Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 145

Search results for: Leon Williams

145 Target and Equalizer Design for Perpendicular Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording

Authors: P. Tueku, P. Supnithi, R. Wongsathan

Abstract:

Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) is one of the leading technologies identified to enable areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2 of magnetic recording systems. A key challenge to HAMR designing is accuracy of positioning, timing of the firing laser, power of the laser, thermo-magnetic head, head-disk interface and cooling system. We study the effect of HAMR parameters on transition center and transition width. The HAMR is model using Thermal Williams-Comstock (TWC) and microtrack model. The target and equalizer are designed by the minimum mean square error (MMSE). The result shows that the unit energy constraint outperforms other constraints.

Keywords: heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal Williams-Comstock equation, microtrack model, equalizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
144 Simulations of a Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate

Authors: Reda Mankbadi

Abstract:

In this paper we explore the use of a second-order unstructured-grid, finite-volume code for direct noise prediction. We consider a Mach 1.5 jet impinging on a perpendicular flat plate. Hybrid LES-RANS simulations are used to calculate directly both the flow field and the radiated sound. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code is utilized for the calculations. The acoustic field is obtained directly from the simulations and is compared with the integral approach of Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH). Results indicate the existence of a preferred radiation angle. The spectrum obtained is in good agreement with observations. This points out to the possibility of handling the effects of complicated geometries on noise radiation by using unstructured second-orders codes.

Keywords: CFD, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH), imping jet, ANSYS fluent commercial code, hybrid LES-RANS simulations

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143 Causes of Financial Instability and Banking Crises: A Comparative Study of Analytical Approaches

Authors: Laura Josabeth Oros-Avilés, Josefina León-León

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In recent decades, the concern of the monetary authorities has increased because of the instability of the financial sector caused by the crash of speculative bubbles. In fact, the crash of "housing bubble" in U.S. (2007-2008) led the latest global crisis. The aim of paper is to analyze the features and causes of the financial and banking crisis from an historical view. In particular, in this research, a comparative study of some analytical approaches about economic and financial history is discussed. In addition, the role of monetary policy of central banks in managing financial crises, from its origins to today, is analyzed. According to the studied approaches, two types of factors that cause the financial instability were identified: subjective and objectives. In the research, these factors are deeply discussed, in order to noting the agreements and disagreement between the authors. Specially, it is worth noting that all of them recognized that the credit boom and the financial deregulation are the main causes of financial crises.

Keywords: asset prices, banking crises, financial bubble, financial instability, monetary policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
142 The Use of Prestige Language in Tennessee Williams’s "A Streetcar Named Desire"

Authors: Stuart Noel

Abstract:

In a streetcar Named Desire, Tennessee Williams presents Blanche DuBois, a most complex and intriguing character who often uses prestige language to project the image of an upper-class speaker and to disguise her darker and complicated self. She embodies various fascinating and contrasting characteristics. Like New Orleans (the locale of the play), Blanche represents two opposing images. One image projects that of genteel, Southern charm and beauty, speaking formally and using prestige language and what some linguists refer to as “hypercorrection,” and the other image reveals that of a soiled, deteriorating façade, full of decadence and illusion. Williams said on more than one occasion that Blanche’s use of such language was a direct reflection of her personality and character (as a high school English teacher). Prestige language is an exaggeratedly elevated, pretentious, and oftentimes melodramatic form of one’s language incorporating superstandard or more standard speech than usual in order to project a highly authoritative individual identity. Speech styles carry personal identification meaning not only because they are closely associated with certain social classes but because they tend to be associated with certain conversational contexts. Features which may be considered to be “elaborated” in form (for example, full forms vs. contractions) tend to cluster together in speech registers/styles which are typically considered to be more formal and/or of higher social prestige, such as academic lectures and news broadcasts. Members of higher social classes have access to the elaborated registers which characterize formal writings and pre-planned speech events, such as lectures, while members of lower classes are relegated to using the more economical registers associated with casual, face-to-face conversational interaction, since they do not participate in as many planned speech events as upper-class speakers. Tennessee Williams’s work is characteristically concerned with the conflict between the illusions of an individual and the reality of his/her situation equated with a conflict between truth and beauty. An examination of Blanche DuBois reveals a recurring theme of art and decay and the use of prestige language to reveal artistry in language and to hide a deteriorating self. His graceful and poetic writing personifies her downfall and deterioration. Her loneliness and disappointment are the things so often strongly feared by the sensitive artists and heroes in the world. Hers is also a special and delicate human spirit that is often misunderstood and repressed by society. Blanche is afflicted with a psychic illness growing out of her inability to face the harshness of human existence. She is a sensitive, artistic, and beauty-haunted creature who is avoiding her own humanity while hiding behind her use of prestige language. And she embodies a partial projection of Williams himself.

Keywords: American drama, prestige language, Southern American literature, Tennessee Williams

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141 Far-Field Noise Prediction of Tandem Cylinders Using Incompressible Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Francesc Xavier Trias, Asensi Oliva

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A three-dimensional incompressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed to compute the hydrodynamic field around a pair of tandem cylinders. Symmetry-preserving schemes will be used during this simulation in conjunction with Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain the hydrodynamic field around the selected geometry. A set of results consisting of pressure and velocity and the combination of them will be stored at different surfaces near the cylinders as the initial input for the second part of the study. A post-processing of the obtained results based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation with a Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources will be used to compute noise at several probes located far away from the region where the hydrodynamics are computed. Directivities as well as spectral profile of the obtained acoustic field will be analyzed.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, long-span bodies

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140 Far-Field Acoustic Prediction of a Supersonic Expanding Jet Using Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Asensi Oliva

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The hydrodynamic field generated by a jet expansion is computed via three dimensional compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Finite Volume Method (FVM) will be the discretization used during this simulation as well as hybrid schemes based on Kinetic Energy Preserving (KEP) schemes and up-winding Godunov based schemes with instabilities detectors. Velocity and pressure fields will be stored at different surfaces near the jet, but far enough to enclose all the fluctuations, in order to use them as input for the acoustic solver. The acoustic field is obtained in the far-field region at several locations by means of a hybrid method based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation. This equation will be formulated in the spectral domain, via Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources, which are modeled from the results of the initial simulation. The obtained results will allow the study of the broadband noise generated as well as sound directivities.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, jet noise

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139 Social Representations: Unplanned and Unwanted Pregnancy in Adolescents from Leon-Mexico

Authors: Alejandra Sierra, Maria de los Angeles Covarrubias, Guillermo Julian Gonzalez, Noe Alfaro

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The objective of this study was to identify the cultural dimensions of the terms unplanned pregnancy and unwanted pregnancy built by adolescent women, through the focus of the social representations. Two associative methods were used: free listings and the paired comparison. 72 female students between the ages of 15 and 19 were interviewed, from the downtown area of Leon Guanajuato, Mexico. Words related to inducer terms were classified into five thematic categories: facilitators, consequences, reactions, expectations, and lexicon. The results showed that the social representations of unplanned pregnancy highlighted elements related to economic difficulties and negative emotional aspects, while unwanted pregnancy was associated with negative emotional aspects such as anger, anxiety, and sadness. The meanings each person attributes to terms related to pregnancy are culturally constructed and differ between populations; therefore, more attention should be paid to understanding the cultural meanings and attitudes of people in fertility decision-making, including also the views of adolescent men and other types of population, stratified by age groups and social conditions.

Keywords: adolescent, qualitative research, unplanned pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy

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138 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

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Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

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137 Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields

Authors: Lei Zhang, Wen-jun Ruan, Hao Wang, Peng-Xin Wang

Abstract:

The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.

Keywords: supersonic gas jet, Large Eddy Simulation(LES), acoustic noise, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings(FW-H) equations, nozzle size

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136 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha

Abstract:

The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependence. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, laminated glass, Newton method, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation

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135 Aeroacoustics Investigations of Unsteady 3D Airfoil for Different Angle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software

Authors: Haydar Kepekçi, Baha Zafer, Hasan Rıza Güven

Abstract:

Noise disturbance is one of the major factors considered in the fast development of aircraft technology. This paper reviews the flow field, which is examined on the 2D NACA0015 and 3D NACA0012 blade profile using SST k-ω turbulence model to compute the unsteady flow field. We inserted the time-dependent flow area variables in Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equations as an input and Sound Pressure Level (SPL) values will be computed for different angles of attack (AoA) from the microphone which is positioned in the computational domain to investigate effect of augmentation of unsteady 2D and 3D airfoil region noise level. The computed results will be compared with experimental data which are available in the open literature. As results; one of the calculated Cp is slightly lower than the experimental value. This difference could be due to the higher Reynolds number of the experimental data. The ANSYS Fluent software was used in this study. Fluent includes well-validated physical modeling capabilities to deliver fast, accurate results across the widest range of CFD and multiphysics applications. This paper includes a study which is on external flow over an airfoil. The case of 2D NACA0015 has approximately 7 million elements and solves compressible fluid flow with heat transfer using the SST turbulence model. The other case of 3D NACA0012 has approximately 3 million elements.

Keywords: 3D blade profile, noise disturbance, aeroacoustics, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equations, k-ω-SST turbulence model

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134 Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-Purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina

Authors: N. Porzionato, M. Mantiñan, E. Bussi, S. Grinberg, R. Gutierrez, G. Curutchet

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This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped; their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure. The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in the José León Suárez section of General San Martín country, Buenos Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream, in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water processing plants for the metropolis. This project has studied the different organic-load polluting contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.

Keywords: bioremediation, pollutants, sediments, urban streams

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133 Fatigue of Multiscale Nanoreinforced Composites: 3D Modelling

Authors: Leon Mishnaevsky Jr., Gaoming Dai

Abstract:

3D numerical simulations of fatigue damage of multiscale fiber reinforced polymer composites with secondary nanoclay reinforcement are carried out. Macro-micro FE models of the multiscale composites are generated automatically using Python based software. The effect of the nanoclay reinforcement (localized in the fiber/matrix interface (fiber sizing) and distributed throughout the matrix) on the crack path, damage mechanisms and fatigue behavior is investigated in numerical experiments.

Keywords: computational mechanics, fatigue, nanocomposites, composites

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132 Changes to Populations Might Aid the Spread Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Authors: Yasir Bashawri, Vincent N. Chigor James McDonald, Merfyn Williams, Davey Jones, A. Prysor Williams

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Resistance to antibiotics has become a threat to public health. As a result of their misuse and overuse, bacteria have become resistant to many common antibiotics. Βeta lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are one of the most significant classes of antimicrobials in providing therapeutic benefits for the treatment of bacterial infections in both human and veterinary medicine, for approximately 60% of all antibiotics are used. In particular, some Enterobacteriaceae produce Extend Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) that enable them to some break down multi-groups of antibiotics. CTX-M enzymes have rapidly become the most important ESBLs, with increases in mainly CTX-M 15 in many countries during the last decade. Global travel by intercontinental medical ‘tourists’, migrant employees and overseas students could theoretically be a risk factor for spreading antibiotic resistance genes in different parts of the world. Bangor city, North Wales, is subject to sudden demographic changes due to a large proportion (>25%) of the population being students, most of which arrive over a space of days. This makes it a suitable location to study the impacts of large demographic change on the presence of ESBLs. The aim of this study is to monitor the presence of ESBLs in Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria isolated from Bangor wastewater treatment plant, before, during and after the arrival week of students to Bangor University. Over a five-week period, water samples were collected twice a week, from the influent, primary sedimentation tank, aeration tank and the final effluent. Isolation and counts for Escherichia coli and other faecal coliforms were done on selective agar (primary UTI agar). ESBL presence will be confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Sampling at all points of the tertiary treatment stages will indicate the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in reducing the spread of ESBLs genes. The study will yield valuable information to help tackle a problem which many regard to be the one of the biggest threats to modern-day society.

Keywords: extended spectrum β-lactamase, enterobacteriaceae, international travel, wastewater treatment plant

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131 Stoner Impurity Model in Nickel Hydride

Authors: Andrea Leon, J. M. Florez, P. Vargas

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The effect of hydrogen adsorption on the magnetic properties of fcc Ni has been calculated using the linear-muffin-tin-orbital formalism and using the local-density approximation for the exchange y correlation. The calculations for the ground state show that the sequential addition of hydrogen atoms is found to monotonically reduce the total magnetic moment of the Ni fcc structure, as a result of changes in the exchange-splitting parameter and in the Fermi energy. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization reduction as the Hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a Stoner impurity model to describe the influence of H impurity on the magnetic properties of Nickel.

Keywords: electronic structure, magnetic properties, Nickel hydride, stoner model

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130 Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow

Authors: Joshua Kim Schimpf, Kyun Doo Kim, Jaseok Heo

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In this study, the droplet behavior of under horizontal stratified flow regime for air and water flow in horizontal pipe experiments from a 0.24 m, 0.095 m, and 0.0486 m size diameter pipe are examined. The effects of gravity, pipe diameter, and turbulent diffusion on droplet deposition are considered. Models for droplet entrainment and deposition are proposed that considers developing length. Validation for experimental data dedicated from the REGARD, CEA and Williams, University of Illinois, experiment were performed using SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants).

Keywords: droplet, entrainment, deposition, horizontal

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129 Human Resource Development and Social Entrepreneurship: A Pan-African Perspective

Authors: Leon C. Prieto, Simone T. A. Phipps

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There is a need to promote social entrepreneurship in order to solve some of the complex problems facing various countries in Africa (poverty, unemployment, crime, HIV, etc.). For example, one possible consequence of the HIV/AIDS crisis in Zimbabwe and elsewhere is a deterioration in the educational opportunities for orphans and other vulnerable children. Given that high returns are associated with education, the loss of education for a large segment of the population would likely worsen the already dire economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS crisis. Using a systems approach, this paper argues that social entrepreneurship can be used as a vehicle to promote national human resource development, which will assist in the alleviation of societal ills on the national level as well as throughout Africa.

Keywords: human resource development, pan-african, social entrepreneurship, social enterprise

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128 Most Important Educational Planning Issues in the Developing Countries

Authors: Naeem Khan

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In 1971 Williams in his essay titled "What Educational Planning is About in Higher Education" defined educational planning as "planning in education, as in anything else consist essentially of deciding, in advance, what you want, to do and how you are going to do in". In the “World Year book of Education”. While Anderson and Bowman in 1976 in their joint article titled "Theoretical Considerations in Educational Planning" defined it as "the process of preparing a set of decisions for future action pertaining in education". There are so many other definitions which are related to educational planning in which every one stress on the importance of educational planning. But developing countries face a lot of problems related to the educational planning and this paper is to discuss few of them.

Keywords: educational planning, problems, developing countries, education system,

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127 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

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The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance, injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
126 Predictive Maintenance Based on Oil Analysis Applicable to Transportation Fleets

Authors: Israel Ibarra Solis, Juan Carlos Rodriguez Sierra, Ma. del Carmen Salazar Hernandez, Isis Rodriguez Sanchez, David Perez Guerrero

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At the present paper we try to explain the analysis techniques use for the lubricating oil in a maintenance period of a city bus (Mercedes Benz Boxer 40), which is call ‘R-24 route’, line Coecillo Centro SA de CV in Leon Guanajuato, to estimate the optimal time for the oil change. Using devices such as the rotational viscometer and the atomic absorption spectrometer, they can detect the incipient form when the oil loses its lubricating properties and, therefore, cannot protect the mechanical components of diesel engines such these trucks. Timely detection of lost property in the oil, it allows us taking preventive plan maintenance for the fleet.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrometry, maintenance, predictive velocity rate, lubricating oils

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125 Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) in the Analysis of Catalytic Aquathermolysis: Colombian Heavy Oil Case

Authors: Paola Leon, Hugo Garcia, Adan Leon, Samuel Munoz

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The enhanced oil recovery by steam injection was considered a process that only generated physical recovery mechanisms. However, there is evidence of the occurrence of a series of chemical reactions, which are called aquathermolysis, which generates hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and lower molecular weight hydrocarbons. These reactions can be favored by the addition of a catalyst during steam injection; in this way, it is possible to generate the original oil in situ upgrading through the production increase of molecules of lower molecular weight. This additional effect could increase the oil recovery factor and reduce costs in transport and refining stages. Therefore, this research has focused on the experimental evaluation of the catalytic aquathermolysis on a Colombian heavy oil with 12,8°API. The effects of three different catalysts, reaction time, and temperature were evaluated in a batch microreactor. The changes in the Colombian heavy oil were quantified through nuclear magnetic resonance 1H-NMR. The relaxation times interpretation and the absorption intensity allowed to identify the distribution of the functional groups in the base oil and upgraded oils. Additionally, the average number of aliphatic carbons in alkyl chains, the number of substituted rings, and the aromaticity factor were established as average structural parameters in order to simplify the samples' compositional analysis. The first experimental stage proved that each catalyst develops a different reaction mechanism. The aromaticity factor has an increasing order of the salts used: Mo > Fe > Ni. However, the upgraded oil obtained with iron naphthenate tends to form a higher content of mono-aromatic and lower content of poly-aromatic compounds. On the other hand, the results obtained from the second phase of experiments suggest that the upgraded oils have a smaller difference in the length of alkyl chains in the range of 240º to 270°C. This parameter has lower values at 300°C, which indicates that the alkylation or cleavage reactions of alkyl chains govern at higher reaction temperatures. The presence of condensation reactions is supported by the behavior of the aromaticity factor and the bridge carbons production between aromatic rings (RCH₂). Finally, it is observed that there is a greater dispersion in the aliphatic hydrogens, which indicates that the alkyl chains have a greater reactivity compared to the aromatic structures.

Keywords: catalyst, upgrading, aquathermolysis, steam

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124 Comparative Analysis between Corn and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) Starches to Be Used as Sustainable Bio-Based Plastics

Authors: C. R. Ríos-Soberanis, V. M. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon, E. Perez-Pacheco

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Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons: firstly environmental concerns, and secondly the realization that our petroleum resources are finite. Finding new uses for agricultural commodities is also an important area of research. Therefore, it is crucial to get new sources of natural materials that can be used in different applications. Ramon tree (Brosimum alicastrum) is a tropical plant that grows freely in Yucatan countryside. This paper focuses on the seeds recollection, processing and starch extraction and characterization in order to find out about its suitability as biomaterial. Results demonstrated that it has a high content of qualities to be used not only as comestible but also as an important component in polymeric blends.

Keywords: biomaterials, characterization techniques, natural resource, starch

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123 A General Strategy for Noise Assessment in Open Mining Industries

Authors: Diego Mauricio Murillo Gomez, Enney Leon Gonzalez Ramirez, Hugo Piedrahita, Jairo Yate

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This paper proposes a methodology for the management of noise in open mining industries based on an integral concept, which takes into consideration occupational and environmental noise as a whole. The approach relies on the characterization of sources, the combination of several measurements’ techniques and the use of acoustic prediction software. A discussion about the difference between frequently used acoustic indicators such as Leq and LAV is carried out, aiming to establish common ground for homologation. The results show that the correct integration of this data not only allows for a more robust technical analysis but also for a more strategic route of intervention as several departments of the company are working together. Noise control measurements can be designed to provide a healthy acoustic surrounding in which the exposure workers but also the outdoor community is benefited.

Keywords: environmental noise, noise control, occupational noise, open mining

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122 Classification of Opaque Exterior Walls of Buildings from a Sustainable Point of View

Authors: Michelle Sánchez de León Brajkovich, Nuria Martí Audi

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The envelope is one of the most important elements when one analyzes the operation of the building in terms of sustainability. Taking this into consideration, this research focuses on setting a classification system of the envelopes opaque systems, crossing the knowledge and parameters of construction systems with requirements in terms of sustainability that they may have, to have a better understanding of how these systems work with respect to their sustainable contribution to the building. Therefore, this paper evaluates the importance of the envelope design on the building sustainability. It analyses the parameters that make the construction systems behave differently in terms of sustainability. At the same time it explains the classification process generated from this analysis that results in a classification where all opaque vertical envelope construction systems enter.

Keywords: sustainable, exterior walls, envelope, facades, construction systems, energy efficiency

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121 A Game-Theory-Based Price-Optimization Algorithm for the Simulation of Markets Using Agent-Based Modelling

Authors: Juan Manuel Sanchez-Cartas, Gonzalo Leon

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A price competition algorithm for ABMs based on game theory principles is proposed to deal with the simulation of theoretical market models. The algorithm is applied to the classical Hotelling’s model and to a two-sided market model to show it leads to the optimal behavior predicted by theoretical models. However, when theoretical models fail to predict the equilibrium, the algorithm is capable of reaching a feasible outcome. Results highlight that the algorithm can be implemented in other simulation models to guarantee rational users and endogenous optimal behaviors. Also, it can be applied as a tool of verification given that is theoretically based.

Keywords: agent-based models, algorithmic game theory, multi-sided markets, price optimization

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120 Aggregate Angularity on the Permanent Deformation Zones of Hot Mix Asphalt

Authors: Lee P. Leon, Raymond Charles

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This paper presents a method of evaluating the effect of aggregate angularity on hot mix asphalt (HMA) properties and its relationship to the Permanent Deformation resistance. The research concluded that aggregate particle angularity had a significant effect on the Permanent Deformation performance, and also that with an increase in coarse aggregate angularity there was an increase in the resistance of mixes to Permanent Deformation. A comparison between the measured data and predictive data of permanent deformation predictive models showed the limits of existing prediction models. The numerical analysis described the permanent deformation zones and concluded that angularity has an effect of the onset of these zones. Prediction of permanent deformation help road agencies and by extension economists and engineers determine the best approach for maintenance, rehabilitation, and new construction works of the road infrastructure.

Keywords: aggregate angularity, asphalt concrete, permanent deformation, rutting prediction

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119 The Role of Context in Interpreting Emotional Body Language in Robots

Authors: Jekaterina Novikova, Leon Watts

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In the emerging world of human-robot interaction, people and robots will interact socially in real-world situations. This paper presents the results of an experimental study probing the interaction between situational context and emotional body language in robots. 34 people rated video clips of robots performing expressive behaviours in different situational contexts both for emotional expressivity on Valence-Arousal-Dominance dimensions and by selecting a specific emotional term from a list of suggestions. Results showed that a contextual information enhanced a recognition of emotional body language of a robot, although it did not override emotional signals provided by robot expressions. Results are discussed in terms of design guidelines on how an emotional body language of a robot can be used by roboticists developing social robots.

Keywords: social robotics, non-verbal communication, situational context, artificial emotions, body language

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118 Optimal Mitigation of Slopes by Probabilistic Methods

Authors: D. De-León-Escobedo, D. J. Delgado-Hernández, S. Pérez

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A probabilistic formulation to assess the slopes safety under the hazard of strong storms is presented and illustrated through a slope in Mexico. The formulation is based on the classical safety factor (SF) used in practice to appraise the slope stability, but it is introduced the treatment of uncertainties, and the slope failure probability is calculated as the probability that SF<1. As the main hazard is the rainfall on the area, statistics of rainfall intensity and duration are considered and modeled with an exponential distribution. The expected life-cycle cost is assessed by considering a monetary value on the slope failure consequences. Alternative mitigation measures are simulated, and the formulation is used to get the measures driving to the optimal one (minimum life-cycle costs). For the example, the optimal mitigation measure is the reduction on the slope inclination angle.

Keywords: expected life-cycle cost, failure probability, slopes failure, storms

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117 Pulmonary Valve Papillary Fibroelastoma: A Case Report of a Fibroelastoma Presenting as a Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Frazer Kirk, Matthew Yong, Peter Williams, Andrie Strobel

Abstract:

Pulmonary valve papillary fibroelastoma is an exceedingly rare pathology. The experience and literature regarding them are largely anecdotal and based on sporadic, single case reports. Throughout their known history, two features remain salient that they are classically asymptomatic and found incidentally. The demographic profile of those affected is unclear, as reports regarding those affected are mixed, and there is no clear gender or age predominance, although there is some suggestion of a predisposition to affect females. Nor has there been a well-structured epidemiological study of the entity. Interestingly they are becoming more common on peri-mortum examination. Here-after we describe our experience with a symptomatic presentation of pulmonary papillary fibroelastoma masquerading as a pulmonary embolism and its subsequent assessment and management, with intraoperative photography and echocardiography for reference.

Keywords: cardiac tumor, pulmonary valve, fibroelastoma, cardiac surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
116 A Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm Applied to the Synthesis of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels

Authors: Florin Leon, Silvia Curteanu

Abstract:

The Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) algorithm is inspired by the behavior of bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Myxococcus xanthus when searching for food, more precisely the chemotaxis behavior. Bacteria perceive chemical gradients in the environment, such as nutrients, and also other individual bacteria, and move toward or in the opposite direction to those signals. The application example considered as a case study consists in establishing the dependency between the reaction yield of hydrogels based on polyacrylamide and the working conditions such as time, temperature, monomer, initiator, crosslinking agent and inclusion polymer concentrations, as well as type of the polymer added. This process is modeled with a neural network which is included in an optimization procedure based on BFO. An experimental study of BFO parameters is performed. The results show that the algorithm is quite robust and can obtain good results for diverse combinations of parameter values.

Keywords: bacterial foraging, hydrogels, modeling and optimization, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 46