Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 175

Search results for: cervical dystonia

175 A New Perspective in Cervical Dystonia: Neurocognitive Impairment

Authors: Yesim Sucullu Karadag, Pinar Kurt, Sule Bilen, Nese Subutay Oztekin, Fikri Ak

Abstract:

Background: Primary cervical dystonia is thought to be a purely motor disorder. But recent studies revealed that patients with dystonia had additional non-motor features. Sensory and psychiatric disturbances could be included into the non-motor spectrum of dystonia. The Basal Ganglia receive inputs from all cortical areas and throughout the thalamus project to several cortical areas, thus participating to circuits that have been linked to motor as well as sensory, emotional and cognitive functions. However, there are limited studies indicating cognitive impairment in patients with cervical dystonia. More evidence is required regarding neurocognitive functioning in these patients. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate neurocognitive profile of cervical dystonia patients in comparison to healthy controls (HC) by employing a detailed set of neuropsychological tests in addition to self-reported instruments. Methods: Totally 29 (M/F: 7/22) cervical dystonia patients and 30 HC (M/F: 10/20) were included into the study. Exclusion criteria were depression and not given informed consent. Standard demographic, educational data and clinical reports (disease duration, disability index) were recorded for all patients. After a careful neurological evaluation, all subjects were given a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests: Self report of neuropsychological condition (by visual analogue scale-VAS, 0-100), RAVLT, STROOP, PASAT, TMT, SDMT, JLOT, DST, COWAT, ACTT, and FST. Patients and HC were compared regarding demographic, clinical features and neurocognitive tests. Also correlation between disease duration, disability index and self report -VAS were assessed. Results: There was no difference between patients and HCs regarding socio-demographic variables such as age, gender and years of education (p levels were 0.36, 0.436, 0.869; respectively). All of the patients were assessed at the peak of botulinum toxine effect and they were not taking an anticholinergic agent or benzodiazepine. Dystonia patients had significantly impaired verbal learning and memory (RAVLT, p<0.001), divided attention and working memory (ACTT, p<0.001), attention speed (TMT-A and B, p=0.008, 0.050), executive functions (PASAT, p<0.001; SDMT, p= 0.001; FST, p<0.001), verbal attention (DST, p=0.001), verbal fluency (COWAT, p<0.001), visio-spatial processing (JLOT, p<0.001) in comparison to healthy controls. But focused attention (STROOP-spontaneous correction) was not different between two groups (p>0.05). No relationship was found regarding disease duration and disability index with any neurocognitive tests. Conclusions: Our study showed that neurocognitive functions of dystonia patients were worse than control group with the similar age, sex, and education independently clinical expression like disease duration and disability index. This situation may be the result of possible cortical and subcortical changes in dystonia patients. Advanced neuroimaging techniques might be helpful to explain these changes in cervical dystonia patients.

Keywords: cervical dystonia, neurocognitive impairment, neuropsychological test, dystonia disability index

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
174 Botulinum A Toxin Injection in Two Filipino Brothers with X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) in Cebu City, Philippines: A Case Report

Authors: Ana Katrina C. Longos, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul

Abstract:

Objectives: To present a case of two Filipino male siblings initially seen with parkinsonism and eventually with dystonia and to present botulinum A toxin as part of the treatment for X-linked dystonia parkinsonism in Cebu City. Discussion: A 54 year old man presented initially with parkinsonian symptoms and later developed oromandibular and truncal dystonia. Further history revealed that he had an older brother who also presented with the same symptoms. Neuroimaging done on both patients revealed CVD infarcts in the pons and corona radiata respectively which where were not compatible with their symptoms. Family history revealed that their mother was originally from Panay and a diagnosis of X-linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP) was made. Both patients were able to receive botulinum A toxin injections which provided temporary relief of symptoms. Conclusion: XDP was considered in 2 Filipino male siblings who presented with oromandibular dystonia, truncal dystonia, shuffling gait, resting tremors with ancestry from Panay on the maternal side. There is no cure for XDP, only symptomatic treatment. Until recently, only oral chemotherapy was available in Cebu. Botulinum A toxin injection done in both patients afforded temporary resolution of symptoms.

Keywords: XDP, dystonia of Panay, lubag, dystonia parkinsonism, botulinum a toxin

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
173 Evaluation of P16, Human Papillomavirus Capsid Protein L1 and Ki67 in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions: Potential Utility in Diagnosis and Prognosis

Authors: Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy

Abstract:

Background: Cervical dysplasia, which is potentially precancerous, has increased in young women. Detection of cervical is important for reducing morbidity and mortality in cervical cancer. This study analyzes the immunohistochemical expression of p16, HPV L1 capsid protein and Ki67 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and correlates them with lesion grade to develop a set of markers for diagnosis and detect the prognosis of cervical cancer precursors. Methods: 75 specimens were analyzed including 15 cases CIN 1, 28 CIN 2, 20 CIN 3, and 12 cervical squamous carcinoma, besides 10 normal cervical tissues. They were stained for p16, HPV L1 and Ki-67. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for each marker. Results: p16 expression increased during the progression from CIN 1 to carcinoma. HPV L1 positivity was detected in CIN 2 and decreased gradually as the CIN grade increased but disappear in carcinoma. Strong Ki-67 expression was observed with high grades CIN and carcinoma. p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 were sensitive but with variable specificity in detecting CIN lesions. Conclusions: p16, HPV L1 and Ki67 are useful set of markers in establishing the risk of high-grade CIN. They complete each other to reach accurate diagnosis and prognosis.

Keywords: p16, HPV L1, Ki67, CIN, cervical carcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
172 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado

Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
171 Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung

Authors: Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Ani Melani Maskoen, Ratu Safitri, Supartini Syarif, Herman Susanto

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.

Keywords: L1 HPV 16, cervical cancer, bandung, phylogenetic

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
170 Levels of Anxiety during the 1st Stage of Labour, Respectively Cervical Effacement

Authors: Shpresa Agani, Nysret Agani

Abstract:

Studies have found that women, during the 1st stage of labour, respectively cervical effacement, experience anxiety. This study aims to measure the degree of anxiety during cervical effacement, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) for measuring anxiety symptoms (HSCL-25). A randomized prospective study with 300 women during the 1st stage of labour was conducted where cervical effacement percentage in parallel with the symptoms of anxiety was examined. Anxiety degree levels were examined by HSCL-25. Results showed that 81% were primiparous, while 19% were multiparous. All participants experienced anxiety symptoms, and the degree of anxiety depended on the stage of the birth process. Groups-based modeling according to HSCL- 2 identified three distinct groups of anxiety symptoms: group 1 (low degree, 32 cases or 11%), group 2 (mild degree, 186 cases or 62%), and group 3 (high degree, 82 cases or 27%). Depending on the percentage of cervical effacement, the anxiety degree increased. In a cervical effacement of 0-60-%, 125 cases or 41.6% had symptoms of anxiety, while in a cervical effacement of 60-100%, 174 cases or 58.4% had symptoms of anxiety (Chi-Square X2 (4,N=300)=10.755, p=0.02). This study showed a correlation between cervical effacement and the degree of anxiety. Further, it was found that the majority of participants experienced symptoms of anxiety during the cervical effacement process. The degree of anxiety increased in direct proportion to the degree of the cervical effacement process. The higher the percentage of cervical effacement, the higher the degree of anxiety. A continuing assessment of the psychological well-being of women throughout the birth process.

Keywords: anxiety, cervical effacement, pregnancy, HSCL-25

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
169 The Effect of Normal Cervical Sagittal Configuration in the Management of Cervicogenic Dizziness: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Moustafa Ibrahim Moustafa

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of cervical sagittal curve restoration and forward head correction, on severity of dizziness, disability, frequency of dizziness, and severity of cervical pain. 72 patients with cervicogenic dizziness, definite hypolordotic cervical spine, and forward head posture were randomized to experimental or a control group. Both groups received the multimodal program, additionally, the study group received the Denneroll cervical traction. All outcome measures were measured at three intervals. The general linear model indicated a significant group × time effects in favor of experimental group on measures of anterior head translation (F=329.4 P < .0005), cervical lordosis (F=293.7 P < .0005), severity of dizziness (F=262.1 P < .0005), disability (F=248.9 P < .0005), frequency of dizziness (F=53.9 P < .0005), and severity of cervical pain (F=350.1 P < .0005). The addition of Dennroll cervical traction to a multimodal program can positively affect dizziness management outcomes.

Keywords: randomized controlled trial, traction, dizziness, cervical

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
168 Pre-Processing of Ultrasonography Image Quality Improvement in Cases of Cervical Cancer Using Image Enhancement

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Teguh Budiono, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo, Arwita Mulyawati

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of mortality in cancer-related diseases. In this diagnosis doctors usually perform several tests to determine the presence of cervical cancer in a patient. However, these checks require support equipment to get the results in more detail. One is by using ultrasonography. However, for the developing countries most of the existing ultrasonography has a low resolution. The goal of this research is to obtain abnormalities on low-resolution ultrasound images especially for cervical cancer case. In this paper, we emphasize our work to use Image Enhancement for pre-processing image quality improvement. The result shows that pre-processing stage is promising to support further analysis.

Keywords: cervical cancer, mortality, low-resolution, image enhancement.

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
167 Success Rate of Endotracheal Intubation Using Inline Stabilization with and without Cervical Hard Collar; A Comparative Study

Authors: Welawat Tienpratarn, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Kasamon Aramvanitch, Karn Suttapanit, Yahya Mankong, Nussareen Yaemluksanalert, Sansanee Meesawad

Abstract:

Introduction : Application of a rigid cervical collar may interfere with the laryngeal view, and potentially lead to failed endotracheal intubation (ETI). This study aimed to compare intubation success rates while performing inline stabilization with and without cervical hard collar. Methods : This randomized prospective comparative study included paramedics working in the Department of Emergency Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand to compare the success rates of endotracheal intubation on manikin using inline stabilization with and without cervical hard collar. Results : 125 participants were evaluated; 63 in the rigid cervical collar and 62 in the non-cervical hard collar group. The rate of successful intubation was significantly higher using manual stabilization without cervical hard collar (61 (96.8%) vs. 55 (88.7%); p=0.048). The time required to successfully perform intubation was also shorter, with manual stabilization only (14.1 ±20.9 vs. 18.9±29.0; p = 0.081). Conclusion : It seems that, removal of the rigid cervical collar during ETI in patients with suspected traumatic spine injury could increase the intubation success rate.

Keywords: ntubation, Intratracheal, Spinal Injuries, Multiple trauma

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
166 In silico Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Squamous Cell Carcinomas Stages of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the women related cancers which starts from the pre-cancerous cells and a fraction of women with pre-cancers of the cervix will develop cervical cancer. Cervical pre-cancers if treated in pre-invasive stage can prevent almost all true cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the genes and pathways that are involved in the progression of cervical cancer and are responsible in transition from pre-invasive stage to other advanced invasive stages. The study used GDS3292 microarray data to identify the stage specific genes in cervical cancer and further to generate the network of the significant genes. The microarray data GDS3292 consists of the expression profiling of 10 normal cervices, 7 HSILs and 21 SCCs samples. The study identifies 70 upregulated and 37 downregulated genes in HSIL stage while 95 upregulated and 60 downregulated genes in SCC stages. Biological process including cell communication, signal transduction are highly enriched in both HSIL and SCC stages of cervical cancer. Further, the ppi interaction of genes involved in HSIL and SCC stages helps in identifying the interacting partners. This work may lead to the identification of potential diagnostic biomarker which can be utilized for early stage detection.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HSIL, microarray, SCC

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
165 Cervical Cell Classification Using Random Forests

Authors: Dalwinder Singh, Amandeep Verma, Manpreet Kaur, Birmohan Singh

Abstract:

The detection of pre-cancerous changes using a Pap smear test of cervical cell is the important step for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The Pap smear test consists of a sample of human cells taken from the cervix which are analysed to detect cancerous and pre-cancerous stage of the given subject. The manual analysis of these cells is labor intensive and time consuming process which relies on expert cytotechnologist. In this paper, a computer assisted system for the automated analysis of the cervical cells has been proposed. We propose a morphology based approach to the nucleus detection and segmentation of the cytoplasmic region of the given single or multiple overlapped cell. Further, various texture and region based features are calculated from these cells to classify these into normal and abnormal cell. Experimental results on public available dataset show that our system has achieved satisfactory success rate.

Keywords: cervical cancer, cervical tissue, mathematical morphology, texture features

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
164 Clinical Feature Analysis and Prediction on Recurrence in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Ravinder Bahl, Jamini Sharma

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates analysis of the cervical cancer based on a probabilistic model. It involves technique for classification and prediction by recognizing typical and diagnostically most important test features relating to cervical cancer. The main contributions of the research include predicting the probability of recurrences in no recurrence (first time detection) cases. The combination of the conventional statistical and machine learning tools is applied for the analysis. Experimental study with real data demonstrates the feasibility and potential of the proposed approach for the said cause.

Keywords: cervical cancer, recurrence, no recurrence, probabilistic, classification, prediction, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
163 Clinical Outcomes and Surgical Complications in Patients with Cervical Disk Degeneration

Authors: Mirzashahi Babak, Mansouri Pejman, Najafi Arvin, Farzan Mahmoud

Abstract:

Introduction: There are several surgical treatment choices for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes and surgical complications in patients with cervical disk degeneration (CDD) undergoing either anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or cervical laminectomy and fusion. Methods: This prospective case series study included 45 consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy between January 2010 and November 2014. There were 28 males and 17 females, with a mean age of 47 (range 37-68) years. The mean clinical follow-up was 14 months (range 3-24 months). The Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) neck and arm pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as the functional outcome measurements. All of the complications in our patients were recorded. Results: In our study group, 26 patients underwent only one or two level anterior cervical discectomy. Ten patients underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and nine cases underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion. We have found a statistically significant improvement between mean preoperative (29, range 19-43) and postoperative (7, range 0-12) NDI scores following surgery (P < 0.05). Also, there was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-operative VAS and SF-36 score (p < 0.05). There was a 7% overall complication rate (n = 3). The only complication in our patients was surgical site cellulitis which has been managed with oral antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Both anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or posterior laminectomy and fusion are safe and efficacious treatment options for the management of CSM. The clinical outcomes seem to be fairly reproducible.

Keywords: cervical, myelopathy, discectomy, fusion, laminectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
162 Stories of Women with Cervical Cancer in Taiwan: A Narrative Analysis Research

Authors: Pei-yu Lee

Abstract:

This study investigates the life experience and self-interpretation of female cervical cancer patients under Taiwanese cultural context. Through a Narrative Analysis Research approach, the study took six cervical cancer female patients with an average age of 58 years (ranging from 55-66 years) for an average of twice, 60 minutes each time, in-depth recorded interviews under their consent. After converting the interview recordings into transcripts, the study applied the Riessman approach to analyze the contents. The results revealed two major theme, including 1. The symbolic meaning of the cervix, and 2. Women's perseverance and compliance. Because of the illness metaphor of cervical cancer and the designation of women being family caregivers under the Chinese patriarchal culture, females with cervical cancer are not only patients but also responsible for being family and partner roles, in which contradictions of intimate relationships exist. Show the strength of perseverance and compliance in the course of life. On the other hand, they have to identify and recognize their roles in life and strive to determine the situation of coexisting with the disease to picture their life. The results showed that female cervical cancer patients not only need to combat the disease but also stand against the stigma and the traditional responsibility given to women. The researchers recommend that nurses should include cultural implications in their care of female cervical cancer patients.

Keywords: female, cervical cancer, narrative analysis research, taiwan

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
161 Antioxidants: Some Medicinal Plants in Indian System of Medicine Work as Anti-cervical Cancer

Authors: Kamini Kaushal

Abstract:

Medicinal plants of Ayurveda are effective in the treatment of cervical cancer. The aim of this paper is to assess anti cancerous activities of these medicinal plants against cancer. Most of the medicinal plants in Ayurveda are using to treat cervical cancer as name of disease as treatment of YONI VYAPADA. The selected plants has been studied scientifically in India and evidence based written since Vedic era. The compilation results showed potential anti cervical cancer activity of the tested plants. There plants are remaining under the dark due to lack of awareness, lack of popularity and barrier of language. Now this is the time to eye opener regarding the classical text and clinical evidences, so that we can give the hope to world's affected women from this disease. World is waiting for such type of remedy which is having zero side effects, low cost and effective.

Keywords: anti cancerous, cervical cancer, ayurveda, medicinal plants, scientific study, classical text

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
160 Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E4 Gene Variation as Risk Factor for Cervical Cancer

Authors: Yudi Zhao, Ziyun Zhou, Yueting Yao, Shuying Dai, Zhiling Yan, Longyu Yang, Chuanyin Li, Li Shi, Yufeng Yao

Abstract:

HPV16 E4 gene plays an important role in viral genome amplification and release. Therefore, a variation of the E4 gene nucleic acid sequence may affect the carcinogenicity of HPV16. In order to understand the relationship between the variation of HPV16 E4 gene and cervical cancer, this study was to amplify and sequence the DNA sequences of E4 genes in 118 HPV16-positive cervical cancer patients and 151 HPV16-positive asymptomatic individuals. After obtaining E4 gene sequences, the phylogenetic trees were constructed by the Neighbor-joining method for gene variation analysis. The results showed that: 1) The distribution of HPV16 variants between the case group and the control group differed greatly (P = 0.015),and the Asian-American(AA)variant was likely to relate to the occurrence of cervical cancer. 2) DNA sequence analysis showed that there were significant differences in the distribution of 8 variants between the case group and the control group (P < 0.05). And 3) In European (EUR) variant, two variations, C3384T (L18L) and A3449G (P39P), were associated with the initiation and development of cervical cancer. The results suggested that the variation of HPV16 E4 gene may be a contributor affecting the occurrence as well as the development of cervical cancer, and different HPV16 variants may have different carcinogenic capability.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV16, E4 gene, variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
159 Comparison of Cervical Length Using Transvaginal Ultrasonography and Bishop Score to Predict Succesful Induction

Authors: Lubena Achmad, Herman Kristanto, Julian Dewantiningrum

Abstract:

Background: The Bishop score is a standard method used to predict the success of induction. This examination tends to be subjective with high inter and intraobserver variability, so it was presumed to have a low predictive value in terms of the outcome of labor induction. Cervical length measurement using transvaginal ultrasound is considered to be more objective to assess the cervical length. Meanwhile, this examination is not a complicated procedure and less invasive than vaginal touché. Objective: To compare transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score in predicting successful induction. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. One hundred and twenty women with singleton pregnancies undergoing induction of labor at 37 – 42 weeks and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Cervical assessment by both transvaginal ultrasound and Bishop score were conducted prior induction. The success of labor induction was defined as an ability to achieve active phase ≤ 12 hours after induction. To figure out the best cut-off point of cervical length and Bishop score, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors best-predicted induction success. Results: This study showed significant differences in terms of age, premature rupture of the membrane, the Bishop score, cervical length and funneling as significant predictors of successful induction. Using ROC curves found that the best cut-off point for prediction of successful induction was 25.45 mm for cervical length and 3 for Bishop score. Logistic regression was performed and showed only premature rupture of membranes and cervical length ≤ 25.45 that significantly predicted the success of labor induction. By excluding premature rupture of the membrane as the indication of induction, cervical length less than 25.3 mm was a better predictor of successful induction. Conclusion: Compared to Bishop score, cervical length using transvaginal ultrasound was a better predictor of successful induction.

Keywords: Bishop Score, cervical length, induction, successful induction, transvaginal sonography

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
158 Prevalence of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Dysplasia and Cancer Samples from Twin Cities in Pakistan

Authors: Sana Gul, Sheeba Murad, Aneela Javed

Abstract:

Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is small DNA virus mostly infecting mucosa and cutaneous keratinocytes. So far, more than 200 Human papillomaviruses are known. HPV have been divided into high- and low-risk on the basis of their oncogenic potential. High risk HPV is considered to be the main etiological cause for cervical cancer. Objective: Current study was designed to screen the local cervical cancer patients from the twin cities of Pakistan for the occurance of high risk HPV. Methodology: A total of 67 formalin fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cervical cancer biopsies were obtained from the government hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Cervical cancer biopsies were examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the amplification of a region in the HPV-L1 gene for the general detection of the Papilloma virus and for the genotype specific detection of high risk HPV 16 and 18 using the GP5/GP6 primers and genotype specific primers respectively. Results: HPV DNA was detected in 59 out of 67 samples analyzed. 30 samples showed the presence of HPV16 while 22 samples were positive for HPV 18 . HPV subtype could not be determined in 7 samples. Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, Pakistan, human papillomavirus, HPV 16

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
157 Study of Relation between P53 and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, p53, miR-146a, rs2910164, polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
156 Investigation p53 and miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Lesion

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33, and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99 bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, p53 polymorphism, intraepithelial, neoplasia, HPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
155 Knowledge and Attitude of Final Year Undergraduate Nursing Students towards Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Afaf Abdallah, Moawia Elsadig

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common women cancer among worldwide; representing 13% of female cancers. In Sudan, it ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women as other developing countries. Aim: Is to study awareness, attitude of nursing students towards cervical cancer prevention. The results: Most of the students were not aware of other screening methods than Pap smear test. However, half of the respondents showed positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination. More than two-thirds of respondents exhibited a positive attitude and were willing to undergo Pap smear in the future. Conclusion: The study shows that the majority of the participants have poor information, education would motivate nurses to participate actively in awareness raising, screening, and management.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, attitude, screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
154 Role of P53 Codon 72 Polymorphism and Mir-146a Rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Marjan Moradi Fard, Masoud Houshmand

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is multistep disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of p53 and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of p53 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism in cervical lesions. Method: Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of P53 and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Results: Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical lesions in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. Conclusion: The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of p53 codon 72 polymorphism genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV18, p53 codon 72 polymorphism, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
153 The Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the Expression of Muc1 and P65 in a Cervical Cancer Cell Line, HCS-2

Authors: K. R. Thabethe, G. A. Adefolaju, M. J. Hosie

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer globally and it is one of three AIDS defining malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs and has been shown to play a significant role in reducing the incidence of some AIDS defining malignancies, although its effect on cervical cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer and HAART. This was achieved by studying the expression of two signalling molecules expressed in cervical cancer; MUC1 and P65. Following the 24 hour treatment of a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2, with drugs which are commonly used as part of HAART at their clinical plasma concentrations, real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence were used in order to study gene and protein expression. A one way ANOVA followed by a Tukey Kramer Post Hoc test was conducted using JMP 11 software on both sets of data. The drug classified as a protease inhibitor (PI) (i.e. LPV/r) reduced MUC1 and P65 gene and protein expression more than the other drug tested. PIs are known to play a significant role in cell death, therefore the cells were thought to be more susceptible to cell death following treatment with PIs. In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cervical cancer, haart, MUC1, P65

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
152 Investigation Two Polymorphism of hTERT Gene (Rs 2736098 and Rs 2736100) and miR- 146a rs2910164 Polymorphism in Cervical Cancer

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Alaheh Gholami Roud-Majany, Zahra Razavi, Massoud Hoshmand

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is multi step disease that is thought to result from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)and cervical cancer. In other hand, some of hTERT and miRNA polymorphism may plays an important role in carcinogenesis. This study attempts to clarify the relation of hTERT genotypes and miR-146a genotypes in cervical cancer. Forty two archival samples with cervical lesion retired from Khatam hospital and 40 sample from healthy persons used as control group. A simple and rapid method was used to detect the simultaneous amplification of the HPV consensus L1 region and HPV-16,-18, -11, -31, 33 and -35 along with the b-globin gene as an internal control. We use Multiplex PCR for detection of hTERT and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in our lab. Finally, data analysis was performed using the 7 version of the Epi Info(TM) 2012 software and test chi-square(x2) for trend. Cervix lesions were collected from 42 patients with Squamous metaplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma. Successful DNA extraction was assessed by PCR amplification of b-actin gene (99bp). According to the results, hTERT ( rs 2736098) GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer in the study population. In this study, we detected 13 HPV 18 from 42 cervical cancer. The connection between several SNP polymorphism and human virus papilloma in rare researches were seen. The reason of these differences in researches' findings can result in different kinds of races and geographic situations and also differences in life grooves in every region. The present study provided preliminary evidence that a p53 GG genotype and miR-146a rs2910164 CC genotype may effect cervical cancer risk in the study population, interacting synergistically with HPV 18 genotype. Our results demonstrate that the testing of hTERT rs 2736098 genotypes and miR-146a rs2910164 genotypes in combination with HPV18 can serve as major risk factors in the early identification of cervical cancers. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of primary prevention of cervical cancer by vaccination against HPV18 in Iran.

Keywords: polymorphism of hTERT gene, miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism, cervical cancer, virus

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
151 Sociodemographic Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer in Imphal, Manipur

Authors: Arundhati Devi Maibam, K. Ingocha Singh

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is preventable if detected early. Determination of risk factors is essential to plan screening programmes to prevent the disease. To study the demographic risk factors of cervical cancer among Manipuri women, information on age, marital status, educational level, monthly family income and socioeconomic status were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. In this study, 64 incident cases registered at the RT Dept, RIMS (Regional Institute of Medical Sciences), Imphal, Manipur, India during 2008-09 participated. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and the results were expressed in percentages. Among the 64 patients with cervical cancer, 56 (88.9%) were in the age group of 40+ years. The majority of the patients were from rural areas (68.75%) and 31.25% were from urban areas. The majority of the patients were Hindus (73%), 55(85.9%) were of low educational level, 43(67.2%) were married, and 36 (56.25%) belonged to Class IV socioeconomic status. In conclusion, if detected early, cervical cancer is preventable and curable. The potential risk factors need to be identified and women in the risk group need to be motivated for screening. Affordable screening programmes and health care resources will help in lessening the burden of the disease.

Keywords: cervical cancer, Manipuri women, RIIMS, socio-demographic risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
150 Attitudes, Knowledge and Perceptions towards Cervical Cancer Messages among Female University Students

Authors: Anne Nattembo

Abstract:

Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in developing countries, especially in Africa. Effective cervical cancer prevention communication requires identification of behaviors, attitudes and increasing awareness of a given population; thus this study focused on investigating awareness, attitudes, and behavior among female university students towards cervical cancer messages. The study objectives sought to investigate the communication behavior of young adults towards cervical cancer, to understand female students recognition of cervical cancer as a problem, to identify the frames related to cervical cancer and their impact towards audience communication and participation behaviors, to identify the factors that influence behavioral intentions and level of involvement towards cervical cancer services and to make recommendations on how to improve cervical cancer communication towards female university students. The researcher obtained data using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions targeting 90 respondents. The semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out through one-on-one discussions basis using a set of prepared questions among 53 respondents. All interviews were audio-tape recorded. Each interview was directly typed into Microsoft Word. 4 focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 37 respondents; 2 female only groups with 10 respondents in one and 9 respondents in another, 1 mixed with 12 participants 5 of whom were male, and 1 male only group with 6 participants. The key findings show that the participants preferred to receive and access cervical cancer information from doctors although they were mainly receiving information from the radio. In regards to the type of public the respondents represent, majority of the respondents were non-publics in the sense that they did not have knowledge about cervical cancer, had low levels of involvement and had high constraint recognition their cervical cancer knowledge levels. The researcher identified the most salient audience frames among female university students towards cervical cancer and these included; death, loss, and fear. These frames did not necessarily make cervical cancer an issue of concern among the female university students but rather an issue they distanced themselves from as they did not perceive it as a risk. The study also identified the constraints respondents face in responding to cervical cancer campaign calls-to-action which included; stigma, lack of knowledge and access to services as well as lack of recommendation from doctors. In regards to sex differences, females had more knowledge about cervical cancer than the males. In conclusion the study highlights the importance of interpersonal communication in risk or health communication with a focus on health providers proactively sharing cervical cancer prevention information with their patients. Health provider’s involvement in cervical cancer is very important in influencing behavior and compliance of cervical cancer calls-to-action. The study also provides recommendations for designing effective cervical cancer campaigns that will positively impact on the audience such as packaging cervical cancer messages that also target the males as a way of increasing their involvement and more campaigns to increase awareness of cervical cancer as well as designing positive framed messages to counter the negative audience frames towards cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer communication, health communication, university students, risk communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
149 Development of an Interactive and Robust Image Analysis and Diagnostic Tool in R for Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Kumar Dron Shrivastav, Ankan Mukherjee Das, Arti Taneja, Harpreet Singh, Priya Ranjan, Rajiv Janardhanan

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer among women worldwide which can be cured if detected early. Manual pathology which is typically utilized at present has many limitations. The current gold standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is exhaustive and time-consuming because it relies heavily on the subjective knowledge of the oncopathologists which leads to mis-diagnosis and missed diagnosis resulting false negative and false positive. To reduce time and complexities associated with early diagnosis, we require an interactive diagnostic tool for early detection particularly in developing countries where cervical cancer incidence and related mortality is high. Incorporation of digital pathology in place of manual pathology for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis can increase the precision and strongly reduce the chances of error in a time-specific manner. Thus, we propose a robust and interactive cervical cancer image analysis and diagnostic tool, which can categorically process both histopatholgical and cytopathological images to identify abnormal cells in the least amount of time and settings with minimum resources. Furthermore, incorporation of a set of specific parameters that are typically referred to for identification of abnormal cells with the help of open source software -’R’ is one of the major highlights of the tool. The software has the ability to automatically identify and quantify the morphological features, color intensity, sensitivity and other parameters digitally to differentiate abnormal from normal cells, which may improve and accelerate screening and early diagnosis, ultimately leading to timely treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, early detection, digital Pathology, screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
148 Calculation of Organs Radiation Dose in Cervical Carcinoma External Irradiation Beam Using Day’s Methods

Authors: Yousif M. Yousif Abdallah, Mohamed E. Gar-Elnabi, Abdoelrahman H. A. Bakary, Alaa M. H. Eltoum, Abdelazeem K. M. Ali

Abstract:

The study was established to measure the amount of radiation outside the treatment field in external beam radiation therapy using day method of dose calculation, the data was collected from 89 patients of cervical carcinoma in order to determine if the dose outside side the irradiation treatment field for spleen, liver, both kidneys, small bowel, large colon, skin within the acceptable limit or not. The cervical field included mainly 4 organs which are bladder, rectum part of small bowel and hip joint these organ received mean dose of (4781.987±281.321), (4736.91±331.8), (4647.64±387.1) and (4745.91±321.11) respectively. The mean dose received by outfield organs was (77.69±15.24cGy) to large colon, (93.079±12.31cGy) to right kidney (80.688±12.644cGy) to skin, (155.86±17.69cGy) to small bowel. This was more significant value noted.

Keywords: radiation dose, cervical carcinoma, day’s methods, radiation medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
147 The Effect of Screw Parameters on Pullout Strength of Screw Fixation in Cervical Spine

Authors: S. Ritddech, P. Aroonjarattham, K. Aroonjarattham

Abstract:

The pullout strength had an effect on the stability of plate screw fixation when inserted in the cervical spine. Nine different titanium alloy bone screws were used to test the pullout strength through finite element analysis. The result showed that the Moss Miami I can bear the highest pullout force at 1,075 N, which causes the maximum von Mises stress at 858.87 MPa, a value over the yield strength of titanium. The bone screw should have large outer diameter, core diameter and proximal root radius to increase the pullout strength.

Keywords: pullout strength, screw parameter, cervical spine, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
146 Sex Estimation Using Cervical Measurements of Molar Teeth in an Iranian Archaeological Population

Authors: Seyedeh Mandan Kazzazi, Elena Kranioti

Abstract:

In the field of human osteology, sex estimation is an important step in developing biological profile. There are a number of methods that can be used to estimate the sex of human remains varying from visual assessments to metric analysis of sexually dimorphic traits. Teeth are one of the most durable physical elements in human body that can be used for this purpose. The present study investigated the utility of cervical measurements for sex estimation through discriminant analysis. The permanent molar teeth of 75 skeletons (28 females and 52 males) from Hasanlu site in North-western Iran were studied. Cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements were taken from both maxillary and mandibular first and second molars. Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of each diameter in assessing sex. The results showed that males had statistically larger teeth than females for maxillary and mandibular molars and both measurements (P < 0.05). The range of classification rate was from (75.7% to 85.5%) for the original and cross-validated data. The most dimorphic teeth were maxillary and mandibular second molars providing 85.5% and 83.3% correct classification rate respectively. The data generated from the present study suggested that cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements of the molar teeth can be useful and reliable for sex estimation in Iranian archaeological populations.

Keywords: cervical measurements, Hasanlu, premolars, sex estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 259