Search results for: exergy efficiency
5635 Exergy: An Effective Tool to Quantify Sustainable Development of Biodiesel Production
Authors: Mahmoud Karimi, Golmohammad Khoobbakht
Abstract:This study focuses on the exergy flow analysis in the transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol to decrease the consumption of materials and energy and promote the use of renewable resources. The exergy analysis performed is based on the thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction and exergy efficiency to investigate the effects of variable parameters on renewability of transesterification. The experiment variables were methanol to WCO ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction temperature in the transesterification reaction. The optimum condition with yield of 90.2% and exergy efficiency of 95.2% was obtained at methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1, 1 wt.% of KOH, at 55 °C. In this condition, the total waste exergy was found to be 45.4 MJ for 1 kg biodiesel production. However high yield in the optimal condition resulted high exergy efficiency in the transesterification of WCO with methanol.
Keywords: biodiesel, exergy, thermodynamic analysis, transesterification, waste cooking oilProcedia PDF Downloads 128
5634 Determination of Optimum Torque of an Internal Combustion Engine by Exergy Analysis
Authors: Veena Chaudhary, Rakesh P. Gakkhar
Abstract:In this study, energy and exergy analysis are applied to the experimental data of an internal combustion engine operating on conventional diesel cycle. The experimental data are collected using an engine unit which enables accurate measurements of fuel flow rate, combustion air flow rate, engine load, engine speed and all relevant temperatures. First and second law efficiencies are calculated for different engine speed and compared. Results indicate that the first law (energy) efficiency is maximum at 1700 rpm whereas exergy efficiency is maximum and exergy destruction is minimum at 1900 rpm.
Keywords: diesel engine, exergy destruction, exergy efficiency, second law of thermodynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 234
5633 Exergy Analyses of Wind Turbine
Authors: Muhammad Abid
Abstract:Utilization of renewable energy resources for energy conservation, pollution prevention, resource efficiency and systems integration is very important for sustainable development. In this study, we perform energy and exergy analyses of a wind turbine, located on the roof of Mechanical Engineering Department, King Saud University, and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The turbine is part of a hybrid photovoltaic (PV)-wind system with hydrogen storage. The power output from this turbine varies between 1.5 and 5.5 kW with a rated wind speed of 12 m/s and a cut-in wind speed of 2.4 m/s. We utilize a wide range of experimental data in the analysis and assessment. We determine energy and exergy efficiencies. The energy efficiency changes between 0% to 45% while the exergy efficiency varies between 0% and 31.3%. We also determined some of the exergoeconomic parameters that are the ratios of energy and exergy loss rates to the capital cost (R en and R ex), respectively. (R en) changes between 0.96% and 59.03% for different values of velocity while R ex has a maximum value of 53.62% for the highest wind speed.
Keywords: exergy, efficiency, performance evaluation, wind energyProcedia PDF Downloads 303
5632 Exergy and Energy Analysis of Pre-Heating Unit of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company
Authors: M. Nuhu, S. Bilal, A. A. Hamisu, J. A. Abbas, Y. Z. Aminu, P. O. Helen
Abstract:Exergy and energy analysis of preheating unit of FCCU of KRPC has been calculated and presented in this study. From the design, the efficiency of each heat exchanger was 86%. However, on completion of this work the efficiencies was calculated to be 39.90%, 55.66%, 56.22%, and 57.14% for 16E02, 16E03, 16E04, and 16E05 respectively. 16E04 has the minimum energy loss of 0.86%. The calculated second law and exergy efficiencies of the system were 43.01 and 56.99% respectively.
Keywords: exergy analysis, ideal work, efficiency, exergy destruction, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 359
5631 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant
Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards
Abstract:In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.
Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energyProcedia PDF Downloads 105
5630 Exergy Analysis of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle Using Turbine Bleeding
Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim
Abstract:This work presents an exergetical performance analysis of regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using turbine bleeding based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of finite thermal energy. Effects of system parameters such as turbine bleeding pressure and turbine bleeding fraction are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as the exergy and the second-law efficiencies. Under the conditions of the critical fraction of turbine bleeding, the simulation results show that the exergy efficiency decreases monotonically with respect to the bleeding pressure, however, the second-law efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine bleeding pressure.
Keywords: organic Rankine cycle, ORC, regeneration, turbine bleeding, exergy, second-law efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 434
5629 Effect of Aging on the Second Law Efficiency, Exergy Destruction and Entropy Generation in the Skeletal Muscles during Exercise
Authors: Jale Çatak, Bayram Yılmaz, Mustafa Ozilgen
Abstract:The second law muscle work efficiency is obtained by multiplying the metabolic and mechanical work efficiencies. Thermodynamic analyses are carried out with 19 sets of arms and legs exercise data which were obtained from the healthy young people. These data are used to simulate the changes occurring during aging. The muscle work efficiency decreases with aging as a result of the reduction of the metabolic energy generation in the mitochondria. The reduction of the mitochondrial energy efficiency makes it difficult to carry out the maintenance of the muscle tissue, which in turn causes a decline of the muscle work efficiency. When the muscle attempts to produce more work, entropy generation and exergy destruction increase. Increasing exergy destruction may be regarded as the result of the deterioration of the muscles. When the exergetic efficiency is 0.42, exergy destruction becomes 1.49 folds of the work performance. This proportionality becomes 2.50 and 5.21 folds when the exergetic efficiency decreases to 0.30 and 0.17 respectively.
Keywords: aging mitochondria, entropy generation, exergy destruction, muscle work performance, second law efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 356
5628 Optimization of Solar Rankine Cycle by Exergy Analysis and Genetic Algorithm
Authors: R. Akbari, M. A. Ehyaei, R. Shahi Shavvon
Abstract:Nowadays, solar energy is used for energy purposes such as the use of thermal energy for domestic, industrial and power applications, as well as the conversion of the sunlight into electricity by photovoltaic cells. In this study, the thermodynamic simulation of the solar Rankin cycle with phase change material (paraffin) was first studied. Then energy and exergy analyses were performed. For optimization, a single and multi-objective genetic optimization algorithm to maximize thermal and exergy efficiency was used. The parameters discussed in this paper included the effects of input pressure on turbines, input mass flow to turbines, the surface of converters and collector angles on thermal and exergy efficiency. In the organic Rankin cycle, where solar energy is used as input energy, the fluid selection is considered as a necessary factor to achieve reliable and efficient operation. Therefore, silicon oil is selected for a high-temperature cycle and water for a low-temperature cycle as an operating fluid. The results showed that increasing the mass flow to turbines 1 and 2 would increase thermal efficiency, while it reduces and increases the exergy efficiency in turbines 1 and 2, respectively. Increasing the inlet pressure to the turbine 1 decreases the thermal and exergy efficiency, and increasing the inlet pressure to the turbine 2 increases the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency. Also, increasing the angle of the collector increased thermal efficiency and exergy. The thermal efficiency of the system was 22.3% which improves to 33.2 and 27.2% in single-objective and multi-objective optimization, respectively. Also, the exergy efficiency of the system was 1.33% which has been improved to 1.719 and 1.529% in single-objective and multi-objective optimization, respectively. These results showed that the thermal and exergy efficiency in a single-objective optimization is greater than the multi-objective optimization.
Keywords: exergy analysis, genetic algorithm, rankine cycle, single and multi-objective functionProcedia PDF Downloads 73
5627 Exergy Losses Relation with Driving Forces in Heat Transfer Process
Authors: S. Ali Ashrafizadeh, M. Amidpour, N. Hedayat
Abstract:Driving forces along with transfer coefficient affect on heat transfer rate, on the other hand, with regard to the relation of these forces with irriversibilities they are effective on exergy losses. Therefore, the driving forces can be used as a relation between heat transfer rate, transfer coefficients and exergy losses. In this paper, first, the relation of the exergetic efficiency and resistant forces is obtained, next the relation between exergy efficiency, relative driving force, heat transfer rate and heat resistances is considered. In all cases, results are argued graphically. Finally, a case study inspected by obtained results.
Keywords: heat transfer, exergy losses, exergetic efficiency, driving forcesProcedia PDF Downloads 529
5626 Energetic and Exergetic Evaluation of Box-Type Solar Cookers Using Different Insulation Materials
Authors: A. K. Areamu, J. C. Igbeka
Abstract:The performance of box-type solar cookers has been reported by several researchers but little attention was paid to the effect of the type of insulation material on the energy and exergy efficiency of these cookers. This research aimed at evaluating the energy and exergy efficiencies of the box-type cookers containing different insulation materials. Energy and exergy efficiencies of five box-type solar cookers insulated with maize cob, air (control), maize husk, coconut coir and polyurethane foam respectively were obtained over a period of three years. The cookers were evaluated using water heating test procedures in determining the energy and exergy analysis. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA. The result shows that the average energy input for the five solar cookers were: 245.5, 252.2, 248.7, 241.5 and 245.5J respectively while their respective average energy losses were: 201.2, 212.7, 208.4, 189.1 and 199.8J. The average exergy input for five cookers were: 228.2, 234.4, 231.1, 224.4 and 228.2J respectively while their respective average exergy losses were: 223.4, 230.6, 226.9, 218.9 and 223.0J. The energy and exergy efficiency was highest in the cooker with coconut coir (37.35 and 3.90% respectively) in the first year but was lowest for air (11 and 1.07% respectively) in the third year. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between the energy and exergy efficiencies over the years. These results reiterate the importance of a good insulating material for a box-type solar cooker.
Keywords: efficiency, energy, exergy, heating insolationProcedia PDF Downloads 307
5625 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Ammonia-Water Rankine Cycles and Kalina Cycle
Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim
Abstract:This paper presents a comparative exergy analysis of ammonia-water Rankine cycles with and without regeneration and Kalina cycle for recovery of low-temperature heat source. Special attention is paid to the effect of system parameters such as ammonia mass fraction and turbine inlet pressure on the exergetical performance of the systems. Results show that maximum exergy efficiency can be obtained in the regenerative Rankine cycle for high turbine inlet pressures. However, Kalina cycle shows better exergy efficiency for low turbine inlet pressures, and the optimum ammonia mass fractions of Kalina cycle are lower than Rankine cycles.
Keywords: ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, Kalina cycle, exergy, exergy destruction, low-temperature heat sourceProcedia PDF Downloads 97
5624 Thermodynamic Analysis of an Ejector-Absorption Refrigeration Cycle with Using NH3-H2O
Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi, Sayed Sina Rezaei, Abbas Aghagoli
Abstract:In this paper, the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is presented. This article deals with the thermodynamic simulation and the first and second law analysis of an ammonia-water. The effects of parameters such as condenser, absorber, generator, and evaporator temperatures have been investigated. The influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient and exergy efficiency of this cycle has been studied. The results show that when the temperature of different parts increases, the performance coefficient and the exergy efficiency of the cycle decrease, except for evaporator and generator, that causes an increase in coefficient of performance (COP). According to the results, absorber and ejector have the highest exergy losses in the studied conditions.
Keywords: absorption refrigeration, COP, ejector, exergy efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 256
5623 Exergy Analysis of Reverse Osmosis for Potable Water and Land Irrigation
Authors: M. Sarai Atab, A. Smallbone, A. P. Roskilly
Abstract:A thermodynamic study is performed on the Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination process for brackish water. The detailed RO model of thermodynamics properties with and without an energy recovery device was built in Simulink/MATLAB and validated against reported measurement data. The efficiency of desalination plants can be estimated by both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. While the first law focuses on the quantity of energy, the second law analysis (i.e. exergy analysis) introduces quality. This paper used the Main Outfall Drain in Iraq as a case study to conduct energy and exergy analysis of RO process. The result shows that it is feasible to use energy recovery method for reverse osmosis with salinity less than 15000 ppm as the exergy efficiency increases twice. Moreover, this analysis shows that the highest exergy destruction occurs in the rejected water and lowest occurs in the permeate flow rate accounting 37% for 4.3% respectively.
Keywords: brackish water, exergy, irrigation, reverse osmosis (RO)Procedia PDF Downloads 103
5622 Thermo-Exergy Optimization of Gas Turbine Cycle with Two Different Regenerator Designs
Authors: Saria Abed, Tahar Khir, Ammar Ben Brahim
Abstract:A thermo-exergy optimization of a gas turbine cycle with two different regenerator designs is established. A comparison was made between the performance of the two regenerators and their roles in improving the cycle efficiencies. The effect of operational parameters (the pressure ratio of the compressor, the ambient temperature, excess of air, geometric parameters of the regenerators, etc.) on thermal efficiencies, the exergy efficiencies, and irreversibilities were studied using thermal balances and quantitative exegetic equilibrium for each component and for the whole system. The results are given graphically by using the EES software, and an appropriate discussion and conclusion was made.
Keywords: exergy efficiency, gas turbine, heat transfer, irreversibility, optimization, regenerator, thermal efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 390
5621 Exergy Analysis and Evaluation of the Different Flowsheeting Configurations for CO₂ Capture Plant Using 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol
Authors: Ebuwa Osagie, Vasilije Manovic
Abstract:Exergy analysis provides the identification of the location, sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies, and magnitude in a thermal system. Thus, both the qualitative and quantitative assessment can be evaluated with exergy, unlike energy which is based on quantitative assessment only. The main purpose of exergy analysis is to identify where exergy is destroyed. Thus, reduction of the exergy destruction and losses associated with the capture plant systems can improve work potential. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis of different configurations of the process helps to identify opportunities for reducing the steam requirements for each of the configurations. This paper presents steady-state simulation and exergy analysis of the 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)-based post-combustion capture (PCC) plant. Exergy analysis performed for the AMP-based plant and the different configurations revealed that the rich split with intercooling configuration gave the highest exergy efficiency of 73.6%, while that of the intercooling and the reference AMP-based plant were 57.3% and 55.8% respectively.
Keywords: 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, modelling, and simulation, post-combustion capture plant, exergy analysis, flowsheeting configurationsProcedia PDF Downloads 105
5620 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Thin-Layer Drying of Pineapple Slices
Authors: Apolinar Picado, Steve Alfaro, Rafael Gamero
Abstract:Energy and exergy analyses of thin-layer drying of pineapple slices (Ananas comosus L.) were conducted in a laboratory tunnel dryer. Drying experiments were carried out at three temperatures (100, 115 and 130 °C) and an air velocity of 1.45 m/s. The effects of drying variables on energy utilisation, energy utilisation ratio, exergy loss and exergy efficiency were studied. The enthalpy difference of the gas increased as the inlet gas temperature increase. It is observed that at the 75 minutes of the drying process the outlet gas enthalpy achieves a maximum value that is very close to the inlet value and remains constant until the end of the drying process. This behaviour is due to the reduction of the total enthalpy within the system, or in other words, the reduction of the effective heat transfer from the hot gas flow to the vegetable being dried. Further, the outlet entropy exhibits a significant increase that is not only due to the temperature variation, but also to the increase of water vapour phase contained in the hot gas flow. The maximum value of the exergy efficiency curve corresponds to the maximum value observed within the drying rate curves. This maximum value represents the stage when the available energy is efficiently used in the removal of the moisture within the solid. As the drying rate decreases, the available energy is started to be less employed. The exergetic efficiency was directly dependent on the evaporation flux and since the convective drying is less efficient that other types of dryer, it is likely that the exergetic efficiency has relatively low values.
Keywords: efficiency, energy, exergy, thin-layer dryingProcedia PDF Downloads 186
5619 Exergy Analysis of Poultry Litter-to-Energy Production by the Advanced Combustion System
Authors: Samuel Oludayo Alamu, Seong Lee
Abstract:The need for generating energy from biomass in an efficient way as well as maximizing the yield of total energy from the thermal conversion process has been a major concern for researchers. A holistic approach which involves the combination of First law of thermodynamics (FLT) and the second law of thermodynamics (SLT) is required for conducting an effective assessment of an energy plant since FLT analysis alone fails to identify the quality of the dissipated energy and how much work potential is available. The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the exergy analysis of direct combustion of poultry waste being converted to energy with a handful of environmental assessment of the conversion processes in order to maximize thermal efficiency. The exergy analysis around the shell and tube heat exchanger (STHE) was investigated primarily by varying the operating parameters for different tube shapes and flow direction, and an exergy model was obtained from estimations of the higher heating value and standard entropy of poultry waste from the elemental compositions. The STHE was designed and fabricated by Lee Research Group at Morgan State University. The analysis conducted on theSTHE using the flue gas temperature entering and exiting show that only about one-third of the energy input to the STHE was available to do work with an overall efficiency of 13.8%, while a huge amount was lost to the surrounding. By recirculating the flue gas, the exergy efficiency of the combustion system can be maximized with a greater reduction in the amount of exergy loss.
Keywords: exergy analysis, shell and tube heat exchanger, thermodynamics, combustion system, thermal efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 45
5618 Energy and Exergy Performance Optimization on a Real Gas Turbine Power Plant
Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Cherni Rafik, Dakhli Radhouen, Ammar Ben Brahim
Abstract:This paper presents the energy and exergy optimization of a real gas turbine power plant performance of 100 MW of power, installed in the South East of Tunisia. A simulation code is established using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. The parameters considered are those of the actual operating conditions of the gas turbine thermal power station under study. The results show that thermal and exergetic efficiency decreases with the increase of the ambient temperature. Air excess has an important effect on the thermal efficiency. The emission of NOx rises in the summer and decreases in the winter. The obtained rates of NOx are compared with measurements results.
Keywords: efficiency, exergy, gas turbine, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 223
5617 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature
Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim
Abstract:Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100°C to 140°C using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.
Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 367
5616 Making Heat Pumps More Compatible with Environmental and Climatic Conditions
Authors: Erol Sahin, Nesrin Adiguzel
Abstract:In this study, the effects of air temperature and relative humidity on the operation of the heat pump were examined experimentally. The results were analyzed in an energy and exergetic way. Two heat pumps were used in the experimental system established for experimental analysis. With the first heat pump, the relative humidity and temperature of atmospheric air are reduced. The air at low humidity and temperature is given heat and water vapor to the desired extent on the channel that reaches the other heat pump. Effects of the air reaching the desired humidity and temperature in the 2nd heat pump; temperature, humidity, pressure, flow, and current are detected by meters. The measured values and the exergy yield and thermodynamic favor ratios of the system and its components were determined. In this way, the effects of temperature and relative humidity change in the heat pump and components were tried to be revealed. Relative humidity in the air caused a significant increase in the loss of exergy in the evaporator. This has shown that cooling machines experience greater exergy in areas with high relative humidity. The highest COPSM values were determined to be at 30% and 40%, which is the least relative humidity values. The results showed that heat pump exergy efficiency was affected by increased temperature and relative humidity.
Keywords: relative humidity, effects of relative humidity on heat pumps, exergy analysis, exergy analysis in heat pumps, exergy efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 9
5615 On the Exergy Analysis of the Aluminum Smelter
Authors: Ayoola T. Brimmo, Mohamed I. Hassan
Abstract:The push to mitigate the aluminum smelting industry’s enormous energy consumption and high emission releases is now even more persistent with the recent climate change happenings. Common approaches to achieve this have been focused on improving energy efficiency in the pot line and cast house sections of the smelter. However, the conventional energy efficiency analyses are based on the first law of thermodynamics, which do not shed proper light on the smelter’s degradation of energy. This just gives a general idea of the furnace’s performance with no reference to locations where improvement is a possibility based on the second law of thermodynamics. In this study, we apply exergy analyses on the pot line and cast house sections of the smelter to identify the locality and causes of energy degradation. The exergy analyses, which are based on a real life smelter conditions, highlight the possible locations for technology improvement in a typical smelter. With this established, methods of minimizing the smelter’s exergy losses are assessed.
Keywords: exergy analysis, electrolytic cell, furnace, heat transferProcedia PDF Downloads 221
5614 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber
Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha
Abstract:This paper presents the performance, based on exergy analysis of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater based on energy balance equations has been presented and the results obtained have been compared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater. The double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater performs thermally better than the flat plate double flow and conventional flat-plate solar air heater under same operating conditions. However, the corrugated absorber leads to higher pressure drop thereby increasing pumping power. The results revealed that the energy and exergy efficiencies of double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater is much higher than conventional solar air heater with the concept involving of increase in heat transfer surface area and turbulence in air flow. The results indicate that the energy efficiency increases, however, exergy efficiency decreases with increase in mass flow rate.
Keywords: corrugated absorber, double flow, exergy efficiency, solar air heaterProcedia PDF Downloads 200
5613 Exergy Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717
Authors: Ali Dinarveis
Abstract:This paper compares the energy and exergy efficiency of a vapour compression refrigeration system using refrigerants of different groups. In this study, five different refrigerants including R507A, R134a, R114, R22 and R717 have been studied. EES Program is used to solve the thermodynamic equations. The results of this analysis are shown graphically. Based on the results, energy and exergy efficiencies for R717 are higher than the other refrigerants. Also, the energy and exergy efficiencies will be decreased with increasing the condensing temperature and decreasing the evaporating temperature.
Keywords: Energy, Exergy, Refrigeration, thermodynamic, vapourProcedia PDF Downloads 86
5612 Exergy Based Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector Using Twisted-Tape Inserts
Authors: Atwari Rawani, Suresh Prasad Sharma, K. D. P. Singh
Abstract:In this paper, an analytical investigation based on energy and exergy analysis of the parabolic trough collector (PTC) with alternate clockwise and counter-clockwise twisted tape inserts in the absorber tube has been presented. For fully developed flow under quasi-steady state conditions, energy equations have been developed in order to analyze the rise in fluid temperature, thermal efficiency, entropy generation and exergy efficiency. Also the effect of system and operating parameters on performance have been studied. A computer program, based on mathematical models is developed in C++ language to estimate the temperature rise of fluid for evaluation of performances under specified conditions. For numerical simulations four different twist ratio, x = 2,3,4,5 and mass flow rate 0.06 kg/s to 0.16 kg/s which cover the Reynolds number range of 3000 - 9000 is considered. This study shows that twisted tape inserts when used shows great promise for enhancing the performance of PTC. Results show that for x=1, Nusselt number/heat transfer coefficient is found to be 3.528 and 3.008 times over plain absorber of PTC at mass flow rate of 0.06 kg/s and 0.16 kg/s respectively; while corresponding enhancement in thermal efficiency is 12.57% and 5.065% respectively. Also the exergy efficiency has been found to be 10.61% and 10.97% and enhancement factor is 1.135 and 1.048 for same set of conditions.
Keywords: exergy efficiency, twisted tape ratio, turbulent flow, useful heat gainProcedia PDF Downloads 110
5611 Estimation of the Exergy-Aggregated Value Generated by a Manufacturing Process Using the Theory of the Exergetic Cost
Authors: German Osma, Gabriel Ordonez
Abstract:The production of metal-rubber spares for vehicles is a sequential process that consists in the transformation of raw material through cutting activities and chemical and thermal treatments, which demand electricity and fossil fuels. The energy efficiency analysis for these cases is mostly focused on studying of each machine or production step, but is not common to study of the quality of the production process achieves from aggregated value viewpoint, which can be used as a quality measurement for determining of impact on the environment. In this paper, the theory of exergetic cost is used for determining of aggregated exergy to three metal-rubber spares, from an exergy analysis and thermoeconomic analysis. The manufacturing processing of these spares is based into batch production technique, and therefore is proposed the use of this theory for discontinuous flows from of single models of workstations; subsequently, the complete exergy model of each product is built using flowcharts. These models are a representation of exergy flows between components into the machines according to electrical, mechanical and/or thermal expressions; they determine the demanded exergy to produce the effective transformation in raw materials (aggregated exergy value), the exergy losses caused by equipment and irreversibilities. The energy resources of manufacturing process are electricity and natural gas. The workstations considered are lathes, punching presses, cutters, zinc machine, chemical treatment tanks, hydraulic vulcanizing presses and rubber mixer. The thermoeconomic analysis was done by workstation and by spare; first of them describes the operation of the components of each machine and where the exergy losses are; while the second of them estimates the exergy-aggregated value for finished product and wasted feedstock. Results indicate that exergy efficiency of a mechanical workstation is between 10% and 60% while this value in the thermal workstations is less than 5%; also that each effective exergy-aggregated value is one-thirtieth of total exergy required for operation of manufacturing process, which amounts approximately to 2 MJ. These troubles are caused mainly by technical limitations of machines, oversizing of metal feedstock that demands more mechanical transformation work, and low thermal insulation of chemical treatment tanks and hydraulic vulcanizing presses. From established information, in this case, it is possible to appreciate the usefulness of theory of exergetic cost for analyzing of aggregated value in manufacturing processes.
Keywords: exergy-aggregated value, exergy efficiency, thermoeconomics, exergy modelingProcedia PDF Downloads 108
5610 Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry
Authors: F. Hafdhi, T. Khir, A. Ben Yahia, A. Ben Brahim
Abstract:An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature, mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps. The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4% respectively. In the same way, optimum HP steam flow rate values, leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.
Keywords: steam turbine generator, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, phosphoric acid plantProcedia PDF Downloads 244
5609 Thermodynamic Analysis of GT Cycle with Naphtha or Natural Gas as the Fuel: A Thermodynamic Comparison
Authors: S. Arpit, P. K. Das, S. K. Dash
Abstract:In this paper, a comparative study is done between two fuels, naphtha and natural gas (NG), for a gas turbine (GT) plant of 32.5 MW with the same thermodynamic configuration. From the energy analysis, it is confirmed that the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the gas turbine in the case of natural gas is higher as compared to naphtha, and hence the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is better. The result from the exergy analysis also confirms that due to high turbine inlet temperature in the case of natural gas, exergy destruction in combustion chamber is less. But comparing two fuels for overall analysis, naphtha has higher energy and exergetic efficiency as compared to natural gas.
Keywords: exergy analysis, gas turbine, naphtha, natural gasProcedia PDF Downloads 140
5608 Exergetic and Life Cycle Assessment Analyses of Integrated Biowaste Gasification-Combustion System: A Study Case
Authors: Anabel Fernandez, Leandro Rodriguez-Ortiz, Rosa RodríGuez
Abstract:Due to the negative impact of fossil fuels, renewable energies are promising sources to limit global temperature rise and damage to the environment. Also, the development of technology is focused on obtaining energetic products from renewable sources. In this study, a thermodynamic model including Exergy balance and a subsequent Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were carried out for four subsystems of the integrated gasification-combustion of pinewood. Results of exergy analysis and LCA showed the process feasibility in terms of exergy efficiency and global energy efficiency of the life cycle (GEELC). Moreover, the energy return on investment (EROI) index was calculated. The global exergy efficiency resulted in 67 %. For pretreatment, reaction, cleaning, and electric generation subsystems, the results were 85, 59, 87, and 29 %, respectively. Results of LCA indicated that the emissions from the electric generation caused the most damage to the atmosphere, water, and soil. GEELC resulted in 31.09 % for the global process. This result suggested the environmental feasibility of an integrated gasification-combustion system. EROI resulted in 3.15, which determinates the sustainability of the process.
Keywords: exergy analysis, life cycle assessment (LCA), renewability, sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 126
5607 Exergy Analysis of a Green Dimethyl Ether Production Plant
Authors: Marcello De Falco, Gianluca Natrella, Mauro Capocelli
Abstract:CO₂ capture and utilization (CCU) is a promising approach to reduce GHG(greenhouse gas) emissions. Many technologies in this field are recently attracting attention. However, since CO₂ is a very stable compound, its utilization as a reagent is energetic intensive. As a consequence, it is unclear whether CCU processes allow for a net reduction of environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective and whether these solutions are sustainable. Among the tools to apply for the quantification of the real environmental benefits of CCU technologies, exergy analysis is the most rigorous from a scientific point of view. The exergy of a system is the maximum obtainable work during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with its reference environment through a series of reversible processes in which the system can only interact with such an environment. In other words, exergy is an “opportunity for doing work” and, in real processes, it is destroyed by entropy generation. The exergy-based analysis is useful to evaluate the thermodynamic inefficiencies of processes, to understand and locate the main consumption of fuels or primary energy, to provide an instrument for comparison among different process configurations and to detect solutions to reduce the energy penalties of a process. In this work, the exergy analysis of a process for the production of Dimethyl Ether (DME) from green hydrogen generated through an electrolysis unit and pure CO₂ captured from flue gas is performed. The model simulates the behavior of all units composing the plant (electrolyzer, carbon capture section, DME synthesis reactor, purification step), with the scope to quantify the performance indices based on the II Law of Thermodynamics and to identify the entropy generation points. Then, a plant optimization strategy is proposed to maximize the exergy efficiency.
Keywords: green DME production, exergy analysis, energy penalties, exergy efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 126
5606 Performance of Derna Steam Power Plant at Varying Super-Heater Operating Conditions Based on Exergy
Authors: Idris Elfeituri
Abstract:In the current study, energy and exergy analysis of a 65 MW steam power plant was carried out. This study investigated the effect of variations of overall conductance of the super heater on the performance of an existing steam power plant located in Derna, Libya. The performance of the power plant was estimated by a mathematical modelling which considers the off-design operating conditions of each component. A fully interactive computer program based on the mass, energy and exergy balance equations has been developed. The maximum exergy destruction has been found in the steam generation unit. A 50% reduction in the design value of overall conductance of the super heater has been achieved, which accordingly decreases the amount of the net electrical power that would be generated by at least 13 MW, as well as the overall plant exergy efficiency by at least 6.4%, and at the same time that would cause an increase of the total exergy destruction by at least 14 MW. The achieved results showed that the super heater design and operating conditions play an important role on the thermodynamics performance and the fuel utilization of the power plant. Moreover, these considerations are very useful in the process of the decision that should be taken at the occasions of deciding whether to replace or renovate the super heater of the power plant.
Keywords: Exergy, Super-heater, Fouling; Steam power plant; Off-design., Fouling;, Super-heater, Steam power plantProcedia PDF Downloads 258