Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3311

Search results for: dystonia disability index

3311 A New Perspective in Cervical Dystonia: Neurocognitive Impairment

Authors: Yesim Sucullu Karadag, Pinar Kurt, Sule Bilen, Nese Subutay Oztekin, Fikri Ak

Abstract:

Background: Primary cervical dystonia is thought to be a purely motor disorder. But recent studies revealed that patients with dystonia had additional non-motor features. Sensory and psychiatric disturbances could be included into the non-motor spectrum of dystonia. The Basal Ganglia receive inputs from all cortical areas and throughout the thalamus project to several cortical areas, thus participating to circuits that have been linked to motor as well as sensory, emotional and cognitive functions. However, there are limited studies indicating cognitive impairment in patients with cervical dystonia. More evidence is required regarding neurocognitive functioning in these patients. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate neurocognitive profile of cervical dystonia patients in comparison to healthy controls (HC) by employing a detailed set of neuropsychological tests in addition to self-reported instruments. Methods: Totally 29 (M/F: 7/22) cervical dystonia patients and 30 HC (M/F: 10/20) were included into the study. Exclusion criteria were depression and not given informed consent. Standard demographic, educational data and clinical reports (disease duration, disability index) were recorded for all patients. After a careful neurological evaluation, all subjects were given a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests: Self report of neuropsychological condition (by visual analogue scale-VAS, 0-100), RAVLT, STROOP, PASAT, TMT, SDMT, JLOT, DST, COWAT, ACTT, and FST. Patients and HC were compared regarding demographic, clinical features and neurocognitive tests. Also correlation between disease duration, disability index and self report -VAS were assessed. Results: There was no difference between patients and HCs regarding socio-demographic variables such as age, gender and years of education (p levels were 0.36, 0.436, 0.869; respectively). All of the patients were assessed at the peak of botulinum toxine effect and they were not taking an anticholinergic agent or benzodiazepine. Dystonia patients had significantly impaired verbal learning and memory (RAVLT, p<0.001), divided attention and working memory (ACTT, p<0.001), attention speed (TMT-A and B, p=0.008, 0.050), executive functions (PASAT, p<0.001; SDMT, p= 0.001; FST, p<0.001), verbal attention (DST, p=0.001), verbal fluency (COWAT, p<0.001), visio-spatial processing (JLOT, p<0.001) in comparison to healthy controls. But focused attention (STROOP-spontaneous correction) was not different between two groups (p>0.05). No relationship was found regarding disease duration and disability index with any neurocognitive tests. Conclusions: Our study showed that neurocognitive functions of dystonia patients were worse than control group with the similar age, sex, and education independently clinical expression like disease duration and disability index. This situation may be the result of possible cortical and subcortical changes in dystonia patients. Advanced neuroimaging techniques might be helpful to explain these changes in cervical dystonia patients.

Keywords: cervical dystonia, neurocognitive impairment, neuropsychological test, dystonia disability index

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3310 Botulinum A Toxin Injection in Two Filipino Brothers with X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) in Cebu City, Philippines: A Case Report

Authors: Ana Katrina C. Longos, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul

Abstract:

Objectives: To present a case of two Filipino male siblings initially seen with parkinsonism and eventually with dystonia and to present botulinum A toxin as part of the treatment for X-linked dystonia parkinsonism in Cebu City. Discussion: A 54 year old man presented initially with parkinsonian symptoms and later developed oromandibular and truncal dystonia. Further history revealed that he had an older brother who also presented with the same symptoms. Neuroimaging done on both patients revealed CVD infarcts in the pons and corona radiata respectively which where were not compatible with their symptoms. Family history revealed that their mother was originally from Panay and a diagnosis of X-linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP) was made. Both patients were able to receive botulinum A toxin injections which provided temporary relief of symptoms. Conclusion: XDP was considered in 2 Filipino male siblings who presented with oromandibular dystonia, truncal dystonia, shuffling gait, resting tremors with ancestry from Panay on the maternal side. There is no cure for XDP, only symptomatic treatment. Until recently, only oral chemotherapy was available in Cebu. Botulinum A toxin injection done in both patients afforded temporary resolution of symptoms.

Keywords: XDP, dystonia of Panay, lubag, dystonia parkinsonism, botulinum a toxin

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3309 Disability Prevalence and Health among 60+ Population in India

Authors: Surendra Kumar Patel

Abstract:

Disability is not just a health problem; it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s age and physiology. Population ageing is a major demographic issue for India in the 21st century. Older population of India constituted 8% of total population, while 5.19% has affected by disability of older age group. Objective of the present research paper is to examine the state wise differential in disability among 60+ population and to access the health care of disabled population especially the 60+ disabled persons. The data sources of the present paper are census 2001 and 2011. For analyzing the state wise differentials by disability types and comparative advantage of data, rate, ratio, and percentage have been used. The Standardized Index of Diversity of Disability (SIDD) studies differential and diversity in disability. The results show that there are 5.19% persons have disability among 60+ population and sex differential not very significant, as it is 5.3 % of male and 5.05% in female in India but place of residence shows significant variation from 2001 to 2011 census. There is huge diversity in disability prevalence among 60+ in India, highest in Sikkim followed by Rajasthan, approximately, they comprise 11%, and the lowest found in Tamil Nadu as 2.53%. This huge gap in prevalence percentage shows the health care needs of highly prevailing states.

Keywords: disability, Standardized Index of Diversity of Disability (SIDD), differential and diversity in disability, 60+ population

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3308 Explore the Effect of Telecare for the Elderly in Preventing and Delaying the Quality of Disability Care with Bluetooth Brainwave Equipment

Authors: Jui-Chen Huang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of telecare on preventing and delaying the quality of disability care in elderly people with portable comfort Bluetooth brainwave devices with remote healthcare functions. Through the teaching videos and remotely teaching the elderly, which had ever learned the care courses of the prevent and delay disability, these elderly did muscle strength training. Then this paper explores the effect of training with the data by SPSS 18.0 statistical software. The data is collected with pre-test, post-test and analyze data from the measure of the Bluetooth brain wave equipment including the pressure index, relaxation index, attention and fatigue index of the elderly. In this study, 30 elderly people who had taken preventive and delayed disability care courses were studied to explore the effect of their care quality improvement. The results showed that the pressure index, relaxation index, attention, and fatigue index of the elderly had statistically significant differences in two months. It can be seen that elderly people who have been treated to prevent and delay disability care courses can significantly improve their care quality if they continue to receive intensive training to prevent and delay disability through remote mode. This telecare is applied to the elderly program that has been used to prevent and delay disability care courses. It is worth continuing to promote, and it is recommended that follow-up studies be conducted in a longer-term manner to explore long-term benefits. It can solve the current insufficiency of long-term care resources, but the demand is urgent.

Keywords: telecare, bluetooth brainwave equipment, prevention and delay of disability, the elderly, care quality

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3307 Disability, Stigma and In-Group Identification: An Exploration across Different Disability Subgroups

Authors: Sharmila Rathee

Abstract:

Individuals with disability/ies often face negative attitudes, discrimination, exclusion, and inequality of treatment due to stigmatization and stigmatized treatment. While a significant number of studies in field of stigma suggest that group-identification has positive consequences for stigmatized individuals, ironically very miniscule empirical work in sight has attempted to investigate in-group identification as a coping measure against stigma, humiliation and related experiences among disability group. In view of death of empirical research on in-group identification among disability group, through present work, an attempt has been made to examine the experiences of stigma, humiliation, and in-group identification among disability group. Results of the study suggest that use of in-group identification as a coping strategy is not uniform across members of disability group and degree of in-group identification differs across different sub-groups of disability groups. Further, in-group identification among members of disability group depends on variables like degree and impact of disability, factors like onset of disability, nature, and visibility of disability, educational experiences and resources available to deal with disabling conditions.

Keywords: disability, stigma, in-group identification, social identity

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3306 Positioning a Southern Inclusive Framework Embedded in the Social Model of Disability Theory Contextualised for Guyana

Authors: Lidon Lashley

Abstract:

This paper presents how the social model of disability can be used to reshape inclusive education practices in Guyana. Inclusive education in Guyana is metamorphosizing but still firmly held in the tenets of the Medical Model of Disability which influences the experiences of children with Special Education Needs and/or Disabilities (SEN/D). An ethnographic approach to data gathering was employed in this study. Qualitative data was gathered from the voices of children with and without SEN/D as well as their mainstream teachers to present the interplay of discourses and subjectivities in the situation. The data was analyzed using Adele Clarke's postmodern approach to grounded theory analysis called situational analysis. The data suggest that it is possible but will be challenging to fully contextualize and adopt Loreman's synthesis and Booths and Ainscow's Index in the two mainstream schools studied. In addition, the data paved the way for the presentation of the social model framework specific to Guyana called 'Southern Inclusive Education Framework for Guyana' and its support tool called 'The Inclusive Checker created for Southern mainstream primary classrooms.

Keywords: social model of disability, medical model of disability, subjectivities, metamorphosis, special education needs, postcolonial Guyana, inclusion, culture, mainstream primary schools, Loreman's synthesis, Booths and Ainscow's index

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3305 Advertising Disability Index: A Content Analysis of Disability in Television Commercial Advertising from 2018

Authors: Joshua Loebner

Abstract:

Tectonic shifts within the advertising industry regularly and repeatedly present a deluge of data to be intuited across a spectrum of key performance indicators with innumerable interpretations where live campaigns are vivisected to pivot towards coalescence amongst a digital diaspora. But within this amalgam of analytics, validation, and creative campaign manipulation, where do diversity and disability inclusion fit in? In 2018 several major brands were able to answer this question definitely and directly by incorporating people with disabilities into advertisements. Disability inclusion, representation, and portrayals are documented annually across a number of different media, from film to primetime television, but ongoing studies centering on advertising have not been conducted. Symbols and semiotics in advertising often focus on a brand’s features and benefits, but this analysis on advertising and disability shows, how in 2018, creative campaigns and the disability community came together with the goal to continue the momentum and spark conversations. More brands are welcoming inclusion and sharing positive portrayals of intersectional diversity and disability. Within the analysis and surrounding scholarship, a multipoint analysis of each advertisement and meta-interpretation of the research has been conducted to provide data, clarity, and contextualization of insights. This research presents an advertising disability index that can be monitored for trends and shifts in future studies and to provide further comparisons and contrasts of advertisements. An overview of the increasing buying power within the disability community and population changes among this group anchors the significance and size of the minority in the US. When possible, viewpoints from creative teams and advertisers that developed the ads are brought into the research to further establish understanding, meaning, and individuals’ purposeful approaches towards disability inclusion. Finally, the conclusion and discussion present key takeaways to learn from the research, build advocacy and action both within advertising scholarship and the profession. This study, developed into an advertising disability index, will answer questions of how people with disabilities are represented in each ad. In advertising that includes disability, there is a creative pendulum. At one extreme, among many other negative interpretations, people with disables are portrayed in a way that conveys pity, fosters ableism and discrimination, and shows that people with disabilities are less than normal from a societal and cultural perspective. At the other extreme, people with disabilities are portrayed with a type of undue inspiration, considered inspiration porn, or superhuman, otherwise known as supercrip, and in ways that most people with disabilities could never achieve, or don’t want to be seen for. While some ads reflect both extremes, others stood out for non-polarizing inclusion of people with disabilities. This content analysis explores television commercial advertisements to determine the presence of people with disabilities and any other associated disability themes and/or concepts. Content analysis will allow for measuring the presence and interpretation of disability portrayals in each ad.

Keywords: advertising, brand, disability, marketing

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3304 The Story of a Spoiled Identity: Blogging on Disability and Feminity

Authors: Anna Ślebioda

Abstract:

The paper discusses intersections between disability and femininity. Their imbrication may impede negotiation of identity. The analysis of a blog of a women with disability aims to prove this hypothesis. It involves 724 entries written in the span of six years. The conceptual framework for the considerations constitute the concepts of stigma and spoiled identity, and overlapping elements of femininity and disability. The empirical part comprises content analysis. It allows to locate the narrative on femininity and disability within the dimensions of imbricated categories described in the theoretical part. The results demonstrate aspects to consider in further research on identity in women with disabilities.

Keywords: disability, femininity, spoiled identity, stigma

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3303 The Social Model of Disability and Disability Rights: Defending a Conceptual Alignment between the Social Model’s Concept of Disability and the Nature of Rights and Duties

Authors: Adi Goldiner

Abstract:

Historically, the social model of disability has played a pivotal role in bringing rights discourse into the disability debate. Against this backdrop, the paper explores the conceptual alignment between the social model’s account of disability and the nature of rights. Specifically, the paper examines the possibility that the social model conceptualizes disability in a way that aligns with the nature of rights and thus motivates the invocation of disability rights. Methodologically, the paper juxtaposes the literature on the social model of disability, primarily the work of the Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation in the UK and related scholarship, with theories of moral rights. By focusing on the interplay between the social model of disability and rights, the paper provides a conceptual explanation for the rise of disability rights. In addition, the paper sheds light on the nature of rights, their function and limitations, in the context of disability rights. The paper concludes that the social model’s conceptualization of disability is hospitable to rights, because it opens up the possibility that there are duties that correlate with disability rights. Under the social model, disability is a condition that can be eliminated by the removal of social, structural, and attitudinal barriers. Accordingly, the social model dispels the idea that the actions of others towards disabled people will have a marginal impact on their interests in not being disabled. Equally important, the social model refutes the idea that in order to significantly serve people's interest in not being disabled, it is necessary to cure bodily impairments, which is not always possible. As rights correlate with duties that are possible to comply with, as well as those that significantly serve the interests of the right holders, the social model’s conceptualization of disability invites the reframing of problems related to disability in terms of infringements of disability rights. A possible objection to the paper’s argument is raised, according to which the social model is at odds with the invocation of disability rights because disability rights are ineffective in realizing the social model's goal of improving the lives of disabled by eliminating disability. The paper responds to this objection by drawing a distinction between ‘moral rights,’ which, conceptually, are not subject to criticism of ineffectiveness, and ‘legal rights’ which are.

Keywords: disability rights, duties, moral rights, social model

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3302 Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Tobias Stephan Kaeding, Rebecca Schwarz, Momme Kück, Lothar Stein

Abstract:

Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.

Keywords: back pain, exercise, occupational health management, vibration training

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3301 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: disability, low back pain, pain, quality of life

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3300 The Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Lumbar Stabilization Exercises on Muscle Strength and Muscle Endurance in Patients with Lumbar Disc Hernia

Authors: Mustafa Gulsen, Mitat Koz

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of lumbar stabilisation and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on muscle strength and muscle endurance. The participants were 64 between the ages of 15-69 (53.04 ± 14.59), who were graded protrusion and bulging lumbar herniation according to 'Macnab Classification'. The participants were divided into four groups as each group had 16 participants: lumbar stabilitation training, PNF training, physical therapy and control groups. Sociodemographic features were recorded. Then their muscle strength tests (by isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex 770 Norm Lumex Inc, Ronkonkoma, NY, USA) were recorded. Before and after applications; visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability İndex were applied by a physical therapist. The participants in lumbar stabilisation group performed 45 minutes, 5 days in a week for 4 weeks strength training with a physical therapist observation. The participants in PNF group performed 5 days in a week for 4 weeks with pelvic patterns of PNF by a physiotherapist. The participants in physical therapy group underwent Hotpack, Tens and Ultrasound therapy 5 days in a week for 4 weeks. The participants in control group didn’t take any training programme. After 4 weeks, the evaluations were repeated. There were significant increases in muscle strength and muscle endurance in lumbar stabilization training group. Also in pain intensity at rest and during activity in this group and in Oswestry disability index of patients, there were significant improvements (p < 0.05). In PNF training group likewise, there were significant improvements in muscle strength, muscle endurance, pain intensity at rest and with activity and in Oswestry disability index (p < 0.05). But improvements in the Lumbar Stabilization group was better than PNF Group. We found significant differences only in pain intensity at rest and with activity and in Oswestry disability index (p < 0.05). in the patients in Physical Therapy group. We think that appropriate physiotherapy and rehabilitation program which will be prepared for patients, to protect the waist circumference of patients with low muscle strength and low muscle endurance will increase muscle strength and muscle endurance. And it is expected that will reduce pain and will provide advances toward correcting functional disability of the patients.

Keywords: disc herniation, endurance, lumbar stabilitation exercises, PNF, strength

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3299 Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Implications of Living with Rheumatoid Arthritis among Women in Re

Authors: Anwaar Anwar Tayel

Abstract:

Background: Rheumatic arthritis (RA) affect all aspects of patients' life, lead to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient's life. Aim of the study: Identify physical, psychological, and sexual implications of rheumatoid arthritis among women in reproductive age. In addition to investigating the correlations between physical functional disability, psychological problems, and sexual dysfunction.Settings: The study was conducted at Rheumatology Clinic at the Main University Hospital of Alexandria. Subjects: Purposive sample was chosen from women patients with rheumatoid arthritis to be subjects of this study (n=250). Tools: Four tools were used to collect data. Tool I: Socio-demographic questionnaire. Tool II: Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ- DI). Tool III: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Tool IV: The Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (SDQ) Results: The majority of the studied women suffer from severe physical disability, extreme level of depression, anxiety, and about half of them had an extreme level of stress. Also, the majority of the studied women had a severe level of sexual dysfunction. Also, statistically significant correlations between women's physical disability index, psychological problems, and sexual dysfunction were detected. Conclusion: The findings from this study confirm that women patients with RA suffer from multiple negative implications on the physical, psychological and sexual functions. Recommendations: Provide ongoing support to the patients from the time of diagnosis throughout their care and management. To help them to manage their pain and disabilities, improve their sexual function, promote their mental health, and optimize psychosocial functioning

Keywords: pysical, spycholgical, sexual, implication, rheumatic arthritis

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3298 A Critical Discourse Analysis: Embedded Inequalities in the UK Disability Social Security System

Authors: Cara Williams

Abstract:

In 2006, the UK Labour government published a Green Paper introducing Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) as a replacement for Incapacity Benefit (IB), as well as a new Work Capability Assessment (WCA); signalling a controversial political and economic shift in disability welfare policy. In 2016, the Conservative government published Improving Lives: The Work, Health, and Disability Green Paper, as part of their social reform agenda, evidently to address the ‘injustice’ of the ‘disability employment gap’. This paper contextualises ESA in the wider ideology and rhetoric of ‘welfare to work’, ‘dependency’ and ‘responsibility’. Using the British ‘social model of disability’ as a theoretical framework, the study engages in a critical discourse analysis of these two Green Papers. By uncovering the medicalised conceptions embedded in the texts, the analysis has revealed ESA is linked with late capitalisms concern with the ‘disability category’.

Keywords: disability, employment, social security, welfare

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3297 Cultural and Group Understandings of Disability and Sexuality

Authors: Luke Galvani

Abstract:

The cultural representations of people with disabilities are frequently biased which can lead to a general misunderstanding of disability. Representations of disabled deviance are especially problematic given that they typify or generally abstract disability as being abnormal, which then begin to take root in the cultural mind. This study utilizes critical discourse analysis to investigate how discourses of disabled sexual deviance are promoted within two major films that portray disabled sexual subjects. The findings indicate that perceptions of disabled sexual deviance are heightened by cinematic representations of sex and disability, which characterize disabled sexual expression as being undesirable due to the ephemeral and abnormal qualities ascribed to it.

Keywords: deviance, disability, discourse analysis, sexuality

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3296 Neighbourhood Design for Independent Living of Adults with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Cate MacMillan, Nicholas J. Stevens, Johanna Rosier, Steven Boyd

Abstract:

Choosing where to live is an important decision for anybody, however, this decision is more complex if you are an adult with intellectual disability. Our research asked adults with intellectual disability, parents and carers and disability, housing and built environment decision makers what they considered important in deciding where to live. If medical advances continue to improve the longevity of adults with intellectual disability, many of these adults will outlive their parents. With appropriate community support, and in appropriately designed neighbourhoods, many will be able to live independently. Our research suggests that the key to achieving independent living as an adult with intellectual disability is not so much about the house but the type of neighbourhood and its design. This paper presents the results of interviews and details a practical approach which will better inform urban development decision-makers in establishing safe, inclusive and accessible neighbourhood design.

Keywords: inclusion, independent living, intellectual disability, neighbourhoods, systems thinking, urban design and planning

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3295 Attitudes towards People with Disability and Career Interest in Disability Studies: A Study of Clinical Medical Students of a Tertiary Institution in Southeastern Nigeria

Authors: Ebele V. Okoli, Emmanuel Nwobi, Dozie Ezechukwu, Ijeoma Itanyi

Abstract:

One in seven people worldwide suffer from a disability. 80% of people with disabilities live in developing countries. Negative attitudes and misconceptions among health-care providers constitute barri¬ers to optimal health care for people with disabilities. This underscores the relevance of a study of the attitude of Nigerian medical students towards disability and their willingness to work in the disability sector. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 254 penultimate and final year medical students of a university in southeastern Nigeria. The mean age of the students was 24.8 ± 3.12 years. Majority of the students were male (75.2%), single (96.9%), of the Igbo tribe (86.6%), Christian (97.6%) and grew up in urban areas (68.1%). Results indicated that the medical students had a predominantly positive attitude towards people with disability as 73.8% had a positive attitude and mean attitude score was 67.03 ± 0.14 (positive attitude = 61 – 120, negative attitude = 0 - 60). Chi-square analysis did not show any significant effect of demographic and social factors on the students’ attitude towards People with Disabilities. The students were mostly willing to work in areas that address the challenges of people with disability (70.4%) but a greater proportion had never heard about Disability Studies (67.5%). About a third of the students (33.2%) would like to travel abroad to practice in the disability sector. Conclusions: The students generally had a positive attitude towards people with disability and a greater percentage were willing to work in the disability sector in their future career. About two-thirds had however, never heard about disability studies. There was some potential for brain drain among the students as a third of the population intended to practice abroad on graduation.

Keywords: attitudes, career interest, disability, medical students

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3294 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Gamze Kurt, Ozgen Aras

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Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: functionality, low back pain, gait, pain

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3293 An Interview and PhotoVoice Exploration of Sexual Education Provision to Women with Physical Disability and Potential Experiences of Violence

Authors: D. Beckwith

Abstract:

This research explored sexual identity for women with physical disability, both congenital and acquired. It also explored whether exposure to violence or negative risk-taking had played a role in their intimate relationships. This phenomenological research used semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation with the researcher’s insider knowledge adding experiential substance and understanding to the discussion. Findings confirm sexuality for women with physical disability is marginalised and de-gendered making it less of a priority for professionals and policy makers and emphasising the need to more effectively support women with disability in relation to their sexuality, sexual expression and violence.

Keywords: lived-experience, identity, PhotoVoice, sexuality, violence, women with physical disability

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3292 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary

Abstract:

Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

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3291 A Study of the Impact of Discrimination Experience on Life Satisfaction in Korean Women with Severe Disabilities

Authors: Soungwan Kim

Abstract:

The present study analyzed the effect of discrimination experience on the life satisfaction in women with severe disabilities and the mediating effect of disability acceptance. In verifying this mediating effect of disability acceptance between discrimination experience and life satisfaction, both discrimination experience and disability acceptance were found to be statistically significant in the first and second phases. Disability acceptance was found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between discrimination experience and life satisfaction. Based on this finding, measures for enhancing the quality of life in individuals with disabilities that experience low levels of life satisfaction were proposed.

Keywords: disability discrimination, disability acceptance, life satisfaction, mediating effect

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3290 Empowering Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia: Translating the Disability Law into Practice

Authors: Marthella Rivera Roidatua

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Since the release of Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006, disability became a mainstreamed global issue. Many developed countries have shown the continuous effort to improve their disability employment policy, for example, the US and the UK with their integrated support system through disability benefits. Relative little recent research on developing country is available. Surprisingly, Indonesia, just enacted the Law No.8/2016 on Disability that bravely highlighted on integrating disabled people into the workforce. It shows a positive progress shifting traditional perspective to what Tom Shakespeare’s concept of a social model of disability. But, the main question is how can this law support the disabled people to access and maintain paid work. Thus, besides the earlier literature reviews, interviews with leading sectors, Ministry of Social Affairs and Ministry of Manpower, was conducted to examine government’s attitude towards the disabled worker. Insights from two local social enterprises on disability were also engaged in building better perspective. The various source of data was triangulated then analysed with a thematic approach. Results were encouraging the Indonesian government to have a better collaboration with other impactful local organisations in promoting the disability employment. In the end, this paper also recommends the government to make a reasonable adjustment and practical guideline for companies in hiring disabled.

Keywords: disability, employment, policy, Indonesia, collaboration, guidelines

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3289 Moving Beyond the Limits of Disability Inclusion: Using the Concept of Belonging Through Friendship to Improve the Outcome of the Social Model of Disability

Authors: Luke S. Carlos A. Thompson

Abstract:

The medical model of disability, though beneficial for the medical professional, is often exclusionary, restrictive and dehumanizing when applied to the lived experience of disability. As a result, a critique of this model was constructed called the social model of disability. Much of the language used to articulate the purpose behind the social model of disability can be summed up within the word inclusion. However, this essay asserts that inclusiveness is an incomplete aspiration. The social model, as it currently stands, does not aid in creating a society where those with impairments actually belong. Rather, the social model aids in lessening the visibility, or negative consequence of, difference. Therefore, the social model does not invite society to welcome those with physical and intellectual impairments. It simply aids society in ignoring the existence of impairment by removing explicit forms of exclusion. Rather than simple inclusion, then, this essay uses John Swinton’s concept of friendship and Jean Vanier’s understanding of belonging to better articulate the intended outcome of the social model—a society where everyone can belong.

Keywords: belong, community, differently-able, disability, exclusion, friendship, inclusion, normality

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3288 The Intersection of Masculinity and Disability in the Spatial Experience of Visually Impaired Men

Authors: Lucie Pospíšilová, Robert Osman, Hana Porkertová

Abstract:

The scholarly literature demonstrates disability and masculinity in conflict with each other. While disability is associated with dependence, weakness, or helplessness, masculinity is associated with independence, strength, and power. Thus, disabled masculinity might be a dilemma experienced on a personal level. The relationship between masculinity and disability is also interesting from a geographical point of view because the conception of space is gendered. In our society, the skills like spatial orientation, working with the maps, and navigation technologies as same as with scale are associated with masculinity. And because these skills are related to the visual imagination, it is the blindness that is associated with the limitation or even the absence of them. Thus, the conflict of masculinity and disability in the spatial experience is very well apparent in the case of visually impaired men. To study this conflict can tell us a lot not only about the experience of visually impaired men but also about the conception of space in geography and in our society. The paper uses Henri Lefebvre's theory of space based on a triad of spatial practice, representations of space, and representational space. It answers the question: How masculinity and disability intersect in the spatial experience of visually impaired men? The data come from research conducted in Brno and Prague (Czechia) in 2020 and 2021 and include 7 interviews and 6 go-alongs with visually impaired men.

Keywords: disability, masculinity, abstract space, spatial experience, visually impaired men

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3287 Steps towards Changing Students' Attitudes to Disability

Authors: Farzaneh Yazdani, Nastaran Yazdani, Laya Nobakht

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to explore the changes that may happen in students attitudes regarding disability after attending the module ‘Disability: theories, nature and experiences’ designed around reflective self-awareness exercises. Literature indicates enhanced knowledge does not automatically lead to changes in attitude. Health care professionals are the most significant people to instil hope in their clients to pursue a happy life. As an advocate for people with disability, health care professionals need to believe themselves in people with disability being able to pursue a happy life as an abled body does. Researchers aimed to explore the impact of the ‘Disability’ module using discussion and reflective exercises, on students’ way of thinking and possible changes in attitude towards disability. Students were asked to write stories from the beginning and after completing the module. A thematic analysis was applied to identify the students’ way of communicating their thoughts and feelings about disable-bodied /disability before and after the module. Three major themes were identified to represent the differences before and after attending the module as: problem /solution oriented approach towards perceived problems, separating/ integrating disable/able-bodied, passive/ active role of disable-bodied and society.

Keywords: qualitative study, reflection, rehabilitation, thematic analysis

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3286 The Imperative for Disability Studies as an Independent Area of Enquiry in Indian Academia

Authors: Anita Ghai

Abstract:

The present paper explores the imperative to establish disability studies as an independent area of academic inquiry in India through the establishment of specific programmes in disability studies. The case study of the efforts made by the Ambedkar University, Delhi, to develop such programs and courses shall be used to substantiate this imperative as well as to explore some of the challenges entailed. The paper shall explore the certain extent aspects of relevant scholarship in the area of disability studies in India today and critically reflect on the perspectives of disability in this scholarship. The study of disability in India has hitherto been the prerogative of special education, rehabilitation psychology, and social work departments. While instances of these departments adopting critical approaches to disability can be identified, their empirical focus has perpetuated the production of disability as the site of suffering and oppression. The complex cultural, phenomenological, historical and economic discourses within which disability is embedded can be better captured within distinctive programmes that have disability sui generis as their focus. Such programs would foreground disability as an epistemology, which universalizes the study of disability from disabled people alone to an analysis of various other groups who have been historically marginalized. It will also play an important role in recuperating disability from a state of alterity. The interdisciplinary nature of disability studies offers an opportunity to integrate perspectives from the humanities and the social sciences in the proposed programs. Some of the challenges or rather aspects of reflection that emerge in the course of developing these programs are the criteria for determining the suitability of faculty to teach these programs and the challenges in identifying faculty and in addressing any apprehensions about career prospects that prospective students might have. The manner in which these concerns are being addressed through the collaboration of expertise as well as through the interdisciplinary and flexible nature of the program shall be addressed in the course of the paper. In conclusion, the paper shall foreground the need for disability studies programs in India, the re-appropriation of existing scholarship in the process of formulation these programs, emerging concerns and the manner in which these concerns will be addressed.

Keywords: academia, disability studies, epistemology, India

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3285 Cancer and Disability: A Psychosocial Approach in Puerto Rican Women as Cancer Survivors

Authors: Hector Jose Velazquez-Gonzalez, Norma Maldonado-Santiago, Laura Pietri-Gomez

Abstract:

Cancer is one of the first cause of death in the world, most of them are women. In Puerto Rico, there is a permanent controversy on the conceptuation of what really involves a disability, also in when a chronic illness, like cancer, should be considered a disability. The aim of the research was to identify functional limitation in 50 women survivors of cancer. In turn, to know the meanings that 6 women attributed to cancer with a focus on functionality. We conducted a mix method research based on surveys and narratives. We administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment, version 2.0, which obtained a Cronbach’s alpha of .949 on the general scale, and from .773 to .956 on the six domains. The domain that obtained the highest average was social participation (M= 33.89, SD= 20.434), but it was not significant in the disability percentage. Also, there was no significance in the disability percentage in the other five domains. In a matter of meanings, we conduct a semistructured interview to 6 participants. All of them do not refer to cancer as a disability, either they do not know that in Puerto Rico cancer is considered as a disability by the law. However, participants agree that cancer at the time of treatment and subsequent to it, has significant effects on functional limitations (fatigue, pain, cognitive limitations, and weakness, among others. Psychooncologic practice should encourage the constant assessment of the functionality to identify the needs that emerge from oncological diagnosis. So that psychosocial intervention could be considered as critical in cancer treatment to promote a better quality of life and well-being in a person with cancer.

Keywords: cancer, Puerto Rico, disability, psychosocial approach

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3284 A Comparative Study of Language Used in English Newspaper Dailies of Mumbai in Addressing Disability Related Issues

Authors: Amrin Moger, Martin Mathew, Sagar Bhalerao

Abstract:

Mass media may be categorized into print and digital, former being the traditional form of reaching the masses to inform and educate on various issues. The Indian print media is more than two centuries old. Its strengths have largely been shaped by its historical experience and, in particular, by its association with the freedom struggle as well as movements for social emancipation, reform, and amelioration. Therefore, it is highly regarded in the Indian society. Persons with disability are part of Indian Society. Persons with Disability have always been looked down upon and not considered as part of the society. People with disabilities were commonly feared, pitied, and neglected. Much of the literature on disability in India has pointed to the importance of the concept of karma in attitudes to disability, with disability perceived either as punishment for misdeeds in the past lives of the PWD, or the wrongdoings of their parents. Some Indian authors consider the passage of the PWD Act as a landmark step in the history of rehabilitation services in India have put it, ‘At a profoundly serious and spiritual level, disability represents divine justice’. The newspaper has to play a role where it changes this attitude of the people. A short comparative content analysis of two English newspapers of Mumbai edition was selected, to analyze the language that is used for reporting disability issues. Software Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to gather and analyze data.

Keywords: content analysis, disability, newspaper dailies, language

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3283 Assessing the Disability-Free Life Expectancy and Decomposition of Its Difference: A Gender Perspective on India over the Decade 2001-2011

Authors: Kajori Banerjee, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi

Abstract:

“Health transition” is defined to be “a process through which high levels of mortality, morbidity and disability are reduced to low levels by influencing cultural, social and behavioural factors”. Life expectancy in India has been on the rise and parallel the burden of disease and disability has also risen noticeably. Borrowing data from Indian Census (2001, 2011), this study identifies the gender-wise burden of disability by calculating disability free life expectancy (DFLE) and life lived with disability (LWD). Sullivan’s method of calculating DFLE using proportion of disabled is used for this purpose. The change in person years lived with disability in the decade 2001-11 is further decomposed using Arriaga’s method into mortality and disability effects (ME and DE) to check the magnitude and direction of contribution of mortality and disability. Nationally, along with DFLE, LWD has amplified too. Despite having the highest life expectancy and DFLE, LWD in Kerala, was highest for both sexes in 2001. But in 2011, the LWD was highest among the males of Orissa and females of Rajasthan. For the overall population, DE is positive for the prime working age groups of 20-40years indicating that there has been an increase in the disability proportion holding mortality constant for 2001-2011. Females exhibit higher positive DE implying greater loss of healthy years due to disability than males. The findings call for an immediate attention to the causes of rising disability burden among the working population, especially females, as this might heavily effect the availability of quality labour force and its relative economic output in the Indian labour market. This also hints at the degrading quality of the elongated life and needs to be given the required attention to enhance the quality of life lead in the Nation.

Keywords: disability-free life expectancy, disability effect, life expectancy, mortality effect

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3282 On-Screen Disability Delineation and Social Representation: An Evaluation

Authors: Chetna Jaswal, Nishi Srivastava, Ahammedul Kabeer AP, Puja Prasad

Abstract:

We are a culture of mass media consumers and cinema as its integral part has high visibility and potential influence on public attitude towards disability which maintains no sociocultural boundaries but experiences substantial social marginalization. Given the lack of awareness and direct experience with disability, on-screen or film representations can give powerful and memorable definitions for the public that can contribute to framing the perception and attitude change. Social representation refers to common ways of thinking, conceiving about and evaluating social reality. It is a product of collective cognition, common sense and thought system. This study aims at analyzing the representations and narratives of disability in Indian cinema and Hollywood with the help of a conceptual understanding of social representation and its theoretical framework.

Keywords: disability, social representation, mainstream cinema, diversity

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