Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Alison Parker

42 Numerical Investigation of the Integration of a Micro-Combustor with a Free Piston Stirling Engine in an Energy Recovery System

Authors: Ayodeji Sowale, Athanasios Kolios, Beatriz Fidalgo, Tosin Somorin, Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel

Abstract:

Recently, energy recovery systems are thriving and raising attention in the power generation sector, due to the request for cleaner forms of energy that are friendly and safe for the environment. This has created an avenue for cogeneration, where Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies have been recognised for their feasibility, and use in homes and small-scale businesses. The efficiency of combustors and the advantages of the free piston Stirling engines over other conventional engines in terms of output power and efficiency, have been observed and considered. This study presents the numerical analysis of a micro-combustor with a free piston Stirling engine in an integrated model of a Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT) unit. The NMT unit will use the micro-combustor to produce waste heat of high energy content from the combustion of human waste and the heat generated will power the free piston Stirling engine which will be connected to a linear alternator for electricity production. The thermodynamic influence of the combustor on the free piston Stirling engine was observed, based on the heat transfer from the flue gas to working gas of the free piston Stirling engine. The results showed that with an input of 25 MJ/kg of faecal matter, and flue gas temperature of 773 K from the micro-combustor, the free piston Stirling engine generates a daily output power of 428 W, at thermal efficiency of 10.7% with engine speed of 1800 rpm. An experimental investigation into the integration of the micro-combustor and free piston Stirling engine with the NMT unit is currently underway.

Keywords: free piston stirling engine, micro-combustor, nano membrane toilet, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
41 Blended Cloud Based Learning Approach in Information Technology Skills Training and Paperless Assessment: Case Study of University of Cape Coast

Authors: David Ofosu-Hamilton, John K. E. Edumadze

Abstract:

Universities have come to recognize the role Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills plays in the daily activities of tertiary students. The ability to use ICT – essentially, computers and their diverse applications – are important resources that influence an individual’s economic and social participation and human capital development. Our society now increasingly relies on the Internet, and the Cloud as a means to communicate and disseminate information. The educated individual should, therefore, be able to use ICT to create and share knowledge that will improve society. It is, therefore, important that universities require incoming students to demonstrate a level of computer proficiency or trained to do so at a minimal cost by deploying advanced educational technologies. The training and standardized assessment of all in-coming first-year students of the University of Cape Coast in Information Technology Skills (ITS) have become a necessity as students’ most often than not highly overestimate their digital skill and digital ignorance is costly to any economy. The one-semester course is targeted at fresh students and aimed at enhancing the productivity and software skills of students. In this respect, emphasis is placed on skills that will enable students to be proficient in using Microsoft Office and Google Apps for Education for their academic work and future professional work whiles using emerging digital multimedia technologies in a safe, ethical, responsible, and legal manner. The course is delivered in blended mode - online and self-paced (student centered) using Alison’s free cloud-based tutorial (Moodle) of Microsoft Office videos. Online support is provided via discussion forums on the University’s Moodle platform and tutor-directed and assisted at the ICT Centre and Google E-learning laboratory. All students are required to register for the ITS course during either the first or second semester of the first year and must participate and complete it within a semester. Assessment focuses on Alison online assessment on Microsoft Office, Alison online assessment on ALISON ABC IT, Peer assessment on e-portfolio created using Google Apps/Office 365 and an End of Semester’s online assessment at the ICT Centre whenever the student was ready in the cause of the semester. This paper, therefore, focuses on the digital culture approach of hybrid teaching, learning and paperless examinations and the possible adoption by other courses or programs at the University of Cape Coast.

Keywords: assessment, blended, cloud, paperless

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
40 Scoping Review of the Barriers and Facilitators to Enabling Scholarly Activity within Canadian Schools of Nursing

Authors: Christa Siminiuk, Morgan Yates, Paramita Banerjee, Alison Curtis, Lysbeth Cuanda

Abstract:

This review looked at current evidence regarding barriers and facilitators to nursing scholarship within the content of Canadian Schools of Nursing. Nursing scholarship mainly referred to research, though other activities as described by Boyer’s Model were also discussed. This scoping review was done to assist the Langara School of Nursing in developing an evidenced-based plan to enhance scholarly work among its faculty members. The scoping review identified 10 articles which detailed barriers and facilitators in both Canadian and international contexts. Barriers and facilitators in these articles were extracted and they were also critically appraised. The identified barriers and facilitators fell into three main areas; personal attributes, facility factors and system challenges. The three area will be discussed further in the presentation as well as strategies identified to overcome these barriers.

Keywords: barriers, facilitators, nursing education, scholarship

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
39 Geo-Spatial Methods to Better Understand Urban Food Deserts

Authors: Brian Ceh, Alison Jackson-Holland

Abstract:

Food deserts are a reality in some cities. These deserts can be described as a shortage of healthy food options within close proximity of consumers. The shortage in this case is typically facilitated by a lack of stores in an urban area that provide adequate fruit and vegetable choices. This study explores new avenues to better understand food deserts by examining modes of transportation that are available to shoppers or consumers, e.g. walking, automobile, or public transit. Further, this study is unique in that it not only explores the location of large grocery stores, but small grocery and convenience stores too. In this study, the relationship between some socio-economic indicators, such as personal income, are also explored to determine any possible association with food deserts. In addition, to help facilitate our understanding of food deserts, complex network spatial models that are built on adequate algorithms are used to investigate the possibility of food deserts in the city of Hamilton, Canada. It is found that Hamilton, Canada is adequate serviced by retailers who provide healthy food choices and that the food desert phenomena is almost absent.

Keywords: Canada, desert, food, Hamilton, store

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38 Prey-Stage Preference, Functional Response, and Mutual Interference of Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-Henriot on Frankliniella occidentalis Priesner

Authors: Marjan Heidarian Dehkordi, Hossein Allahyari, Bruce Parker, Reza Talaee-Hassanlouei

Abstract:

The Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a significant pest of many economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses, prey-stage preferences and mutual interference of Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) with F. occidentalis as the host under laboratory conditions. The predator species showed no prey stage preference for either prey 1st or 2nd instar. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional response for the predator species. Consequently, the per capita searching efficiency decreased significantly from 1.2425 to -7.4987 as predator densities increased from 2 to 8. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of F. occidentalis and other pests in vegetable production.

Keywords: biological control, functional responses, mutual interference, prey-stage preferences

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
37 The Defence of Loss of Control within the Coroners and Justice Act 2009: A Critical Discussion

Authors: Bader A. J. Alrajhi

Abstract:

The 'loss of control' defence to murder as enacted in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (CJA) represents a legislative effort to bring greater coherence to an aspect of UK homicide law that has vexed several generations of jurists, practitioners, and academic commentators. The analysis developed in this paper illustrates that the loss of control defence as defined in CJA sections 54 and 55 is a laudable initiative; its fuller assessment must await further appellate court determination before a definitive conclusion of its utility is possible. The CJA amendments tend to embrace a legitimate policy that those who found to be provoked by the activities of others to lose their self-control should be dealt with in a different way than those who commit intentional killings when motivated by their own desires or pursuit of gain. However, the 2012 Court of Appeal decisions rendered in the Parker troika of cases, provide useful direction as to how the law is likely to be applied. It shows an attitude in the Court of Appeal that the whole circumstances that challenged the defendant must be examined. The Court of Appeal has introduced an important ingredient into the potential use of sexual infidelity as a section 55 trigger - it is not a permissible stand-alone factor, but it may legitimately form part of an entire qualifying trigger circumstance.

Keywords: loss of self-control, Coroners and Justice Act 2009, provocation, diminished responsibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
36 Moving Images and Re-Articulations of Self-Identity: Young People's Experiences of Viewing Representations Disability in Films

Authors: Alison Wilde, Stephen Millett

Abstract:

The cultural value of disabled people has largely been overlooked within forms of media and cultural analysis until the 1980s, when disabled people and disability studies highlighted the cultural misrecognition of disabled people and called for improved forms of cultural recognition and representation. Despite an increase in cultural analysis of representations of disabled people, much has been assumed about how images are read, and little work has been done on the value attributed to disabled people by media audiences and the viewing interests and encounters of film audiences. In particular, there has been little work on film reception, or on the way that young people interpret images of disability. We set out to understand some of the ways that young people read disability imagery, by showing small groups of young people different types of film featuring impairments, chosen from three different eras in film. These were Freaks, Rear Window (remake), and Finding Nemo. The discussions after these films allowed them to explore their own experiences of disability alongside the evolution of cultural representations; in so doing they discussed significant themes of cultural value and reflected on their own identities, e.g. in/dependency, autonomy, and competency and the ways these intersected with self-identity, and attitudes to disabled people.

Keywords: film, audience, identity, disability

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35 The Applicability of Western Environmental Criminology Theories to the Arabic Context

Authors: Nawaf Alotaibi, Andy Evans, Alison Heppenstall, Nick Malleson

Abstract:

Throughout the last two decades, motor vehicle theft (MVT) has accounted for the largest proportion of property crime incidents in Saudi Arabia (SA). However, to date, few studies have investigated SA’s MVT problem. Those that have are primarily focused on the characteristics of car thieves, and most have overlooked any spatial-temporal distribution of MVT incidents and the characteristics of victims. This paper represents the first step in understanding this problem by reviewing the existing MVT studies contextualised within the theoretical frameworks developed in environmental criminology theories – originating in the West – and exploring to what extent they are relevant to the SA context. To achieve this, the paper has identified a range of key features in SA that are different from typical Western contexts, that could limit the appropriateness and capability of applying existing environmental criminology theories. Furthermore, despite these Western studies reviewed so far having introduced a number of explanatory variables for MVT rates, a range of significant elements are apparently absent in the current literature and this requires further analysis. For example, almost no attempts have been made to quantify the associations between the locations of vehicle theft, recovery of stolen vehicles, joyriding and traffic volume.

Keywords: environmental criminology theories, motor vehicle theft, Saudi Arabia, spatial analysis

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34 Cerebrovascular Modeling: A Vessel Network Approach for Fluid Distribution

Authors: Karla E. Sanchez-Cazares, Kim H. Parker, Jennifer H. Tweedy

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to develop a simple compartmental model of cerebral fluid balance including blood and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF). At the first level the cerebral arteries and veins are modelled as bifurcating trees with constant scaling factors between generations which are connected through a homogeneous microcirculation. The arteries and veins are assumed to be non-rigid and the cross-sectional area, resistance and mean pressure in each generation are determined as a function of blood volume flow rate. From the mean pressure and further assumptions about the variation of wall permeability, the transmural fluid flux can be calculated. The results suggest the next level of modelling where the cerebral vasculature is divided into three compartments; the large arteries, the small arteries, the capillaries and the veins with effective compliances and permeabilities derived from the detailed vascular model. These vascular compartments are then linked to other compartments describing the different CSF spaces, the cerebral ventricles and the subarachnoid space. This compartmental model is used to calculate the distribution of fluid in the cranium. Known volumes and flows for normal conditions are used to determine reasonable parameters for the model, which can then be used to help understand pathological behaviour and suggest clinical interventions.

Keywords: cerebrovascular, compartmental model, CSF model, vascular network

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33 Trauma after Childbirth: The Mediating Effects of Subjective Experience

Authors: Grace Baptie, Jackie Andrade, Alison Bacon, Alyson Norman

Abstract:

Background: Many women experience their childbirth as traumatic, and 4-6% of mothers present with postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of their birth. Aims: To measure the relationship between obstetric and subjective experience of childbirth on mothers’ experience of postnatal trauma and identify salient aspects of the birth experience considered traumatic. Methods: Women who had given birth within the last year completed an online mixed-methods survey reporting on their subjective and obstetric birth experience as well as symptoms of postnatal trauma, depression and anxiety. Findings: 29% of mothers experienced their labour as traumatic and 15% met full or partial criteria for PTSD. Feeling supported and in control mediated the relationship between obstetric intervention and postnatal trauma symptoms. Five key themes were identified from the qualitative data regarding aspects of the birth considered traumatic including: obstetric complications; lack of control; concern for baby; psychological trauma and lack of support. Conclusion: Subjective birth experience is a significantly stronger predictor of postnatal trauma than level of medical intervention, the psychological consequences of which can be buffered by an increased level of support and control.

Keywords: birth trauma, perinatal mental health, postnatal PTSD, subjective experience

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32 Nonlinear Porous Diffusion Modeling of Ionic Agrochemicals in Astomatous Plant Cuticle Aqueous Pores: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Eloise C. Tredenick, Troy W. Farrell, W. Alison Forster, Steven T. P. Psaltis

Abstract:

The agriculture industry requires improved efficacy of sprays being applied to crops. More efficacious sprays provide many environmental and financial benefits. The plant leaf cuticle is known to be the main barrier to diffusion of agrochemicals within the leaf. The importance of a mathematical model to simulate uptake of agrochemicals in plant cuticles has been noted, as the results of each uptake experiments are specific to each formulation of active ingredient and plant species. In this work we develop a mathematical model and numerical simulation for the uptake of ionic agrochemicals through aqueous pores in plant cuticles. We propose a nonlinear porous diffusion model of ionic agrochemicals in isolated cuticles, which provides additions to a simple diffusion model through the incorporation of parameters capable of simulating plant species' variations, evaporation of surface droplet solutions and swelling of the aqueous pores with water. The model could feasibly be adapted to other ionic active ingredients diffusing through other plant species' cuticles. We validate our theoretical results against appropriate experimental data, discuss the key sensitivities in the model and relate theoretical predictions to appropriate physical mechanisms.

Keywords: aqueous pores, ionic active ingredient, mathematical model, plant cuticle, porous diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
31 Content Analysis of Depictions of Terrorism in U.S. Major Motion Pictures: A Social Constructionist Perspective

Authors: Raleigh Blasdell, Amanda M. Sharp Parker, Lauren Waldrop, Brigid Toney

Abstract:

It has been demonstrated that fictional media sources have persuasive effects on public beliefs; this study contributes to the social constructionist literature by conducting a content analysis of U.S. major motion pictures involving terrorism. Using the Unified Film Population Sampling Methodology, the top-grossing films were identified to examine the frequency and context of several constructs of terrorism, including terrorist demographics, type of terrorism, country of origin, organizational affiliation, crime typology, and victim demographics. Comparisons of these constructs, as depicted in the films, were then made with the extant academic literature on terrorism. The data provide notable information regarding the representation of terrorism by the film industry, as well the discrepancies between the scholarly literature and depictions in popular films. The results indicate vast differences between fiction and reality, emphasizing a 'Middle Eastern Islamic male' terrorist stereotype. Using the theoretical foundation of social constructionism, the findings provide insight into how inaccurate depictions in film can influence society’s beliefs about terrorism and terrorists, which subsequently can translate into public support for legislation and policies that are often fueled by misinformation.

Keywords: film, media, social constructionism, terrorism

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30 Using Reading to Learn Pedagogy to Promote Chinese Written Vocabulary Acquisition: An Evaluative Study

Authors: Mengping Cheng, John Everatt, Alison Arrow, Amanda Denston

Abstract:

Based on the available evidence, Chinese heritage language learners have a basic level of Chinese language proficiency with lower capability in literacy compared to speaking. Low levels of literacy are likely related to the lack of reading activities in current textbook-based pedagogy used in Chinese community schools. The present study aims to use Reading to Learn pedagogy which is a top-down language learning model and test the effectiveness of Reading to Learn on Chinese heritage learners’ written vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experiment with the pre-test/post-test non-equivalent group design was conducted. The experimental group received Reading to Learn instructions and the control group had traditional textbook-based instructions. Participants were given Chinese characters tasks (a recognize-and-read task and a listen-and-point task), vocabulary tasks (a receptive vocabulary task and a productive vocabulary task) and a sentence cloze test in pre-tests and post-tests. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If the results show more improvement of Chinese written vocabulary in the experimental group than in the control group, it will be recommended that Reading to Learn pedagogy is valuable to be used to maintain and develop Chinese heritage language literacy.

Keywords: Chinese heritage language, experimental research, Reading to Learn pedagogy, vocabulary acquisition

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29 Flight School Perceptions of Electric Planes for Training

Authors: Chelsea-Anne Edwards, Paul Parker

Abstract:

Flight school members are facing a major disruption in the technologies available for them to fly as electric planes enter the aviation industry. The year 2020 marked a new era in aviation with the first type certification of an electric plane. The Pipistrel Velis Electro is a two-seat electric aircraft (e-plane) designed for flight training. Electric flight training has the potential to deeply reduce emissions, noise, and cost of pilot training. Though these are all attractive features, understanding must be developed on the perceptions of the essential actor of the technology, the pilot. This study asks student pilots, flight instructors, flight center managers, and other members of flight schools about their perceptions of e-planes. The questions were divided into three categories: safety and trust of the technology, expected costs in comparison to conventional planes, and interest in the technology, including their desire to fly electric planes. Participants were recruited from flight schools using a protocol approved by the Office of Research Ethics. None of these flight schools have an e-plane in their fleet so these views are based on perceptions rather than direct experience. The results revealed perceptions that were strongly positive with many qualitative comments indicating great excitement about the potential of the new electric aviation technology. Some concerns were raised regarding battery endurance limits. Overall, the flight school community is clearly in favor of introducing electric propulsion technology and reducing the environmental impacts of their industry.

Keywords: electric planes, flight training, green aircraft, student pilots, sustainable aviation

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28 Access to the Forest Ecosystem Services: Understanding the Interaction between Livelihood Capitals and Access

Authors: Abu S. M. G. Kibria, Alison M. Behie, Robert Costanza, Colin Groves, Tracy Farrell

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This study is aimed to understand the level of access and the influence of livelihood capitals in maintaining access and control of ecosystem services (ESS) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Besides the villagers, we consider other stakeholders including the forest department, coast guard, police, merchants, pirates and villagers who ‘controlled’ or ‘maintained’ access to ESS (crab catching, shrimp fry, honey, shrimp, mixed fish, fuel wood) in this region. Villagers used human, physical, natural and social capitals to gain access to ESS. The highest level of access was observed in crab catching and the lowest was found in honey collection, both of which were done when balancing the costs and benefits of accessing one ESS against another. The outcomes of these ongoing access negotiations were determined by livelihood capitals of the households. In addition, it was often found that the certain variables could have a positive effect on one ESS and a negative effect on another. For instance, human, social and natural capitals (eldest daughter’s education and No. of livelihood group membership and) had significant positive effects on honey collection while two components of human and social capitals including ‘eldest son’s education’ and ‘severity of pirate problem’ had exactly the opposite impact. These complex interactions were also observed in access to other ESS. It thus seems that access to ESS is not anything which is provided, but rather it is achieved by using livelihood capitals. Protecting any ecosystem from over exploitation and improve wellbeing can be achieved by properly balancing the livelihood capital-access nexus.

Keywords: provisioning services, access level, livelihood capital, interaction, access gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
27 Suicide Prevention among Young People: Findings from the Evaluation of Youth Aware of Mental Health in Australian Secondary Schools

Authors: Lauren McGillivray, Michelle Torok, Alison Calear

Abstract:

Suicide is the leading cause of death for Australians aged 15-24 years, with rates increasing over the past decade. As young people can be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems and suicidal behavior, they are an essential and obvious target for suicide prevention efforts. This study investigates the effectiveness of the universal mental health promotion and suicide prevention program, Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), to reduce suicidal ideation and attempts and increase help-seeking in young people. This trial took place in Australian schools across four regions in New South Wales that form part of LifeSpan, a larger multilevel suicide prevention research trial. The YAM program was delivered to Year 9 students in up to 78 schools over two years (from January 2017 to December 2019). All schools were invited to participate in YAM's evaluation, which included completing a student questionnaire at three time-points: baseline, 3-month post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome is suicidal ideation severity. Secondary outcomes are new reports of suicide attempts, stigma towards suicide, knowledge about suicide, help-seeking intentions and behaviors, and depressive symptoms. Results from pre-post and follow-up data will be presented. These research findings are promising and will contribute to the evidence-based for YAM and suicide prevention programs in Australian schools. These findings are also expected to promote YAM's value and sustainability to be more widely delivered in Australian secondary schools.

Keywords: adolescent mental health, suicidal ideation, suicide prevention, universal program

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26 Cirrhosis Mortality Prediction as Classification using Frequent Subgraph Mining

Authors: Abdolghani Ebrahimi, Diego Klabjan, Chenxi Ge, Daniela Ladner, Parker Stride

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In this work, we use machine learning and novel data analysis techniques to predict the one-year mortality of cirrhotic patients. Data from 2,322 patients with liver cirrhosis are collected at a single medical center. Different machine learning models are applied to predict one-year mortality. A comprehensive feature space including demographic information, comorbidity, clinical procedure and laboratory tests is being analyzed. A temporal pattern mining technic called Frequent Subgraph Mining (FSM) is being used. Model for End-stage liver disease (MELD) prediction of mortality is used as a comparator. All of our models statistically significantly outperform the MELD-score model and show an average 10% improvement of the area under the curve (AUC). The FSM technic itself does not improve the model significantly, but FSM, together with a machine learning technique called an ensemble, further improves the model performance. With the abundance of data available in healthcare through electronic health records (EHR), existing predictive models can be refined to identify and treat patients at risk for higher mortality. However, due to the sparsity of the temporal information needed by FSM, the FSM model does not yield significant improvements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to apply modern machine learning algorithms and data analysis methods on predicting one-year mortality of cirrhotic patients and builds a model that predicts one-year mortality significantly more accurate than the MELD score. We have also tested the potential of FSM and provided a new perspective of the importance of clinical features.

Keywords: machine learning, liver cirrhosis, subgraph mining, supervised learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
25 Investigation of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Kitchen of Catering

Authors: Çiğdem Sezer, Aksem Aksoy, Leyla Vatansever

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This study has been done for the purpose of evaluation of public health and identifying of enterotoxigenic Staphyloccocus aureus in kitchen of catering. In the kitchen of catering, samples have been taken by swabs from surface of equipments which are in the salad section, meat section and bakery section. Samples have been investigated with classical cultural methods in terms of Staphyloccocus aureus. Therefore, as a 10x10 cm area was identified (salad, cutting and chopping surfaces, knives, meat grinder, meat chopping surface) samples have been taken with sterile swabs with helping FTS from this area. In total, 50 samples were obtained. In aseptic conditions, Baird-Parker agar (with egg yolk tellurite) surface was seeded with swabs. After 24-48 hours of incubation at 37°C, the black colonies with 1-1.5 mm diameter and which are surrounded by a zone indicating lecithinase activity were identified as S. aureus after applying Gram staining, catalase, coagulase, glucose and mannitol fermentation and termonuclease tests. Genotypic characterization (Staphylococcus genus and S.aureus species spesific) of isolates was performed by PCR. The ELISA test was applied to the isolates for the identification of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SET) A, B, C, D, E in bacterial cultures. Measurements were taken at 450 nm in an ELISA reader using an Ridascreen-Total set ELISA test kit (r-biopharm R4105-Enterotoxin A, B, C, D, E). The results were calculated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A total of 50 samples of 97 S. aureus was isolated. This number has been identified as 60 with PCR analysis. According to ELISA test, only 1 of 60 isolates were found to be enterotoxigenic. Enterotoxigenic strains were identified from the surface of salad chopping and cutting. In the kitchen of catering, S. aureus identification indicates a significant source of contamination. Especially, in raw consumed salad preparation phase of contamination is very important. This food can be a potential source of food-borne poisoning their terms, and they pose a significant risk to consumers have been identified.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, enterotoxin, catering, kitchen, health

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24 Enhancing Learning for Research Higher Degree Students

Authors: Jenny Hall, Alison Jaquet

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Universities’ push toward the production of high quality research is not limited to academic staff and experienced researchers. In this environment of research rich agendas, Higher Degree Research (HDR) students are increasingly expected to engage in the publishing of good quality papers in high impact journals. IFN001: Advanced Information Research Skills (AIRS) is a credit bearing mandatory coursework requirement for Queensland University of Technology (QUT) doctorates. Since its inception in 1989, this unique blended learning program has provided the foundations for new researchers to produce original and innovative research. AIRS was redeveloped in 2012, and has now been evaluated with reference to the university’s strategic research priorities. Our research is the first comprehensive evaluation of the program from the learner perspective. We measured whether the program develops essential transferrable skills and graduate capabilities to ensure best practice in the areas of publishing and data management. In particular, we explored whether AIRS prepares students to be agile researchers with the skills to adapt to different research contexts both within and outside academia. The target group for our study consisted of HDR students and supervisors at QUT. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used for data collection. Gathering data was by survey and focus groups with qualitative responses analyzed using NVivo. The results of the survey show that 82% of students surveyed believe that AIRS assisted their research process and helped them learn skills they need as a researcher. The 18% of respondents who expressed reservation about the benefits of AIRS were also examined to determine the key areas of concern. These included trends related to the timing of the program early in the candidature and a belief among some students that their previous research experience was sufficient for postgraduate study. New insights have been gained into how to better support HDR learners in partnership with supervisors and how to enhance learning experiences of specific cohorts, including international students and mature learners.

Keywords: data management, enhancing learning experience, publishing, research higher degree students, doctoral students

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23 From Text to Data: Sentiment Analysis of Presidential Election Political Forums

Authors: Sergio V Davalos, Alison L. Watkins

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User generated content (UGC) such as website post has data associated with it: time of the post, gender, location, type of device, and number of words. The text entered in user generated content (UGC) can provide a valuable dimension for analysis. In this research, each user post is treated as a collection of terms (words). In addition to the number of words per post, the frequency of each term is determined by post and by the sum of occurrences in all posts. This research focuses on one specific aspect of UGC: sentiment. Sentiment analysis (SA) was applied to the content (user posts) of two sets of political forums related to the US presidential elections for 2012 and 2016. Sentiment analysis results in deriving data from the text. This enables the subsequent application of data analytic methods. The SASA (SAIL/SAI Sentiment Analyzer) model was used for sentiment analysis. The application of SASA resulted with a sentiment score for each post. Based on the sentiment scores for the posts there are significant differences between the content and sentiment of the two sets for the 2012 and 2016 presidential election forums. In the 2012 forums, 38% of the forums started with positive sentiment and 16% with negative sentiment. In the 2016 forums, 29% started with positive sentiment and 15% with negative sentiment. There also were changes in sentiment over time. For both elections as the election got closer, the cumulative sentiment score became negative. The candidate who won each election was in the more posts than the losing candidates. In the case of Trump, there were more negative posts than Clinton’s highest number of posts which were positive. KNIME topic modeling was used to derive topics from the posts. There were also changes in topics and keyword emphasis over time. Initially, the political parties were the most referenced and as the election got closer the emphasis changed to the candidates. The performance of the SASA method proved to predict sentiment better than four other methods in Sentibench. The research resulted in deriving sentiment data from text. In combination with other data, the sentiment data provided insight and discovery about user sentiment in the US presidential elections for 2012 and 2016.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, text mining, user generated content, US presidential elections

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22 Santo Niño in Canada: Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside

Authors: Alison Marshall

Abstract:

“Santo Niño in Canada – Religion, Migration, and the Filipino Underside” seeks to explore the intersection of religion, migration and the Filipino underside through research participant narratives, archival research, and fieldwork on the cult of Santo Niño in Canada. Santo Niño is the single most revered saint in Filipino religiosity. According to popular lore, the original statue of Santo Niño was brought to the Philippines by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, who claimed the islands on behalf of Spain. While Santo Niño is meant to be a manifestation of Jesus as a child, in Filipino thought and culture he very much resembles pre-Hispanic spirits, as well as patron saints introduced by the Spanish. Santo Niño shrines appear in churches, restaurants, businesses, and homes throughout the diaspora suggesting that he was much more than a Catholic image. He represents a deity who often shares a business or home shrine with non-Christian statues such as lucky cats, the Buddha, Guanyin, and Guangong, and sometimes the Chinese God of the Earth. He represents how Christian culture has been refashioned through indigenous, Chinese, Malay, and Indonesian influences. He embodies the religious superstructure that defines Christian piety and habits. On the one hand, he stands for Jesus, a pious son of God, and yet, on the other hand, he can be a simple vindictive child who punishes those who ignore him. Santo Niño is a complex character linked to the past before Christianity. As Filipinos engage with Santo Niño in Canada, they connect to him as Jesus, the son of God. They are also connecting to a childlike figure who sometimes uses his spiritual power to punish. A hybrid figure who comes came into being at the beginning of the Spanish colonial moment, he is maintained throughout the American one and continues to be a powerful reminder of Filipino identity and resilience when people leave the Philippines for migrant work. As this paper argues, Santo Niño beliefs, practices, and stories unite people in the diaspora regardless of language, gender, or nation. Santo Niño enables one to think about and understand what it means to be Filipino and living migrant lives in the diaspora today. In this way, the cult of Santo Niño expresses both Catholic orthodoxy and the heterodox Filipino underside that includes the use of magical amulets, healing, visions, and spirit mediumship.

Keywords: ethnography, migration, Philippines, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
21 Probabilistic Life Cycle Assessment of the Nano Membrane Toilet

Authors: A. Anastasopoulou, A. Kolios, T. Somorin, A. Sowale, Y. Jiang, B. Fidalgo, A. Parker, L. Williams, M. Collins, E. J. McAdam, S. Tyrrel

Abstract:

Developing countries are nowadays confronted with great challenges related to domestic sanitation services in view of the imminent water scarcity. Contemporary sanitation technologies established in these countries are likely to pose health risks unless waste management standards are followed properly. This paper provides a solution to sustainable sanitation with the development of an innovative toilet system, called Nano Membrane Toilet (NMT), which has been developed by Cranfield University and sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The particular technology converts human faeces into energy through gasification and provides treated wastewater from urine through membrane filtration. In order to evaluate the environmental profile of the NMT system, a deterministic life cycle assessment (LCA) has been conducted in SimaPro software employing the Ecoinvent v3.3 database. The particular study has determined the most contributory factors to the environmental footprint of the NMT system. However, as sensitivity analysis has identified certain critical operating parameters for the robustness of the LCA results, adopting a stochastic approach to the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) will comprehensively capture the input data uncertainty and enhance the credibility of the LCA outcome. For that purpose, Monte Carlo simulations, in combination with an artificial neural network (ANN) model, have been conducted for the input parameters of raw material, produced electricity, NOX emissions, amount of ash and transportation of fertilizer. The given analysis has provided the distribution and the confidence intervals of the selected impact categories and, in turn, more credible conclusions are drawn on the respective LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) profile of NMT system. Last but not least, the specific study will also yield essential insights into the methodological framework that can be adopted in the environmental impact assessment of other complex engineering systems subject to a high level of input data uncertainty.

Keywords: sanitation systems, nano-membrane toilet, lca, stochastic uncertainty analysis, Monte Carlo simulations, artificial neural network

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20 The Impact of Temperamental Traits of Candidates for Aviation School on Their Strategies for Coping with Stress during Selection Exams in Physical Education

Authors: Robert Jedrys, Zdzislaw Kobos, Justyna Skrzynska, Zbigniew Wochynski

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Professions connected to aviation require an assessment of the suitability of health, psychological and psychomotor skills and overall physical fitness of the organism, who applies. Assessment of the physical condition is conducted by the committees consisting of aero-medical specialists in clinical medicine and aviation. In addition, psychological predispositions should be evaluated by specialized psychologists familiar with the specifics of the tasks and requirements for the various positions in aviation. Both, physical abilities and general physical fitness of candidates for aviation shall be assessed during the selection exams, which also test the ability to deal with stress what is very important in aviation. Hence, the mentioned exams in physical education not only help to judge on the ranking in candidates in terms of their efficiency and performance, but also allows to evaluate the functioning under stress measured using psychological tests. Moreover, before-test stress is a predictors of successfulness in the next stages of education and practical training in the aviation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of temperamental traits on strategies used for coping with stress during selection exams in physical education, deciding on admission to aviation school. The study involved 30 candidates for fighter pilot training in aviation school . To evaluate the temperament 'The Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory' (FCB-TI) by B. Zawadzki and J.Strelau was used. To determine the pattern of coping with stress 'The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations' (CISS) to N. S. Endler and J. D. A. Parker were engaged. Study of temperament and styles of coping with stress was conducted directly before the exam selection of physical education. The results were analyzed with 'Statistica 9' program. The studies showed that:-There is a negative correlation between such a temperament feature as 'perseverance' and preferred style of coping with stress concentrated on the task (r = -0.590; p < 0.004); -There is a positive correlation between such a feature of temperament as 'emotional reactivity,' and preference to deal with a stressful situation with ‘style centered on emotions’ (r = 0.520; p <0.011); -There is a negative correlation between such a feature of temperament as ‘strength’ and ‘style of coping with stress concentrated on emotions’ (r = -0.580; p < 0.004). Studies indicate that temperament traits determine the perception of stress and preferred coping styles used during the selection, as during the exams in physical education.

Keywords: aviation, physical education, stress, temperamental traits

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19 The Relationship Between Weight Gain, Cyclicality of Diabetologic Education and the Experienced Stress: A Study Involving Pregnant Women

Authors: Agnieszka Rolinska, Marta Makara-Studzinska

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Introduction: In recent years, there has been an intensive development of research into the physiological relationships between the experienced stress and obesity. Moreover, strong chronic stress leads to the disorganization of a person’s activeness on various levels of functioning, including the behavioral and cognitive sphere (also in one’s diet). Aim: The present work addresses the following research questions: Is there a relationship between an increase in stress related to the disease and the need for the cyclicality of diabetologic education in gestational diabetes? Are there any differences in terms of the experienced stress during the last three months of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes and in normal pregnancy between the patients with normal weight gains and those with abnormal weight gains? Are there any differences in terms of stress coping styles in women with gestational diabetes and in normal pregnancy between the patients with normal weight gains and those with abnormal weight gains? Method: The study involved pregnant women with gestational diabetes (treated with diet, without insulin therapy) and in normal pregnancy – 206 women in total. The following psychometric tools were employed: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, Mermelstein), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Endler, Parker) and authors’ own questionnaire. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed on the basis of the results of fasting oral glucose tolerance test (75 g OGTT). Body weight measurements were confirmed in a diagnostic interview, taking into account medical data. Regularities in weight gains in pregnancy were determined according to the recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society and American norms determined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Conclusions: An increase in stress related to the disease varies in patients with differing requirements for the cyclical nature of diabetologic education (i.e. education which is systematically repeated). There are no differences in terms of recently experienced stress and stress coping styles between women with gestational diabetes and those in normal pregnancy. There is a relationship between weight gains in pregnancy and the stress experienced in life as well as stress coping styles – both in pregnancy complicated by diabetes and in physiological pregnancy. In the discussion of the obtained results, the authors refer to scientific reports from English-language magazines of international range.

Keywords: diabetologic education, gestational diabetes, stress, weight gain in pregnancy

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18 Mapping the Turbulence Intensity and Excess Energy Available to Small Wind Systems over 4 Major UK Cities

Authors: Francis C. Emejeamara, Alison S. Tomlin, James Gooding

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Due to the highly turbulent nature of urban air flows, and by virtue of the fact that turbines are likely to be located within the roughness sublayer of the urban boundary layer, proposed urban wind installations are faced with major challenges compared to rural installations. The challenge of operating within turbulent winds can however, be counteracted by the development of suitable gust tracking solutions. In order to assess the cost effectiveness of such controls, a detailed understanding of the urban wind resource, including its turbulent characteristics, is required. Estimating the ambient turbulence and total kinetic energy available at different control response times is essential in evaluating the potential performance of wind systems within the urban environment should effective control solutions be employed. However, high resolution wind measurements within the urban roughness sub-layer are uncommon, and detailed CFD modelling approaches are too computationally expensive to apply routinely on a city wide scale. This paper therefore presents an alternative semi-empirical methodology for estimating the excess energy content (EEC) present in the complex and gusty urban wind. An analytical methodology for predicting the total wind energy available at a potential turbine site is proposed by assessing the relationship between turbulence intensities and EEC, for different control response times. The semi-empirical model is then incorporated with an analytical methodology that was initially developed to predict mean wind speeds at various heights within the built environment based on detailed mapping of its aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the current methodology, additional estimates of turbulence intensities and EEC allow a more complete assessment of the available wind resource. The methodology is applied to 4 UK cities with results showing the potential of mapping turbulence intensities and the total wind energy available at different heights within each city. Considering the effect of ambient turbulence and choice of wind system, the wind resource over neighbourhood regions (of 250 m uniform resolution) and building rooftops within the 4 cities were assessed with results highlighting the promise of mapping potential turbine sites within each city.

Keywords: excess energy content, small-scale wind, turbulence intensity, urban wind energy, wind resource assessment

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17 Towards Competence-Based Regulatory Sciences Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Identification of Competencies

Authors: Abigail Ekeigwe, Bethany McGowan, Loran C. Parker, Stephen Byrn, Kari L. Clase

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There are growing calls in the literature to develop and implement competency-based regulatory sciences education (CBRSE) in sub-Saharan Africa to expand and create a pipeline of a competent workforce of regulatory scientists. A defined competence framework is an essential component in developing competency-based education. However, such a competence framework is not available for regulatory scientists in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this research is to identify entry-level competencies for inclusion in a competency framework for regulatory scientists in sub-Saharan Africa as a first step in developing CBRSE. The team systematically reviewed the literature following the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and based on a pre-registered protocol on Open Science Framework (OSF). The protocol has the search strategy and the inclusion and exclusion criteria for publications. All included publications were coded to identify entry-level competencies for regulatory scientists. The team deductively coded the publications included in the study using the 'framework synthesis' model for systematic literature review. The World Health Organization’s conceptualization of competence guided the review and thematic synthesis. Topic and thematic codings were done using NVivo 12™ software. Based on the search strategy in the protocol, 2345 publications were retrieved. Twenty-two (n=22) of the retrieved publications met all the inclusion criteria for the research. Topic and thematic coding of the publications yielded three main domains of competence: knowledge, skills, and enabling behaviors. The knowledge domain has three sub-domains: administrative, regulatory governance/framework, and scientific knowledge. The skills domain has two sub-domains: functional and technical skills. Identification of competencies is the primal step that serves as a bedrock for curriculum development and competency-based education. The competencies identified in this research will help policymakers, educators, institutions, and international development partners design and implement competence-based regulatory science education in sub-Saharan Africa, ultimately leading to access to safe, quality, and effective medical products.

Keywords: competence-based regulatory science education, competencies, systematic review, sub-Saharan Africa

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16 Comparison of the Common Factors of the Top Academic Elementary Schools to the Average Elementary Schools in California: Looking beyond School Leadership

Authors: Lindy Valdez, Daryl Parker

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Introduction: There has been much research on academic achievement in elementary schools. Most of the research has been on school leadership. While research has focused on the role of leadership on school improvement, little research has examined what variables the top elementary schools have in common. To undertake school improvement, it is important to understand what factors the best schools share. The purpose of this study was to examine data of the “Best Elementary Schools in California,” based on academic achievement as rated by three prominent websites and determine if these schools had any common factors which were different than the statewide averages. The variables examined included access to subject matter specialists (physical education, art, and music), librarians, after school programs, class size, socioeconomic status, and diversity. The participants consisted of the top public elementary schools in California based on the websites i)https://www.niche.com/k12/search/best-schools/, ii)https://www.finder.com/best-schools-california,and iii)https://www.schooldigger.com/go/CA/schoolrank.aspx. The data for subject matter specialists (physical education, art, and music), librarians, after school programs, class size, socioeconomic status, and diversity were collected from these top schools and compared to California statewide averages. Results indicate that top public elementary schools in California have a high number of subject matter specialists that teach physical education, art, and music. These positions are on the decline in the average public elementary school in California, but the top schools have abundant access to these specialists. The physical education specialist has the highest statistically significant difference between the nationwide average and the top schools—librarians, and after school programs are also most commonly high in top public elementary schools in California. The high presence of these programs may be aiding academic achievement in less visible ways. Class size is small, socio-economic status is high, and diversity is low among top public elementary schools in California when compared to the statewide average public elementary schools in California. The single largest area of discrepancy was between physical education specialists in a top school and their state and nationwide averages. The socioeconomic status of schools and parents may be an underlining factor affecting several other variables. This affluence could explain how these schools were able to have access to subject matter specialists, after-school activities, and, therefore, more opportunities for physical activity and greater learning opportunities affecting academic achievement.

Keywords: academic achievement, elementary education, factors, schools

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15 The Impact of Physical Activity for Recovering Cancer Patients

Authors: Martyn Queen, Diane Crone, Andrew Parker, Saul Bloxham

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Rationale: There is a growing body of evidence that supports the use of physical activity during and after cancer treatment. However, activity levels for patients remain low. As more cancer patients are treated successfully, and treatment costs continue to escalate, physical activity may be a promising adjunct to a person-centred healthcare approach to recovery. Aim: The aim was to further understand how physical activity may enhance the recovery process for a group of mixed-site cancer patients. Objectives: The research investigated longitudinal changes in physical activity and perceived the quality of life between two and six month’s post-exercise interventions. It also investigated support systems that enabled patients to sustain these perceived changes. Method: The respondent cohort comprised 14 mixed-site cancer patients aged 43-70 (11 women, 3 men), who participated in a two-phase physical activity intervention that took place at a university in the South West of England. Phase 1 consisted of an eight-week structured physical activity programme; Phase 2 consisted of four months of non-supervised physical activity. Semi-structured interviews took place three times over six months with each participant. Grounded theory informed the data collection and analysis which, in turn, facilitated theoretical development. Findings: Our findings propose three theories on the impact of physical activity for recovering cancer patients: 1) Knowledge gained through a structured exercise programme can enable recovering cancer patients to independently sustain physical activity to four-month follow-up. 2) Sustaining physical activity for six months promotes positive changes in the quality of life indicators of chronic fatigue, self-efficacy, the ability to self-manage and energy levels. 3) Peer support from patients facilitates adherence to a structured exercise programme and support from a spouse, or life partner facilitates independently sustained physical activity to four-month follow-up. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that qualitative research can provide an evidence base that could be used to support future care plans for cancer patients. Findings also demonstrate that a physical activity intervention can be effective at helping cancer patients recover from the side effects of their treatment, and recommends that physical activity should become an adjunct therapy alongside traditional cancer treatments.

Keywords: physical activity, health, cancer recovery, quality of life, support systems, qualitative, grounded theory, person-centred healthcare

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14 Functional Neurocognitive Imaging (fNCI): A Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Concussion Neuromarker Abnormalities and Treating Post-Concussion Syndrome in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

Authors: Parker Murray, Marci Johnson, Tyson S. Burnham, Alina K. Fong, Mark D. Allen, Bruce McIff

Abstract:

Purpose: Pathological dysregulation of Neurovascular Coupling (NVC) caused by mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the predominant source of chronic post-concussion syndrome (PCS) symptomology. fNCI has the ability to localize dysregulation in NVC by measuring blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signaling during the performance of fMRI-adapted neuropsychological evaluations. With fNCI, 57 brain areas consistently affected by concussion were identified as PCS neural markers, which were validated on large samples of concussion patients and healthy controls. These neuromarkers provide the basis for a computation of PCS severity which is referred to as the Severity Index Score (SIS). The SIS has proven valuable in making pre-treatment decisions, monitoring treatment efficiency, and assessing long-term stability of outcomes. Methods and Materials: After being scanned while performing various cognitive tasks, 476 concussed patients received an SIS score based on the neural dysregulation of the 57 previously identified brain regions. These scans provide an objective measurement of attentional, subcortical, visual processing, language processing, and executive functioning abilities, which were used as biomarkers for post-concussive neural dysregulation. Initial SIS scores were used to develop individualized therapy incorporating cognitive, occupational, and neuromuscular modalities. These scores were also used to establish pre-treatment benchmarks and measure post-treatment improvement. Results: Changes in SIS were calculated in percent change from pre- to post-treatment. Patients showed a mean improvement of 76.5 percent (σ= 23.3), and 75.7 percent of patients showed at least 60 percent improvement. Longitudinal reassessment of 24 of the patients, measured an average of 7.6 months post-treatment, shows that SIS improvement is maintained and improved, with an average of 90.6 percent improvement from their original scan. Conclusions: fNCI provides a reliable measurement of NVC allowing for identification of concussion pathology. Additionally, fNCI derived SIS scores direct tailored therapy to restore NVC, subsequently resolving chronic PCS resulting from mTBI.

Keywords: concussion, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neurovascular coupling (NVC), post-concussion syndrome (PCS)

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13 Arguments against Innateness of Theory of Mind

Authors: Arkadiusz Gut, Robert Mirski

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The nativist-constructivist debate constitutes a considerable part of current research on mindreading. Peter Carruthers and his colleagues are known for their nativist position in the debate and take issue with constructivist views proposed by other researchers, with Henry Wellman, Alison Gopnik, and Ian Apperly at the forefront. More specifically, Carruthers together with Evan Westra propose a nativistic explanation of Theory of Mind Scale study results that Wellman et al. see as supporting constructivism. While allowing for development of the innate mindreading system, Westra and Carruthers base their argumentation essentially on a competence-performance gap, claiming that cross-cultural differences in Theory of Mind Scale progression as well as discrepancies between infants’ and toddlers’ results on verbal and non-verbal false-belief tasks are fully explainable in terms of acquisition of other, pragmatic, cognitive developments, which are said to allow for an expression of the innately present Theory of Mind understanding. The goal of the present paper is to bring together arguments against the view offered by Westra and Carruthers. It will be shown that even though Carruthers et al.’s interpretation has not been directly controlled for in Wellman et al.’s experiments, there are serious reasons to dismiss such nativistic views which Carruthers et al. advance. The present paper discusses the following issues that undermine Carruthers et al.’s nativistic conception: (1) The concept of innateness is argued to be developmentally inaccurate; it has been dropped in many biological sciences altogether and many developmental psychologists advocate for doing the same in cognitive psychology. Reality of development is a complex interaction of changing elements that is belied by the simplistic notion of ‘the innate.’ (2) The purported innate mindreading conceptual system posited by Carruthers ascribes adult-like understanding to infants, ignoring the difference between first- and second-order understanding, between what can be called ‘presentation’ and ‘representation.’ (3) Advances in neurobiology speak strongly against any inborn conceptual knowledge; neocortex, where conceptual knowledge finds its correlates, is said to be largely equipotential at birth. (4) Carruthers et al.’s interpretations are excessively charitable; they extend results of studies done with 15-month-olds to conclusions about innateness, whereas in reality at that age there has been plenty of time for construction of the skill. (5) Looking-time experiment paradigm used in non-verbal false belief tasks that provide the main support for Carruthers’ argumentation has been criticized on methodological grounds. In the light of the presented arguments, nativism in theory of mind research is concluded to be an untenable position.

Keywords: development, false belief, mindreading, nativism, theory of mind

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