, S. Suhas, Arun Mahalingam


This paper mainly researched on influence of vortex generator on lift coefficient and drag coefficient, when vortex generator is mounted on a flat plate. Vented cylinders were used as vortex generators which intensify vortex shedding in the wake of the vented cylinder as compared to base line circular cylinder which ensures more attached flow and increases lift force of the system. Firstly vented cylinders were analyzed in commercial CFD software which is compared with baseline cylinders for different angles of attack and further variation of lift and drag forces were studied by varying Reynolds number to account for influence of turbulence and boundary layer in the flow. Later vented cylinders were mounted on a flat plate and variation of lift and drag coefficients was studied by varying angles of attack and studying the dependence of Reynolds number and dimensions of vortex generator on the coefficients. Mesh grid sensitivity is studied to check the convergence of the results obtained It was found that usage of vented cylinders as vortex generators increased lift forces with small variation in drag forces by varying angle of attack.

Keywords: CFD analysis, drag coefficient, FVM, lift coefficient, modeling, Reynolds number, simulation, vortex generators, vortex shedding

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5 Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

Authors: Suhas Pednekar, Prashant Chavan, Ramesh Chaughule, Deepak Patkar


Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. An important potential medical application of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is as imaging agents. Composition, size, morphology and surface chemistry of these nanoparticles can now be tailored by various processes to not only improve magnetic properties but also affect the behavior of nanoparticles in vivo. MNPs are being actively investigated as the next generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Also, there is considerable interest in developing magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modifications with therapeutic agents. Our study involves the synthesis of biocompatible cancer drug coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as MRI contrast agents. A simple and rapid microwave method to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. The drug was successfully conjugated to the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can be used for various applications. The relaxivity R2 (reciprocal of the spin-spin relaxation time T2) is an important factor to determine the efficacy of Fe nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI experiments. R2 values of the coated magnetic nanoparticles were also measured using MRI technique and the results showed that R2 of the Fe complex consisting of Fe3O4, polymer and drug was higher than that of bare Fe nanoparticles and polymer coated nanoparticles. This is due to the increase in hydrodynamic sizes of Fe NPs. The results with various amounts of iron molar concentrations are also discussed. Using MRI, it is seen that the R2 relaxivity increases linearly with increase in concentration of Fe NPs in water.

Keywords: cancer drug, hydrodynamic size, magnetic nanoparticles, MRI

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4 Bilateral Hemodynamic Responses on Prefrontal Cortex during Voluntary Regulated Breathing (Pranayama) Practices: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, Suhas Vinchurkar


Similar to neuroimaging findings through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessing regional cerebral blood oxygenation, the functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has also been used to assess hemodynamic responses in the imaged region of the brain. The present study assessed hemodynamic responses in terms of changes in oxygenation (HbO), deoxygenation (HbR) and total hemoglobin (THb) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilaterally, using fNIRS in 10 participants who performed three voluntary regulated breathing (pranayama) practices viz. (i) Left nostril breathing (LNB), (ii) Right nostril breathing (RNB); and (iii) Alternating nostril breathing (ANB) and compared with normal breathing as baseline (BS). For this, we used 64 channel NIRS system covering left and the right prefrontal cortex. The normal breathing kept as baseline (BS) measures as regressors in the investigation of hemodynamic responses when compared with LNB, RNB and ANB. In the results, we found greater oxygenation in contralateral side i.e., higher activation on the left prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during RNB, and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) during LNB, whereas ANB showed greater deoxygenation responses on both sides of PFC. Interestingly, LNB showed increased oxygenation on ipsilateral side i.e., lPFC but not during RNB. This suggests that voluntary regulated breathing produced an immediate effect not only on contralateral but ipsilateral sides of the brain as well. In conclusion, breathing practices are tightly coupled to cerebral rhythms of alternating cerebral hemispheric activity during particular nostril breathing. These results of the specific nostril breathing do not support previous findings of contralateral hemispheric improvement while left or right nostril breathing only.

Keywords: hemodynamic responses, brain, pranayama, voluntary regulated breathing practices, prefrontal cortex

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3 Phytobeds with Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera for Treatment of Real Textile Effluent: An in situ Treatment, Anatomical Studies and Toxicity Evaluation

Authors: Suhas Kadam, Vishal Chandanshive, Niraj Rane, Sanjay Govindwar


Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and their co-plantation consortium FA were found to degrade methyl orange, simulated dye mixture, and real textile effluent. Wild plants of Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera with equal biomass showed 91 and 89% decolorization of methyl orange within 60 h at a concentration of 50 ppm, while 95% dye removal was achieved by consortium FA within 48 h. Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation (Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera) for the treatment of real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was observed to be more efficient and achieved 79, 72, 77, 66 and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolve solid and total suspended solid of textile effluent, respectively. High performance thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Visible spectroscopy and enzymatic assays confirmed the phytotransformation of parent dye in the new metabolites. T-RFLP analysis of rhizospheric bacteria of Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and consortium FA revealed the presence of 88, 98 and 223 genera which could have been involved in dye removal. Toxicity evaluation of products formed after phytotransformation of methyl orange by consortium FA on bivalves Lamellidens marginalis revealed less damage in the gills architecture when analyzed histologically. Toxicity measurement by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique revealed normal banding pattern in treated methyl orange sample suggesting less toxic nature of phytotransformed dye products.

Keywords: constructed wetland, phyto-bed, textile effluent, phytoremediation

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2 Anaerobic Digestion Batch Study of Taxonomic Variations in Microbial Communities during Adaptation of Consortium to Different Lignocellulosic Substrates Using Targeted Sequencing

Authors: Priyanka Dargode, Suhas Gore, Manju Sharma, Arvind Lali


Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for production of methane from different biowastes. However, the complexity of microbial communities involved in the process is poorly understood. The performance of biogas production process concerning the process productivity is closely coupled to its microbial community structure and syntrophic interactions amongst the community members. The present study aims at understanding taxonomic variations occurring in any starter inoculum when acclimatised to different lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) feedstocks relating to time of digestion. The work underlines use of high throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for validating the changes in taxonomic patterns of microbial communities. Biomethane Potential (BMP) batches were set up with different pretreated and non-pretreated LBM residues using the same microbial consortium and samples were withdrawn for studying the changes in microbial community in terms of its structure and predominance with respect to changes in metabolic profile of the process. DNA of samples withdrawn at different time intervals with reference to performance changes of the digestion process, was extracted followed by its 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina Platform. Biomethane potential and substrate consumption was monitored using Gas Chromatography(GC) and reduction in COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) respectively. Taxonomic analysis by QIIME server data revealed that microbial community structure changes with different substrates as well as at different time intervals. It was observed that biomethane potential of each substrate was relatively similar but, the time required for substrate utilization and its conversion to biomethane was different for different substrates. This could be attributed to the nature of substrate and consequently the discrepancy between the dominance of microbial communities with regards to different substrate and at different phases of anaerobic digestion process. Knowledge of microbial communities involved would allow a rational substrate specific consortium design which will help to reduce consortium adaptation period and enhance the substrate utilisation resulting in improved efficacy of biogas process.

Keywords: amplicon sequencing, biomethane potential, community predominance, taxonomic analysis

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1 Demarcating Wetting States in Pressure-Driven Flows by Poiseuille Number

Authors: Anvesh Gaddam, Amit Agrawal, Suhas Joshi, Mark Thompson


An increase in surface area to volume ratio with a decrease in characteristic length scale, leads to a rapid increase in pressure drop across the microchannel. Texturing the microchannel surfaces reduce the effective surface area, thereby decreasing the pressured drop. Surface texturing introduces two wetting states: a metastable Cassie-Baxter state and stable Wenzel state. Predicting wetting transition in textured microchannels is essential for identifying optimal parameters leading to maximum drag reduction. Optical methods allow visualization only in confined areas, therefore, obtaining whole-field information on wetting transition is challenging. In this work, we propose a non-invasive method to capture wetting transitions in textured microchannels under flow conditions. To this end, we tracked the behavior of the Poiseuille number Po = f.Re, (with f the friction factor and Re the Reynolds number), for a range of flow rates (5 < Re < 50), and different wetting states were qualitatively demarcated by observing the inflection points in the f.Re curve. Microchannels with both longitudinal and transverse ribs with a fixed gas fraction (δ, a ratio of shear-free area to total area) and at a different confinement ratios (ε, a ratio of rib height to channel height) were fabricated. The measured pressure drop values for all the flow rates across the textured microchannels were converted into Poiseuille number. Transient behavior of the pressure drop across the textured microchannels revealed the collapse of liquid-gas interface into the gas cavities. Three wetting states were observed at ε = 0.65 for both longitudinal and transverse ribs, whereas, an early transition occurred at Re ~ 35 for longitudinal ribs at ε = 0.5, due to spontaneous flooding of the gas cavities as the liquid-gas interface ruptured at the inlet. In addition, the pressure drop in the Wenzel state was found to be less than the Cassie-Baxter state. Three-dimensional numerical simulations confirmed the initiation of the completely wetted Wenzel state in the textured microchannels. Furthermore, laser confocal microscopy was employed to identify the location of the liquid-gas interface in the Cassie-Baxter state. In conclusion, the present method can overcome the limitations posed by existing techniques, to conveniently capture wetting transition in textured microchannels.

Keywords: drag reduction, Poiseuille number, textured surfaces, wetting transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 79