Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 937

Search results for: aircraft engine

937 Design Improvement of Aircraft Turbofan Engine Following Bird Ingestion Testing

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


Aircraft gas turbine engines are subject to damage by airborne foreign objects such as birds and garbage dumps. In order to assess their effect on engine performance, a complete foreign object damage (FOD) test was carried out and a component failure analysis was used to verify airworthiness standards (AWS) requirements for engine certification as set by international regulations. Ingestion damage due to 1.8 Kg (4 lb.) bird strike on an engine is presented in some detail. Based on the observed damage, improvements to the engine design were suggested in two different locations: the front bearing housing and the low compressor shaft. When these improvements were implemented, the engine showed an acceptable containment capability that meets AWS requirements.

Keywords: aircraft engine, airworthiness standards, bird ingestion, foreign object damage

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936 Calculation and Comparison of a Turbofan Engine Performance Parameters with Various Definitions

Authors: O. Onal, O. Turan


In this paper, some performance parameters of a selected turbofan engine (JT9D) are analyzed. The engine is a high bypass turbofan engine which powers a wide-body aircraft and it produces 206 kN thrust force (thrust/weight ratio is 5.4). The objective parameters for the engine include calculation of power, specific fuel consumption, specific thrust, engine propulsive, thermal and overall efficiencies according to the various definitions given in the literature. Furthermore, in the case study, wasted energy from the exhaust is calculated at the maximum power setting (i.e. take off phase) for the engine.

Keywords: turbofan, power, efficiency, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
935 Bench Tests of Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Aircraft Diesel Engine under Propeller Characteristics Conditions

Authors: A. Majczak, G. Baranski, K. Pietrykowski


Due to the growing popularity of light aircraft, it has become necessary to develop aircraft engines for this type of construction. One of engine system, designed to increase efficiency and reduce weight, is the engine with opposed pistons. In such an engine, the combustion chamber is formed by two pistons moving in one cylinder. Therefore, this type of engines run in a two-stroke cycle, so they have many advantages such as high power and torque, high efficiency, or a favorable power-to-weight ratio. Tests of one of the available aircraft engines with opposing piston system fueled with diesel oil were carried out on an engine dynamometer equipped with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring and testing equipment. In order to get to know the basic parameters of the engine, the tests were carried out under partial load conditions for the following torque values: 40, 60, 80, 100 Nm. The rotational speed was changed from 1600 to 2500 rpm. Measurements were also taken for designated points of propeller characteristics. During the tests, the engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, intake manifold pressure, and oil pressure were recorded. On the basis of the measurements carried out for particular loads, the power curve, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves were determined. Characteristics of charge pressure as a function of rotational speed as well as power, torque, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves for propeller characteristics were also prepared. The obtained characteristics make it possible to select the optimal points of engine operation.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine testing, opposed piston

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934 Modeling of Combustion Process in the Piston Aircraft Engine Using a MCFM-3Z Model

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Konrad Pietrykowski


Modeling of a combustion process in a 9-cylinder aircraft engine is presented. The simulations of the combustion process in the IC engine have provided the information on the spatial and time distributions of selected quantities within the combustion chamber of the engine. The numerical analysis results have been compared with the results of indication process of the engine on the test stand. Modeling of combustion process an auto-ignited IC engine in the AVL Fire was carried out within the study. For the calculations, a ECFM-3Z model was used. Verification of simulation results was carried out by comparison of the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of indicated pressure, obtained from the simulations and during the engine tests mounted on a test stand were compared. The engine was braked by the propeller, which results in an adequate external power characteristics. The test object is a modified ASz-62IR engine with the injection system. The engine was running at take-off power. To check the optimum ignition timing regarding power, calculations, tests were performed for 7 different moments of ignition. The analyses of temperature distribution in the cylinder depending on the moments of ignition were carried out. Additional the course of pressure in the cylinder at different angles of ignition delays of the second spark plug were examined. The swirling of the mixture in the combustion chamber was also analysed. It has been shown that the largest vortexes occur in the middle of the chamber, and gets smaller, closer to the combustion chamber walls. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, internal combustion engine, aircraft engine

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933 Proposal of Innovative Risk Assessment of Ergonomic Factors in the Production of Jet Engines Using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)

Authors: Jose Cristiano Pereira, Gilson Brito Alves Lima


Ergonomics is a key factor affecting the operational safety and quality in the aircraft engine manufacturing industry and evidence shows that the lack of attention to it can increase the risk of accidents. In order to emphasize the importance of ergonomics, this paper systematically reviews the critical processes used in the aircraft engine production industry with focus on the ergonomic factors. about the subject to identify key ergonomic factors. Experts validated the factors and used AHP to rank the factors in order of significance. From the six key risk factors identified, the ones with the highest weight are psychological demand followed by understanding of operational side. These factors suggest that measures must be taken to improve ergonomic factors, quality and safety in the manufacturing of aircraft engines.

Keywords: ergonomics, safety, aviation, aircraft engine production

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
932 Kinematics and Dynamics Analysis of Crank-Piston System of a High-Power, Nine-Cylinder Aircraft Engine

Authors: Michal Biały, Konrad Pietrykowski, Rafal Sochaczewski


The kinematics and dynamics analysis of crank-piston system of aircraft engine. The object of the study was the high power aircraft engine ASz 62-IR. This engine is produced by a Polish company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A.". All analyzes were performed numerically using CAD and CAE environment. Three-dimensional model of the crank-piston system was developed based on real engine located in the Laboratory of Centre of Innovation and Advanced Technologies of Lublin University of Technology. During the development of the model, the technique of reverse engineering - 3D scanning was used. ASz 62-IR engine is characterized by a radial type of crank-piston system. In this system the cylinders are arranged radially around the circle. This crank-piston system consists of a main connecting rod and eight additional connecting rods. In addition, three-dimensional model consists of a piston pins, pistons and piston rings. As a result of the specific engine design, characteristics of the piston individual movement are slightly different from each other. But the model assumes that they are the same during the analysis. Three-dimensional model of the engine was implemented into the MSC Adams software. The environment of MSC Adams allows for multibody simulation of the dynamic phenomena. This determines the state parameters of the moving elements, among which the load or force distribution on each kinematic node can be distinguished. Materials and characteristic materials parameters were adopted on the basis of commonly used materials for engine parts. The mass values of individual elements were adopted on the basis of real engine parts. The piston gas forces were replaced by calculation of pressure variations recorded during engine tests on the engine test bench. The research the changes of forces acting in the individual kinematic pairs of crank-piston system. The model allows to determine the load on the crankshaft main bearings. This gives the possibility for the main supports forces analysis The model allows for testing and simulation of kinematics and dynamics of a radial aircraft engine. This is the first stage of the work, which aims to numerical simulation of vibration of multi-cylinder aircraft engine. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: aircraft engine, CAD, CAE, dynamics, kinematics, MSC Adams, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
931 Validation Study of Radial Aircraft Engine Model

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Tytus Tulwin, Michal Geca, P. Karpinski


This paper presents the radial aircraft engine model which has been created in AVL Boost software. This model is a one-dimensional physical model of the engine, which enables us to investigate the impact of an ignition system design on engine performance (power, torque, fuel consumption). In addition, this model allows research under variable environmental conditions to reflect varied flight conditions (altitude, humidity, cruising speed). Before the simulation research the identifying parameters and validating of model were studied. In order to verify the feasibility to take off power of gasoline radial aircraft engine model, some validation study was carried out. The first stage of the identification was completed with reference to the technical documentation provided by manufacturer of engine and the experiments on the test stand of the real engine. The second stage involved a comparison of simulation results with the results of the engine stand tests performed on a WSK ’PZL-Kalisz’. The engine was loaded by a propeller in a special test bench. Identifying the model parameters referred to a comparison of the test results to the simulation in terms of: pressure behind the throttles, pressure in the inlet pipe, and time course for pressure in the first inlet pipe, power, and specific fuel consumption. Accordingly, the required coefficients and error of simulation calculation relative to the real-object experiments were determined. Obtained the time course for pressure and its value is compatible with the experimental results. Additionally the engine power and specific fuel consumption tends to be significantly compatible with the bench tests. The mapping error does not exceed 1.5%, which verifies positively the model of combustion and allows us to predict engine performance if the process of combustion will be modified. The next conducted tests verified completely model. The maximum mapping error for the pressure behind the throttles and the inlet pipe pressure is 4 %, which proves the model of the inlet duct in the engine with the charging compressor to be correct.

Keywords: 1D-model, aircraft engine, performance, validation

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930 Nonuniformity of the Piston Motion in a Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: K. Pietrykowski, M. Bialy, M. Duk


One of the main disadvantages of radial engines is non-uniformity of operating cycles of each cylinder. This paper discusses the results of the kinematic analysis of pistons motion of the ASz-62IR radial engine. The ASz-62IR engine is produced in Poland and mounted in the M-18 Dromader and the An-2. The results are shown as the courses of the motion of the pistons. The discrepancies in the courses for individual pistons can result in different masses of the charge to fill the cylinders. Besides, pistons acceleration of individual cylinders is different, which triggers an additional vibration in the engine.

Keywords: nonuniformity, kinematic analysis, piston motion, radial engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
929 A Research of the Prototype Fuel Injector for the Aircraft Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Lukasz Grabowski


The paper presents the research results of the construction of an injector with a modified injection nozzle. The injector is designed for a prototype aircraft opposed-piston diesel engine with an assumed starting power of 100 kW. The injector has been subjected to optical tests carried out in a constant volume chamber with the use of a camera allowing to record images at the frequency of 5400 fps and at the resolution of 1024x1024. The measurements were based on a Mie scattering technique with global lighting. Seven repetitions were made for a specific measurement point. The measuring point was selected on the basis of the analysis of engine operating conditions. The analysis focused on the average range of the spray and its distribution. As a result of the conducted research, the range of the fuel spray was defined for the determined parameters of injection. The obtained results were used to verify and optimize the combustion process in the designed opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ' S.A.' and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, opposed-piston, aircraft, fuel injector

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928 A Second Spark Ignition Timing for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Adam Majczak


In aviation most important systems that impact the aircraft flight safety are duplicated. The ASz-62IR aircraft radial engine consists of two spark plugs powered by two separate magnetos. The relative difference in spark timing has an influence on the combustion process. The retardation of the second spark relative to the first spark was analyzed. The CFD simulation was developed as a multicycle transient model. Two independent spark sources imitate two flame fronts after an ignition period. It makes the combustion process shorter but only for certain range of second spark retardation. The model was validated by the in-cylinder pressure comparison. Combustion parameters were analyzed for different second spark retardation values. It was found that the most advantageous ignition timing in means of performance is simultaneous ignition. Nevertheless, for this engine the ignition time of the second spark plug is greatly retarded eliminating the advantageous performance influence. The reason behind this is maintaining high ignition certainty for all engine running conditions and for whole operating rpm range. In aviation the engine reliability is more important than its performance. Introducing electronic ignition system can yield from simultaneous ignition timing by increasing the engine performance and providing good reliability for all flight conditions. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

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927 Survivability of Maneuvering Aircraft against Air to Air Infrared Missile

Authors: Ji-Yeul Bae, Hyung Mo Bae, Jihyuk Kim, Hyung Hee Cho


An air to air infrared missile poses a significant threat to the survivability of an aircraft due to an advanced sensitivity of sensor and maneuverability of the missile. Therefore, recent military aircraft is equipped with MAW (Missile Approach Warning) to take an evasive maneuver and to deploy countermeasures like chaff and flare. In this research, an effect of MAW sensitivity and resulting evasive maneuver on the survivability of the fighter aircraft is studied. A single engine fighter jet with Mach 0.9 flying at an altitude of 5 km is modeled in the research and infrared signature of the aircraft is calculated by numerical simulation. The survivability is assessed in terms of lethal range. The MAW sensitivity and maneuverability of an aircraft is used as variables. The result showed that improvement in survivability mainly achieved when the missile approach from the side of the aircraft. And maximum 30% increase in survivability of the aircraft is achieved when existence of the missile is noticed at 7 km distance. As a conclusion, sensitivity of the MAW seems to be more important factor than the maneuverability of the aircraft in terms of the survivability.

Keywords: air to air missile, missile approach warning, lethal range, survivability

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
926 Investigating Constructions and Operation of Internal Combustion Engine Water Pumps

Authors: Michał Gęca, Konrad Pietrykowski, Grzegorz Barański


The water pump in the compression-ignition internal combustion engine transports a hot coolant along a system of ducts from the engine block to the radiator where coolant temperature is lowered. This part needs to maintain a constant volumetric flow rate. Its power should be regulated to avoid a significant drop in pressure if a coolant flow decreases. The internal combustion engine cooling system uses centrifugal pumps for suction. The paper investigates 4 constructions of engine pumps. The pumps are from diesel engine of a maximum power of 75 kW. Each of them has a different rotor shape, diameter and width. The test stand was created and the geometry inside the all 4 engine blocks was mapped. For a given pump speed on the inverter of the electric engine motor, the valve position was changed and volumetric flow rate, pressure, and power were recorded. Pump speed was regulated from 1200 RPM to 7000 RPM every 300 RPM. The volumetric flow rates and pressure drops for the pump speeds and efficiencies were specified. Accordingly, the operations of each pump were mapped. Our research was to select a pump for the aircraft compression-ignition engine. There was calculated a pressure drop at a given flow on the block and radiator of the designed aircraft engine. The water pump should be lightweight and have a low power demand. This fact shall affect the shape of a rotor and bearings. The pump volumetric flow rate was assumed as 3 kg/s (previous AVL BOOST research model) where the temperature difference was 5°C between the inlet (90°C) and outlet (95°C). Increasing pump speed above the boundary flow power defined by pressure and volumetric flow rate does not increase it but pump efficiency decreases. The maximum total pump efficiency (PCC) is 45-50%. When the pump is driven by low speeds with a 90% closed valve, its overall efficiency drops to 15-20%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft engine, diesel engine, flow, water pump

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925 Six-Phase Tooth-Coil Winding Starter-Generator Embedded in Aerospace Engine

Authors: Flur R. Ismagilov, Vyacheslav E. Vavilov, Denis V. Gusakov


This paper is devoted to solve the problem of increasing the electrification of aircraft engines by installing a synchronous generator at high pressure shaft. Technical solution of this problem by various research centers is discussed. A design solution of the problem was proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed cooling system, thermal analysis was carried out in ANSYS software.

Keywords: starter-generator, more electrical engine, aircraft engines, high pressure shaft, synchronous generator

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924 Packaging in the Design Synthesis of Novel Aircraft Configuration

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith


A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Keywords: packaging, optimisation, BWB, parameterisation, aircraft conceptual design

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
923 The Verification Study of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy


This paper presents the results of the research to verify the combustion in aircraft piston engine Asz62-IR. This engine was modernized and a type of ignition system was developed. Due to the high costs of experiments of a nine-cylinder 1,000 hp aircraft engine, a simulation technique should be applied. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics to simulate the combustion process is a reasonable solution. Accordingly, the tests for varied ignition advance angles were carried out and the optimal value to be tested on a real engine was specified. The CFD model was created with the AVL Fire software. The engine in the research had two spark plugs for each cylinder and ignition advance angles had to be set up separately for each spark. The results of the simulation were verified by comparing the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of the indicated pressure of the engine mounted on a test stand were compared. The real course of pressure was measured with an optical sensor, mounted in a specially drilled hole between the valves. It was the OPTRAND pressure sensor, which was designed especially to engine combustion process research. The indicated pressure was measured in cylinder no 3. The engine was running at take-off power. The engine was loaded by a propeller at a special test bench. The verification of the CFD simulation results was based on the results of the test bench studies. The course of the simulated pressure obtained is within the measurement error of the optical sensor. This error is 1% and reflects the hysteresis and nonlinearity of the sensor. The real indicated pressure measured in the cylinder and the pressure taken from the simulation were compared. It can be claimed that the verification of CFD simulations based on the pressure is a success. The next step was to research on the impact of changing the ignition advance timing of spark plugs 1 and 2 on a combustion process. Moving ignition timing between 1 and 2 spark plug results in a longer and uneven firing of a mixture. The most optimal point in terms of indicated power occurs when ignition is simultaneous for both spark plugs, but so severely separated ignitions are assured that ignition will occur at all speeds and loads of engine. It should be confirmed by a bench experiment of the engine. However, this simulation research enabled us to determine the optimal ignition advance angle to be implemented into the ignition control system. This knowledge allows us to set up the ignition point with two spark plugs to achieve as large power as possible.

Keywords: CFD model, combustion, engine, simulation

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922 Thermal Imaging of Aircraft Piston Engine in Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Marcin Szlachetka, Tytus Tulwin


The main task of the engine cooling system is to maintain its average operating temperatures within strictly defined limits. Too high or too low average temperatures result in accelerated wear or even damage to the engine or its individual components. In order to avoid local overheating or significant temperature gradients, leading to high stresses in the component, the aim is to ensure an even flow of air. In the case of analyses related to heat exchange, one of the main problems is the comparison of temperature fields because standard measuring instruments such as thermocouples or thermistors only provide information about the course of temperature at a given point. Thermal imaging tests can be helpful in this case. With appropriate camera settings and taking into account environmental conditions, we are able to obtain accurate temperature fields in the form of thermograms. Emission of heat from the engine to the engine compartment is an important issue when designing a cooling system. Also, in the case of liquid cooling, the main sources of heat in the form of emissions from the engine block, cylinders, etc. should be identified. It is important to redesign the engine compartment ventilation system. Ensuring proper cooling of aircraft reciprocating engine is difficult not only because of variable operating range but mainly because of different cooling conditions related to the change of speed or altitude of flight. Engine temperature also has a direct and significant impact on the properties of engine oil, which under the influence of this parameter changes, in particular, its viscosity. Too low or too high, its value can be a result of fast wear of engine parts. One of the ways to determine the temperatures occurring on individual parts of the engine is the use of thermal imaging measurements. The article presents the results of preliminary thermal imaging tests of aircraft piston diesel engine with a maximum power of about 100 HP. In order to perform the heat emission tests of the tested engine, the ThermaCAM S65 thermovision monitoring system from FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) together with the ThermaCAM Researcher Professional software was used. The measurements were carried out after the engine warm up. The engine speed was 5300 rpm The measurements were taken for the following environmental parameters: air temperature: 17 °C, ambient pressure: 1004 hPa, relative humidity: 38%. The temperatures distribution on the engine cylinder and on the exhaust manifold were analysed. Thermal imaging tests made it possible to relate the results of simulation tests to the real object by measuring the rib temperature of the cylinders. The results obtained are necessary to develop a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of heat emission from the engine bay. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: aircraft, piston engine, heat, emission

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921 Engine Thrust Estimation by Strain Gauging of Engine Mount Assembly

Authors: Rohit Vashistha, Amit Kumar Gupta, G. P. Ravishankar, Mahesh P. Padwale


Accurate thrust measurement is required for aircraft during takeoff and after ski-jump. In a developmental aircraft, takeoff from ship is extremely critical and thrust produced by the engine should be known to the pilot before takeoff so that if thrust produced is not sufficient then take-off can be aborted and accident can be avoided. After ski-jump, thrust produced by engine is required because the horizontal speed of aircraft is less than the normal takeoff speed. Engine should be able to produce enough thrust to provide nominal horizontal takeoff speed to the airframe within prescribed time limit. The contemporary low bypass gas turbine engines generally have three mounts where the two side mounts transfer the engine thrust to the airframe. The third mount only takes the weight component. It does not take any thrust component. In the present method of thrust estimation, the strain gauging of the two side mounts is carried out. The strain produced at various power settings is used to estimate the thrust produced by the engine. The quarter Wheatstone bridge is used to acquire the strain data. The engine mount assembly is subjected to Universal Test Machine for determination of equivalent elasticity of assembly. This elasticity value is used in the analytical approach for estimation of engine thrust. The estimated thrust is compared with the test bed load cell thrust data. The experimental strain data is also compared with strain data obtained from FEM analysis. Experimental setup: The strain gauge is mounted on the tapered portion of the engine mount sleeve. Two strain gauges are mounted on diametrically opposite locations. Both of the strain gauges on the sleeve were in the horizontal plane. In this way, these strain gauges were not taking any strain due to the weight of the engine (except negligible strain due to material's poison's ratio) or the hoop's stress. Only the third mount strain gauge will show strain when engine is not running i.e. strain due to weight of engine. When engine starts running, all the load will be taken by the side mounts. The strain gauge on the forward side of the sleeve was showing a compressive strain and the strain gauge on the rear side of the sleeve shows a tensile strain. Results and conclusion: the analytical calculation shows that the hoop stresses dominate the bending stress. The estimated thrust by strain gauge shows good accuracy at higher power setting as compared to lower power setting. The accuracy of estimated thrust at max power setting is 99.7% whereas at lower power setting is 78%.

Keywords: engine mounts, finite elements analysis, strain gauge, stress

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920 Opposed Piston Engine Crankshaft Strength Calculation Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Konrad Pietrykowski, Michał Gęca, Michał Bialy


The paper presents the results of the crankshaft strength simulation. The crankshaft was taken from the opposed piston engine. Calculations were made using finite element method (FEM) in Abaqus software. This program allows to perform strength tests of individual machine parts as well as their assemblies. The crankshaft that was used in the calculations will be used in the two-stroke aviation research aircraft engine. The assumptions for the calculations were obtained from the AVL Boost software, from one-dimensional engine cycle model and from the multibody model using the method developed in the MSC Adams software. The research engine will be equipped with 3 combustion chambers and two crankshafts. In order to shorten the calculation time, only one crankcase analysis was performed. The cut of the shaft has been selected with the greatest forces resulting from the engine operation. Calculations were made for two cases. For maximum piston force when maximum bending load occurs and for the maximum torque. Cast iron material was adopted. For this material, Poisson's number, density, and Young's modulus were determined. The computational grid contained of 1,977,473 Tet elements. This type of elements was chosen because of the complex design of the crankshaft. Results are presented in the form of stress distributions maps and displacements on the surface and inside the geometry of the shaft. The results show the places of tension stresses, however, no stresses are exceeded at any place. The shaft can thus be applied to the engine in its present form. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ’ S.A. and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft diesel engine, crankshaft, finite element method, two-stroke engine

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919 Individual Cylinder Ignition Advance Control Algorithms of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: G. Barański, P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker


The impact of the ignition advance control algorithms of the ASz-62IR-16X aircraft piston engine on a combustion process has been presented in this paper. This aircraft engine is a nine-cylinder 1000 hp engine with a special electronic control ignition system. This engine has two spark plugs per cylinder with an ignition advance angle dependent on load and the rotational speed of the crankshaft. Accordingly, in most cases, these angles are not optimal for power generated. The scope of this paper is focused on developing algorithms to control the ignition advance angle in an electronic ignition control system of an engine. For this type of engine, i.e. radial engine, an ignition advance angle should be controlled independently for each cylinder because of the design of such an engine and its crankshaft system. The ignition advance angle is controlled in an open-loop way, which means that the control signal (i.e. ignition advance angle) is determined according to the previously developed maps, i.e. recorded tables of the correlation between the ignition advance angle and engine speed and load. Load can be measured by engine crankshaft speed or intake manifold pressure. Due to a limited memory of a controller, the impact of other independent variables (such as cylinder head temperature or knock) on the ignition advance angle is given as a series of one-dimensional arrays known as corrective characteristics. The value of the ignition advance angle specified combines the value calculated from the primary characteristics and several correction factors calculated from correction characteristics. Individual cylinder control can proceed in line with certain indicators determined from pressure registered in a combustion chamber. Control is assumed to be based on the following indicators: maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle, indicated mean effective pressure. Additionally, a knocking combustion indicator was defined. Individual control can be applied to a single set of spark plugs only, which results from two fundamental ideas behind designing a control system. Independent operation of two ignition control systems – if two control systems operate simultaneously. It is assumed that the entire individual control should be performed for a front spark plug only and a rear spark plug shall be controlled with a fixed (or specific) offset relative to the front one or from a reference map. The developed algorithms will be verified by simulation and engine test sand experiments. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: algorithm, combustion process, radial engine, spark plug

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
918 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer

Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha


Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.

Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
917 Analysis of Power Demand for the Common Rail Pump Drive in an Aircraft Engine

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Marcin Szlachetka, Miroslaw Wendeker


Increasing requirements to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while increasing the power factor is increasingly becoming applicable to internal combustion engines intended for aircraft applications. As a result, intensive research work is underway to develop a diesel-powered unit for aircraft propulsion. Due to a number of advantages, such as lack of the head (lower heat loss) and timing system, opposite movement of pistons conducive to balancing the engine, the two-stroke compression-ignition engine with the opposite pistons has been developed and upgraded. Of course, such construction also has drawbacks. The main one is the necessity of using a gear connecting two crankshafts or a complicated crank system with one shaft. The peculiarity of the arrangement of pistons with sleeves, as well as the fulfillment of rigorous requirements, makes it necessary to apply the most modern technologies and constructional solutions. In the case of the fuel supply system, it was decided to use common rail system elements. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of using a common rail pump to supply an aircraft compression-ignition engine. It is an engine with a two-stroke cycle, three cylinders, opposing pistons, and 100 kW power. Each combustion chamber is powered by two injectors controlled by electromagnetic valves. In order to assess the possibility of using a common rail pump, four high-pressure pumps were tested on a bench. They are piston pumps differing in the number and geometry of the pumping sections. The analysis included the torque on the pump drive shaft and the power needed to drive the pump depending on the rotational speed, pumping pressure and fuel dispenser settings. The research allowed to optimize the engine power supply system depending on the fuel demand and the way the pump is mounted on the engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish Nation-al Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, fuel pump, opposing pistons, two-stroke

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916 Vibration Energy Harvesting from Aircraft Structure Using Piezoelectric Transduction

Authors: M. Saifudin Ahmed Atique, Santosh Paudyal, Caixia Yang


In an aircraft, a great portion of energy is wasted due to its inflight structural vibration. Structural components vibrate due to aeroelastic instabilities, gust perturbations and engine rotation at very high rpm. Energy losses due to mechanical vibration can be utilized by harvesting energy from aircraft structure as electrical energy. This harvested energy can be stored in battery panels built into aircraft fuselage and can be used to power inflight auxiliary accessories i.e., lighting and entertainment systems. Moreover, this power can be used for wireless Structural Health Monitoring System (SHM) for aircraft and as an excellent replacement of aircraft Ground Power Unit (GPU)/Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during passenger onboard time to power aircraft cabin accessories to reduce aircraft ground operation cost significantly. In this paper, we propose the design of a noble aircraft wing in which Piezoelectric panels placed under the composite skin of aircraft wing will generate electrical charges from any inflight aerodynamics or mechanical vibration and store it into battery to power auxiliary inflight systems/accessories as per requirement. Experimental results show that a well-engineered piezoelectric energy harvester based aircraft wing can produce adequate energy to support in-flight lighting and auxiliary cabin accessories.

Keywords: vibration energy, aircraft wing, piezoelectric material, inflight accessories

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915 Calculation of the Supersonic Air Intake with the Optimization of the Shock Wave System

Authors: Elena Vinogradova, Aleksei Pleshakov, Aleksei Yakovlev


During the flight of a supersonic aircraft under various conditions (altitude, Mach, etc.), it becomes necessary to coordinate the operating modes of the air intake and engine. On the supersonic aircraft, it’s been done by changing various control factors (the angle of rotation of the wedge panels and etc.). This paper investigates the possibility of using modern optimization methods to determine the optimal position of the supersonic air intake wedge panels in order to maximize the total pressure recovery coefficient. Modern software allows us to conduct auto-optimization, which determines the optimal position of the control elements of the investigated product to achieve its maximum efficiency. In this work, the flow in the supersonic aircraft inlet has investigated and optimized the operation of the flaps of the supersonic inlet in an aircraft in a 2-D setting. This work has done using ANSYS CFX software. The supersonic aircraft inlet is a flat adjustable external compression inlet. The braking surface is made in the form of a three-stage wedge. The IOSO NM software package was chosen for optimization. Change in the position of the panels of the input device is carried out by changing the angle between the first and second steps of the three-stage wedge. The position of the rest of the panels is changed automatically. Within the framework of the presented work, the position of the moving air intake panel was optimized under fixed flight conditions of the aircraft under a certain engine operating mode. As a result of the numerical modeling, the distribution of total pressure losses was obtained for various cases of the engine operation, depending on the incoming flow velocity and the flight altitude of the aircraft. The results make it possible to obtain the maximum total pressure recovery coefficient under given conditions. Also, the initial geometry was set with a certain angle between the first and second wedge panels. Having performed all the calculations, as well as the subsequent optimization of the aircraft input device, it can be concluded that the initial angle was set sufficiently close to the optimal angle.

Keywords: optimal angle, optimization, supersonic air intake, total pressure recovery coefficient

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914 Effect of Installation of Long Cylindrical External Store on Performance, Stability, Control and Handling Qualities of Light Transport Aircraft

Authors: Ambuj Srivastava, Narender Singh


This paper presents the effect of installation of cylindrical external store on the performance, stability, control and handling qualities of light transport category aircraft. A pair of long cylindrical store was installed symmetrically on either side of the fuselage (port and starboard) ahead of the wing and below the fuselage bottom surface running below pilot and co-pilot window. The cylindrical store was installed as hanging from aircraft surface through specially designed brackets. The adjoining structure was sufficiently reinforced for bearing aerodynamic loads. The length to diameter ratio of long cylindrical store was ~20. Based on academic studies and flow simulation analysis, a considerable detrimental effect on single engine second segment climb performance was found which was later validated through extensive flight testing exercise. The methodology of progressive flight envelope opening was adopted. The certification was sought from Regional airworthiness authorities and for according approval.

Keywords: second segment climb, maximum operating speed, cruise performance (single engine and twin engine), minimum control speed, and additional trim required

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913 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin


The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: diesel engine, dual fuel diesel engine, emission reduction, technical characteristics

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912 Design & Development of a Static-Thrust Test-Bench for Aviation/UAV Based Piston Engines

Authors: Syed Muhammad Basit Ali, Usama Saleem, Irtiza Ali


Internal combustion engines have been pioneers in the aviation industry, use of piston engines for aircraft propulsion, from propeller-driven bi-planes to turbo-prop, commercial, and cargo airliners. To provide an adequate amount of thrust piston engine rotates the propeller at a specific rpm, allowing enough mass airflow. Thrust is the only forward-acting force of an aircraft that helps heavier than air bodies to fly, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Test-benches have been a bench-mark in the aerospace industry to analyse the results before a flight, having paramount significance in reliability and safety engineering, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Calculation of thrust from a piston engine also depends on environmental changes, the diameter of the propeller, and the density of air. The project would be centered on piston engines used in the aviation industry for light aircraft and UAVs. A static thrust test bench involves various units, each performing a designed purpose to monitor and display. Static thrust tests are performed on the ground, and safety concerns hold paramount importance. The execution of this study involves research, design, manufacturing, and results based on reverse engineering initiating from virtual design, analytical analysis, and simulations. The final evaluation of results gathered from various methods such as co-relation between conventional mass-spring and digital loadcell. On average, we received 17.5kg of thrust (25+ engine run-ups – around 40 hours of engine run), only 10% deviation from analytically calculated thrust –providing 90% accuracy.

Keywords: aviation, aeronautics, static thrust, test bench, aircraft maintenance

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911 Operation Cycle Model of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: M. Duk, L. Grabowski, P. Magryta


Today's very important element relating to air transport is the environment impact issues. Nowadays there are no emissions standards for turbine and piston engines used in air transport. However, it should be noticed that the environmental effect in the form of exhaust gases from aircraft engines should be as small as possible. For this purpose, R&D centers often use special software to simulate and to estimate the negative effect of engine working process. For cooperation between the Lublin University of Technology and the Polish aviation company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A., to achieve more effective operation of the ASz62IR engine, one of such tools have been used. The AVL Boost software allows to perform 1D simulations of combustion process of piston engines. ASz62IR is a nine-cylinder aircraft engine in a radial configuration. In order to analyze the impact of its working process on the environment, the mathematical model in the AVL Boost software have been made. This model contains, among others, model of the operation cycle of the cylinders. This model was based on a volume change in combustion chamber according to the reciprocating movement of a piston. The simplifications that all of the pistons move identically was assumed. The changes in cylinder volume during an operating cycle were specified. Those changes were important to determine the energy balance of a cylinder in an internal combustion engine which is fundamental for a model of the operating cycle. The calculations for cylinder thermodynamic state were based on the first law of thermodynamics. The change in the mass in the cylinder was calculated from the sum of inflowing and outflowing masses including: cylinder internal energy, heat from the fuel, heat losses, mass in cylinder, cylinder pressure and volume, blowdown enthalpy, evaporation heat etc. The model assumed that the amount of heat released in combustion process was calculated from the pace of combustion, using Vibe model. For gas exchange, it was also important to consider heat transfer in inlet and outlet channels because of much higher values there than for flow in a straight pipe. This results from high values of heat exchange coefficients and temperature coefficients near valves and valve seats. A Zapf modified model of heat exchange was used. To use the model with the flight scenarios, the impact of flight altitude on engine performance has been analyze. It was assumed that the pressure and temperature at the inlet and outlet correspond to the values resulting from the model for International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). Comparing this model of operation cycle with the others submodels of the ASz62IR engine, it could be noticed, that a full analysis of the performance of the engine, according to the ISA conditions, can be made. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under

Keywords: aviation propulsion, AVL Boost, engine model, operation cycle, aircraft engine

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910 Simulation Research of Diesel Aircraft Engine

Authors: Łukasz Grabowski, Michał Gęca, Mirosław Wendeker


This paper presents the simulation results of a new opposed piston diesel engine to power a light aircraft. Created in the AVL Boost, the model covers the entire charge passage, from the inlet up to the outlet. The model shows fuel injection into cylinders and combustion in cylinders. The calculation uses the module for two-stroke engines. The model was created using sub-models available in this software that structure the model. Each of the sub-models is complemented with parameters in line with the design premise. Since engine weight resulting from geometric dimensions is fundamental in aircraft engines, two configurations of stroke were studied. For each of the values, there were calculated selected operating conditions defined by crankshaft speed. The required power was achieved by changing air fuel ratio (AFR). There was also studied brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). For stroke S1, the BSFC was lowest at all of the three operating points. This difference is approximately 1-2%, which means higher overall engine efficiency but the amount of fuel injected into cylinders is larger by several mg for S1. The cylinder maximum pressure is lower for S2 due to the fact that compressor gear driving remained the same and boost pressure was identical in the both cases. Calculations for various values of boost pressure were the next stage of the study. In each of the calculation case, the amount of fuel was changed to achieve the required engine power. In the former case, the intake system dimensions were modified, i.e. the duct connecting the compressor and the air cooler, so its diameter D = 40 mm was equal to the diameter of the compressor outlet duct. The impact of duct length was also examined to be able to reduce the flow pulsation during the operating cycle. For the so selected geometry of the intake system, there were calculations for various values of boost pressure. The boost pressure was changed by modifying the gear driving the compressor. To reach the required level of cruising power N = 68 kW. Due to the mechanical power consumed by the compressor, high pressure ratio results in a worsened overall engine efficiency. The figure on the change in BSFC from 210 g/kWh to nearly 270 g/kWh shows this correlation and the overall engine efficiency is reduced by about 8%. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A." and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine, simulation

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909 Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Expansion Joints for Piping Systems in Aircraft Engine External Configurations and Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Dong Wook Lee


This paper presents a method to analyze the stiffness of the expansion joint with structural support using a hybrid method combining computational and analytical methods. Many expansion joints found in tubes and ducts of mechanical structures are designed to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between their structural members and deal with misalignments introduced from the assembly/manufacturing processes. One of the important design perspectives is the system’s vibrational characteristics. We calculate the stiffness as a characterization parameter for structural joint systems using a combined Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and an analytical method. We apply the methods to two sample applications: external configurations of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures.

Keywords: expansion joint, expansion joint stiffness, finite element analysis, nuclear power plants, aircraft engine external configurations

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908 ANSYS Investigation on Stability and Performance of a Solar Driven Inline Alpha Stirling Engine

Authors: Joseph Soliman, Youssef Attia, Khairy Megalla


The stable operation of an inline Stirling engine will be achieved when both engine configurations and operating conditions are optimum. This paper presents stability and performance investigation of an inline Stirling engine using ANSYS. Dynamic motion of engine pistons such as the displacer and the power piston are both obtained. For engine design, the optimum parameters are given such as engine specifications, engine characteristics and working conditions to yield the maximum efficiency and reliability. The prototype was built and tested and it is used as a validation case. The comparison of both experimental and simulation results are provided and discussed. Results were found to be encouraging to initiate a Stirling engine project for 3 kW power output. The working fluids are air, hydrogen, nitrogen and helum.

Keywords: stirling engine, solar energy, new energy, dynamic motion

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