Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: metamorphosis

28 Effects of Epinephrine on Gene Expressions during the Metamorphosis of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

Authors: Fei Xu, Guofan Zhang, Xiao Liu

Abstract:

Many major marine invertebrate phyla are characterized by indirect development. These animals transit from planktonic larvae to benthic adults via settlement and metamorphosis, which has many advantages for organisms to adapt marine environment. Studying the biological process of metamorphosis is thus a key to understand the origin and evolution of indirect development. Although the mechanism of metamorphosis has been largely studied on their relationships with the marine environment, microorganisms, as well as the neurohormones, little is known on the gene regulation network (GRN) during metamorphosis. We treated competent oyster pediveligers with epinephrine, which was known to be able to effectively induce oyster metamorphosis, and analyzed the dynamics of gene and proteins with transcriptomics and proteomics methods. The result indicated significant upregulation of protein synthesis system, as well as some transcription factors including Homeobox, basic helix-loop-helix, and nuclear receptors. The result suggested the GRN complexity of the transition stage during oyster metamorphosis.

Keywords: indirect development, gene regulation network, protein synthesis, transcription factors

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27 Metamorphosis in Nature through Adéquation: An Ecocritical Reading of Charles Tomlinson's Poetry

Authors: Zahra Barzegar, Reza Deedari, Behzad Pourgharib

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This study examines how metamorphosis in nature is depicted in Charles Tomlinson's poetry through Lawrence Buell's mimesis and referential strategy of adéquation. This study aims to answer the questions that what is the relationship between Tomlinson's selected poems and nature, and how does Tomlinson's poetry bring the reader close to the natural environment. Adéquation is a way that brings the reader close to nature, not by imitating nature but by referring to it imaginatively and creating a stylized image. Using figurative language, namely imagery, metaphor, and analogy, adéquation creates a stylized image of metamorphosis in a nature scene that acts as a middle way between the reader and nature. This paper proves that adéquation reinvents the metamorphosis in natural occurrences in Charles Tomlinson's selected poems. Thus, a reader whose imagination is addressed achieves closeness with nature and a caring outlook toward natural happenings. This article confirms that Tomlinson's poems are potential enough to represent metamorphosis in nature through adéquation. Therefore, the reader understands nature beyond the poem as the poem presents a gist of nature through adéquation.

Keywords: adéquation, metamorphosis, nature, referentiality

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26 Transcriptome Analysis of Protestia brevitarsis seulensis with Focus On Wing Development and Metamorphosis in Developmental Stages

Authors: Jihye Hwang, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Youn Baek, Bia Park, Gyeongmin Kim, Chorong Shin, Joon Ha Lee, Jae-Sam Hwang, Ui Wook Hwang

Abstract:

White-spotted flower chafers are widely distributed in Asian countries and traditionally used for the treatment of chronic fatigue, blood circulation, and paralysis in the oriental medicine field. The evolution and development of insect wings and metamorphosis remain under-discovered subjects in arthropod evolutionary researches. Gene expression abundance analyses along with developmental stages based on the large-scale RNA-seq data are also still rarely done. Here we report the de novo assembly of a Protestia brevitarsis seulensis transcriptome along four different developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa, and adult) to explore its development and evolution of wings and metamorphosis. The de novo transcriptome assembly consists of 23,551 high-quality transcripts and is approximately 96.7% complete. Out of 8,545 transcripts, 5,183 correspond to the possible orthologs with Drosophila melanogaster. As a result, we could found 265 genes related to wing development and 19 genes related to metamorphosis. The comparison of transcript expression abundance with different developmental stages revealed developmental stage-specific transcripts especially working at the stage of wing development and metamorphosis of P. b. seulensis. This transcriptome quantification along the developmental stages may provide some meaningful clues to elucidate the genetic modulation mechanism of wing development and metamorphosis obtained during the insect evolution.

Keywords: white-spotted flower chafers, transcriptomics, RNA-seq, network biology, wing development, metamorphosis

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25 DNA Methylation Changes in Response to Ocean Acidification at the Time of Larval Metamorphosis in the Edible Oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis

Authors: Yong-Kian Lim, Khan Cheung, Xin Dang, Steven Roberts, Xiaotong Wang, Vengatesen Thiyagarajan

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Unprecedented rate of increased CO₂ level in the ocean and the subsequent changes in carbonate system including decreased pH, known as ocean acidification (OA), is predicted to disrupt not only the calcification process but also several other physiological and developmental processes in a variety of marine organisms, including edible oysters. Nonetheless, not all species are vulnerable to those OA threats, e.g., some species may be able to cope with OA stress using environmentally induced modifications on gene and protein expressions. For example, external environmental stressors, including OA, can influence the addition and removal of methyl groups through epigenetic modification (e.g., DNA methylation) process to turn gene expression “on or off” as part of a rapid adaptive mechanism to cope with OA. In this study, the above hypothesis was tested through testing the effect of OA, using decreased pH 7.4 as a proxy, on the DNA methylation pattern of an endemic and a commercially important estuary oyster species, Crassostrea hongkongensis, at the time of larval habitat selection and metamorphosis. Larval growth rate did not differ between control pH 8.1 and treatment pH 7.4. The metamorphosis rate of the pediveliger larvae was higher at pH 7.4 than those in control pH 8.1; however, over one-third of the larvae raised at pH 7.4 failed to attach to an optimal substrate as defined by biofilm presence. During larval development, a total of 130 genes were differentially methylated across the two treatments. The differential methylation in the larval genes may have partially accounted for the higher metamorphosis success rate under decreased pH 7.4 but with poor substratum selection ability. Differentially methylated loci were concentrated in the exon regions and appear to be associated with cytoskeletal and signal transduction, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, and larval metamorphosis, which implies the high potential of C. hongkongensis larvae to acclimate and adapt through non-genetic ways to OA threats within a single generation.

Keywords: adaptive plasticity, DNA methylation, larval metamorphosis, ocean acidification

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24 Mapping the Metamorphosis of the Nigerian Female: A Womanist Approach to the Novels of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Authors: Vidhya R

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The claim of feminists that women are made and not born is neither to set women on par with men nor to discriminate one from the other, but to establish and reiterate the fact that both the sexes have to understand, recognize and appreciate each other’s ability and responsibility thus to contribute to the peaceful co-existence of both, leading to the creation of a better and brave new world, which is neither patriarchal nor matriarchal. But history has repeatedly recorded the relegation of women to the secondary position consummated through the highly biased cultural, ritualistic and customary practices across the globe. In Africa, bracing herself against many odds through generations, the African woman who has been facing multiple jeopardy promulgated by racial, cultural, economic and gender discrimination has slowly started moving from the margins towards the center. The African woman was able to undertake the journey from the margins to the center bravely only because of her grit, grace, courage, confidence, and spirituality. This journey has resulted in the metamorphosis of the African woman’s psyche. Economic independence fortified with education has empowered the African woman. The various stages of metamorphosis are well delineated in the works of the contemporary Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. The objective of this research paper is to study the above said metamorphosis, the female protagonists undergo in Adichie’s novels. The approaches on which the study is based on are the Africana Womanist theory propounded by Clenora Hudson –Weems and African feminism of Carole Boyce Davies. The findings of this study lead towards establishing the proposition that the emergence and evolution of the Nigerian woman has resulted in the birth of a new breed of women – the Emphatic Female, manifested in the power packed portrayal of the female protagonists of Purple Hibiscus, Half of a Yellow Sun and Americanah by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.

Keywords: Africana womanism, African feminism, chimamanda ngozi adichie, metamorphosis, the emphatic female

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23 Social Metamorphosis in Italy between the Seventies and Eighties: Sequenza VIII for Solo Violin and Duets for Two Violins of L. Berio

Authors: Daria Baiocchi

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The goal of this article is to inseparably link the social metamorphosis that took place in Italy between the seventies and eighties, and the genesis of two works: the Sequenza VIII for solo violin and Duets for two violins, by L.Berio. Passing through a presentation of Sequenza and Duets, the italian socio-cultural change has been described in the seventies and eighties. Ipso facto the two works of Berio have been compared: if in the early seventies emerges a large youthful aggregative strength towards innovation, in the eighties the rediscovery of subjectivity leads to the enhancement of everyday life in its most inward sides. Through the analysis of social change of the time and of the different compositional cuts, given by Berio in Sequenze and in Duets, the composer is, in this case, an expression of its time

Keywords: music composition, music and society, L. Berio, Sequenza VIII and duets

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22 Embryonic and Larval Development of Pelophylax bedriagae (Amphibia, Anura), in Iran

Authors: Alireza Pesarakloo, Masoumeh Najibzadeh

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We studied the development and morphology of different larval stages of Pelophylax bedriagae at two rearing temperatures (20 and 24°C). Eggs collected from a breeding site in south-western Iran. Diagnostic morphological characters are provided for Gosner (1960) larval stages 1-46. The larvae hatched about seven days after egg deposition. Principal diagnostic feature including the formation of the funnel-shaped oral disc became discernible about ten days after hatch at Gosner stage 21 and degenerated at Gosner stage 42. Larvae developed faster at higher temperatures. The largest body length of larval P. bedriagae measured about 54mm in 70 days after egg deposition. Based on our results, the longest metamorphosis time was observed on temperature (20°C) whilst the shortest metamorphosis time occurred on temperature (24°C). Compared with the majority of other Palearctic Anurans, it appears that embryonic and larval development is usually slow rapid in P. bedriagae.

Keywords: development, larval stages, Pelophylax bedriagae, temperatures

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21 Assessment of Antioxidant and Cholinergic Systems, and Liver Histopathologies in Lithobates catesbeianus Exposed to the Waters of an Urban Stream

Authors: Diego R. Boiarski, Camila M. Toigo, Thais M. Sobjak, Andrey F. P. Santos, Silvia Romao, Ana T. B. Guimaraes

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Anthropogenic activities promote changes in the community’s structures and decrease the species abundance of amphibians. Biological communities of fluvial systems are assemblies of organisms that have adapted to regional conditions, including the physical environment and food resources, and are further refined through interactions with other species. The aim of this study was to assess neurotoxic alterations and in the antioxidant system on tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to waters from Cascavel River, in the south of Brazil. A total of 420 L of water was collected from the Cascavel River, 140 L from each of the three different locations: Site 1 – headwater; Site 2 – stretch of the stream that runs through an urbanized area; Site 3 – a stretch from the rural area. Twelve tadpoles were acclimated in each aquarium (100 L of water) for seven days. The water from each aquarium was replaced with the ones sampled from the river, except the one from the control aquarium. After seven days, a portion of the liver was removed and conditioned for ChE, SOD, CAT and LPO analysis; other part of the tissue was conditioned for histological analysis. The statistical analysis performed was one-way ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Tukey-HSD test, and the multivariate principal components analysis. It was not observed any neurotoxic effect, but a slight increase in SOD activity and elevation of CAT activity in both urban and rural environment. A decrease in LPO reaction was detected, mainly among the tadpoles exposed to the waters from the rural area. The results of the present study demonstrate the alteration of the antioxidant system, as well as liver histopathologies in tadpoles exposed mainly to waters collected in urban and rural environments. These alterations may cause the reduction in the velocity of the metamorphosis process from the tadpoles. Further, were observed histological alterations, highlighting necrotic areas mainly among the animals exposed to urban waters. Those damages can lead to metabolic dysfunction, interfering with survival capacity, diminishing not only individual fitness but for the whole population. In the interpretation synthesis of all biomarkers, the cellular damage gradient is perceptible, characterized by the variables related to the antioxidant system, due to the flow direction of the stream. This result is indicative that along the course of the creek occurs dumping of organic material, which promoted an acute response upon tadpoles of L. catesbeianus. and it was also observed the difference in tissue damage between the experimental groups and the control group, the latter presenting histological alterations, but to a lesser degree than the animals exposed to the waters of the Cascavel river. These damages, caused by reactive oxygen species possibly resulting from the contamination by organic compounds, can lead the animals to a series of metabolic dysfunctions, interfering with its metamorphosis capacity. Interruption of metamorphosis may affect survival, which may impair its growth, development and reproduction, diminishing not only the fitness of each individual but in a long-term, to the entire population.

Keywords: American bullfrog, histopathology, oxidative stress, urban creeks pollution

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20 Ikat: Undaunted Journey of a Traditional Textile Practice, a Sublime Connect of Traditionality with Modernity and Calibration for Eco-Sustainable Options

Authors: Purva Khurana

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Traditional textile crafts are universally found to have been significantly impeded by the uprise of innovative technologies, but sustained human endeavor, in sync with dynamic market nuances, holds key to these otherwise getting fast-extinct marvels. The metamorphosis of such art-forms into niche markets pre-supposes sharp concentration on adaptability. The author has concentrated on the ancient handicraft of Ikat in Andhra Pradesh (India), a manifestation of their cultural heritage and esoteric cottage industry, so very intrinsic to the development and support of local economy and identity. Like any other traditional practice, ikat weaving has been subjected to the challenges of modernization. However, owing to its unique character, personalize production and adaptability, both of material and process, ikat weaving has stood the test of time by way of judiciously embellishing innovation with contemporary taste. To survive as a living craft as also to justify its role as a universal language of aesthetic sensibility, it is imperative that ikat tradition should lend itself continuous process of experiments, change and growth. Besides, the instant paper aims to examine the contours of ikat production process from its pure form, to more fashion and market oriented production, with upgraded process, material and tools. Over the time, it has adapted well to new style-paradigms, duly matching up with the latest fashion trends, in tandem with the market-sensitivities. Apart, it is an effort to investigate how this craft could respond constructively to the pressure of contemporary technical developments in order to be at cutting edge, while preserving its integrity. In order to approach these issues, the methodology adopted is, conceptual analysis of the craft practices, its unique strength and how they could be used to advance the craft in relation to the emergence of technical developments. The paper summarizes the result of the study carried out by the author on the peculiar advantages of suitably- calibrated vat dyes over natural dyes, in terms of its recycling ability and eco-friendly properties, thus holding definite edge, both in terms of socio-economic as well as environmental concerns.

Keywords: craft, eco-friendly dyes, ikat, metamorphosis

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19 Influence of Farnesol on Growth and Development of Dysdercus koenigii

Authors: Shailendra Kumar, Kamal Kumar Gupta

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Dysdercus koenigii is an economically important pest of cotton worldwide. The pest damages the crop by sucking sap, staining lint, reducing the oil content of the seeds and deteriorating the quality of cotton. Plant possesses a plethora of secondary metabolites which are used as defense mechanism against herbivores. One of the important categories of such chemicals is insect growth regulators and the intermediates in their biosynthesis. Farnesol belongs to sesquiterpenoid. It is an intermediate in Juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway in insects has been widely reported in the variety of plants. This chemical can disrupt the normal metabolic function and therefore, affects various life processes of the insects. Present study tested the efficacy of farnesol against Dysdercus koenigii. 2μl of 5% (100µg) and 10% (200µg) of the farnesol was applied topically on the dorsum of thoracic region of the newly emerged fifth instar nymphs of Dysdercus. The treated insects were observed daily for their survival, weight gain, and developmental anomalies for a period of ten days. The results indicated that treatment with 200µg farnesol decreased survival of the insects to 70% after 24h of exposure. At lower doses, no significant decrease in the survival was observed. However, the surviving nymphs showed alteration in growth, development, and metamorphosis. The weight gain in the treated nymphs showed deviation from control. The treated nymphs showed an increase in mortality during subsequent days and increase in the nymphal duration. The number of nymphs undergoing metamorphosis decreased to 46% and 88% in the treatments with the dose of 200µg and 100µg respectively. Severe developmental anomalies were also observed in the treated nymphs. The treated nymphs moulted into supernumerary nymphs, adultoids, adults with exuviae attached and adults with wing deformities. On treatment with 200µg; 26% adultoid, 4% adults with exuviae attached and 12% adults with wing deformed were produced. Treatment with 100µg resulted in production of 34% adultoid, 26% adults with deformed wing and 4% adults with exuviae attached. Many of the treated nymphs did not metamorphose into adults, remained in nymphal stage and died. Our results indicated potential application plant-derived secondary metabolites like farnesol in the management of Dysdercus population.

Keywords: development, Dysdercus koenigii, farnesol, survival

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18 Simulation of Communication and Sensing Device in Automobiles Using VHDL

Authors: Anirudh Bhaikhel

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The exclusive objective of this paper is to develop a device which can pass on the interpreted result of the sensed information to the interfaced communicable devices to avoid or minimise accidents. This device may also be used in case of emergencies like kidnapping, robberies, medical emergencies etc. The present era has seen a rapid metamorphosis in the automobile industry with increasing use of technology and speed. The increase in purchasing power of customers and price war of automobile companies has made an easy access to the automobile users. The use of automobiles has increased tremendously in last 4-5 years thus causing traffic congestions and thus making vehicles more prone to accidents. This device can be an effective measure to counteract cases of abduction. Risks of accidents can be decreased tremendously through the notifications received by these alerts. It will help to detect the upcoming emergencies. This paper includes the simulation of the communication and sensing device required in automobiles using VHDL.

Keywords: automobiles, communication, component, cyclic redundancy check (CRC), modulo-2 arithmetic, parity bits, receiver, sensors, transmitter, turns, VHDL (VHSIC hardware descriptive language)

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17 Architectural Knowledge Systems Related to Use of Terracotta in Bengal

Authors: Nandini Mukhopadhyay

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The prominence of terracotta as a building material in Bengal is well justified by its geographical location. The architectural knowledge system associated with terracotta can be comprehended in the typology of the built structures as they act as texts to interpret the knowledge. The history of Bengal has witnessed the influence of several rulers in developing the architectural vocabulary of the region. This metamorphosis of the architectural knowledge systems in the region includes the Bhakti movement, the Islamic influence, and the British rule, which led to the evolution of the use of terracotta from decorative elements to structural elements in the present-day context. This paper intends to develop an understanding of terracotta as a building material, its use in a built structure, the common problems associated with terracotta construction, and the techniques of maintenance, repair, and conservation. This paper also explores the size, shape, and geometry of the material and its varied use in temples, mosques in the region. It also takes into note that the use of terracotta was concentrated majorly to religious structures and not in the settlements of the common people. And the architectural style of temples and mosques of Bengal is hugely influenced by the houses of the common.

Keywords: terracotta, material, knowledge system, conservation

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16 Impact of Ocean Acidification on Gene Expression Dynamics during Development of the Sea Urchin Species Heliocidaris erythrogramma

Authors: Hannah R. Devens, Phillip L. Davidson, Dione Deaker, Kathryn E. Smith, Gregory A. Wray, Maria Byrne

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Marine invertebrate species with calcifying larvae are especially vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA) caused by rising atmospheric CO₂ levels. Acidic conditions can delay development, suppress metabolism, and decrease the availability of carbonate ions in the ocean environment for skeletogenesis. These stresses often result in increased larval mortality, which may lead to significant ecological consequences including alterations to the larval settlement, population distribution, and genetic connectivity. Importantly, many of these physiological and developmental effects are caused by genetic and molecular level changes. Although many studies have examined the effect of near-future oceanic pH levels on gene expression in marine invertebrates, little is known about the impact of OA on gene expression in a developmental context. Here, we performed mRNA-sequencing to investigate the impact of environmental acidity on gene expression across three developmental stages in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. We collected RNA from gastrula, early larva, and 1-day post-metamorphic juvenile sea urchins cultured at present-day and predicted future oceanic pH levels (pH 8.1 and 7.7, respectively). We assembled an annotated reference transcriptome encompassing development from egg to ten days post-metamorphosis by combining these data with datasets from two previous developmental transcriptomic studies of H. erythrogramma. Differential gene expression and time course analyses between pH conditions revealed significant alterations to developmental transcription that are potentially associated with pH stress. Consistent with previous investigations, genes involved in biomineralization and ion transport were significantly upregulated under acidic conditions. Differences in gene expression between the two pH conditions became more pronounced post-metamorphosis, suggesting a development-dependent effect of OA on gene expression. Furthermore, many differences in gene expression later in development appeared to be a result of broad downregulation at pH 7.7: of 539 genes differentially expressed at the juvenile stage, 519 of these were lower in the acidic condition. Time course comparisons between pH 8.1 and 7.7 samples also demonstrated over 500 genes were more lowly expressed in pH 7.7 samples throughout development. Of the genes exhibiting stage-dependent expression level changes, over 15% of these diverged from the expected temporal pattern of expression in the acidic condition. Through these analyses, we identify novel candidate genes involved in development, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation that are possibly affected by pH stress. Our results demonstrate that pH stress significantly alters gene expression dynamics throughout development. A large number of genes differentially expressed between pH conditions in juveniles relative to earlier stages may be attributed to the effects of acidity on transcriptional regulation, as a greater proportion of mRNA at this later stage has been nascent transcribed rather than maternally loaded. Also, the overall downregulation of many genes in the acidic condition suggests that OA-induced developmental delay manifests as suppressed mRNA expression, possibly from lower transcription rates or increased mRNA degradation in the acidic environment. Further studies will be necessary to determine in greater detail the extent of OA effects on early developing marine invertebrates.

Keywords: development, gene expression, ocean acidification, RNA-sequencing, sea urchins

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15 Of Rites of Narration and Representation of Orient and Occident in Thomas Heywood's Fair Maid of the West

Authors: Tarik Bouguerba

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Thomas Heywood was an outstanding, prolific playwright of the period, writing both in prose and verse. Unlike Shakespeare in particular, Heywood could be considered as a playwright who was well informed about Morocco and wrote in greater detail about a possible dialogue among cultures. As it is a historical platform for power relations, The Fair Maid of the West recalled the heroism and excitement of English counterattacks against Spain in the Post-Armada period. This paper therefore pins down the acts of narration and representation of Morocco and Moroccans and examines how the Occident has contributed to the production of the Orient and finally attests to the metamorphosis the plot undergoes in Part I and Part II. As an adventure play, The Fair Maid of the West teaches about, informs of and confirms the existing patterns of virtue in European voyagers and at the same time it asserts how honor and chastity are European par excellence whereas villainy and wickedness are Oriental assets. Once taken captive, these virtues and traits are put into task as the plot disentangles. This paper also examines how the play in both parts generates a whole history of stereotypes about Morocco and unexpectedly subverts this stereotype; such a biased mode of narration of the Orient the playwright took up at first was played down at a later phase in the narrative.

Keywords: Heywood, Occident, Orientalism, Stereotype, Virtue

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14 Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric

Authors: Shivi Rastogi, Suman Pant

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Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.

Keywords: crease recovery, drapeability, KES, silicone, THV

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13 Positioning a Southern Inclusive Framework Embedded in the Social Model of Disability Theory Contextualised for Guyana

Authors: Lidon Lashley

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This paper presents how the social model of disability can be used to reshape inclusive education practices in Guyana. Inclusive education in Guyana is metamorphosizing but still firmly held in the tenets of the Medical Model of Disability which influences the experiences of children with Special Education Needs and/or Disabilities (SEN/D). An ethnographic approach to data gathering was employed in this study. Qualitative data was gathered from the voices of children with and without SEN/D as well as their mainstream teachers to present the interplay of discourses and subjectivities in the situation. The data was analyzed using Adele Clarke's postmodern approach to grounded theory analysis called situational analysis. The data suggest that it is possible but will be challenging to fully contextualize and adopt Loreman's synthesis and Booths and Ainscow's Index in the two mainstream schools studied. In addition, the data paved the way for the presentation of the social model framework specific to Guyana called 'Southern Inclusive Education Framework for Guyana' and its support tool called 'The Inclusive Checker created for Southern mainstream primary classrooms.

Keywords: social model of disability, medical model of disability, subjectivities, metamorphosis, special education needs, postcolonial Guyana, inclusion, culture, mainstream primary schools, Loreman's synthesis, Booths and Ainscow's index

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12 Leviathan, the Myth of Evil, Based on Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

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The myth of Leviathan, its ontology and appearance is often one of the problems of Judeo-Christian religious commentators so that some of them have tried to interpret and explain formation or symbolic implications of this myth in different contexts their specific methods and proofs. However, the Bible has presented only vague references in this field and it is not clear why and how to develop such mentions to create a powerful myth with allegorical and symbolic capacity as Leviathan. Therefore, the paper aims to clarify the process of formation of Leviathan and explore the mythical and symbolic systems related to it, first by adopting the imagological approach and then using the Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism. Finally, it is concluded that The Leviathan is rooted in the stories of legendary battles of the beginning of creation and almost continues to live with the same nature into the Old Testament, but continuously, in an interactive process between the Greek and Egyptian mythological networks, it attracts more stories and implications about his existence while maintaining its satanic nature. After intense metamorphosis in Jewish interpretations, it appears in the book of Revelation and finally, becomes one of the princes of Hell in the tradition of Christian demonology. The myth, that has become the archetype and fluidized symbol of evil because of the ambiguity and lack of objectivity on its apparent characteristics, finds symbolical extensive capabilities in Judeo-Christian culture, especially in the mysticism, so that its presence or death has special implications and also fighting against it is taken into account as an external and more internal action.

Keywords: Leviathan, The Evil, Bible, myth, Northrop Frye

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11 Nurse Metamorphosis: Lived Experience in the RN HEALS Proram

Authors: Dennis Glen G. Ramos, Angelica S. Mendoza, Juliene Marie A. Alvarez, Claudette A. Nagal, Kayzee C. Blanza, Jayson M. Narbonita, John Anthony D. Dayot, Rebecca M. Reduca, Jermaine Jem M. Flojo, Michael E. Resultan, Clyde C. Fomocod, Cindy A. Vinluan, Jeffrie Aleona Mari C. Maclang

Abstract:

RN HEALS, an acronym for Registered Nurses for Health Enhancement and Local Service, is expected to address the shortage of skilled and experienced nurses in 1,221 rural and unserved or underserved communities for one year. The study would like to explore the lived experiences of the nurses deployed under this program.The study is a Descriptive Qualitative Research. Interview was utilized as a data gathering tool. Six community nurses who are deployed under the RN HEALS program are included in the study. Van Kaam method was used as data management. Data gathering was done from October to December 2013.Two themes emerged in the study; Value and Challenge. Under Value, it had three sub-themes; Job Satisfaction, Upholding Competency, including Personal Development and Professional Growth, and Employability. While under Challenge, it had one sub-theme, Job Stress. The study concludes that nurses adapt to strategies to pursue personal and professional competence and an evolutionary journey. The researchers recommend that Health Administrators improve the work environment of nurses to lessen the challenges experienced by nurses.

Keywords: lived experience, RN HEALS, health enhancement, local service

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10 Rental Housing May Address Affordable Housing Deficiency in India

Authors: Meha Singla, Shankhadeep Chaudhuri, Yadunandan Batchu

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Rental Housing is a more cost effective and flexible housing solution for the low income families than home-ownership. While India is undergoing a new industrial metamorphosis with multiple government initiatives that emphasise on the growth of manufacturing sector through policy frameworks and corridor development proposals, there is going to be a huge influx of low-income working population to the upcoming urban centres. As per stats, about 70 per cent of the housing demand at these centres fall into the affordable segment. And in the midst of this rapid urbanisation and huge immigration of young population, there is a lack of proper rental housing framework in the country. A large number of immigrants will be unable to support home-ownership thereby leading to proliferation of slums in urban centres. As a result, there is a dire need for immediate articulation of a comprehensive rental housing policy and affordable housing initiatives. In this paper, CommonFloor attempts to analyse successful rental housing case studies of the world followed by establishing a correlation between the gap in urban rental housing stock and the per capita income statistics to devise rental housing affordability specific to major Indian cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai). Further, with the corroboration of market price trends, it will try to locate feasible micro-markets for immediate rental housing action. Final research findings will provide key data points thereby helping to design the approach for efficient utilisation of unsold residential inventory in the country in order to compensate the rental housing deficiency. This data set is believed to express viable model(s) of the rental housing approach for the government and private participants.

Keywords: housing prices, migration of population, real estate, rental housing, rental markets, residential property market, urbanisation

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9 Plant Mediated RNAi Approach to Knock Down Ecdysone Receptor Gene of Colorado Potato Beetle

Authors: Tahira Hussain, Ilhom Rahamkulov, Muhammad Aasim, Ugur Pirlak, Emre Aksoy, Mehmet Emin Caliskan, Allah Bakhsh

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RNA interference (RNAi) has proved its usefulness in functional genomic research on insects recently and is considered potential strategy in crop improvement for the control of insect pests. The different insect pests incur significant losses to potato yield worldwide, Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB) being most notorious one. The present study focuses to knock down highly specific 20-hydroxyecdysone hormone-receptor complex interaction by using RNAi approach to silence Ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene of CPB in transgenic potato plants expressing dsRNA of EcR gene. The partial cDNA of Ecdysone receptor gene of CPB was amplified using specific primers in sense and anti-sense orientation and cloned in pRNAi-GG vector flanked by an intronic sequence (pdk). Leaf and internodal explants of Lady Olympia, Agria and Granola cultivars of potato were infected with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring plasmid pRNAi-CPB, pRNAi-GFP (used as control). Neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene was used as a plant selectable marker at a concentration of 100 mg L⁻¹. The primary transformants obtained have shown proper integration of T-DNA in plant genome by standard molecular analysis like polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, Sothern blot. The transgenic plants developed out of these cultivars are being evaluated for their efficacy against larvae as well adults of CPB. The transgenic lines are expected to inhibit expression of EcR protein gene, hindering their molting process, hence leading to increased potato yield.

Keywords: plant mediated RNAi, molecular strategy, ecdysone receptor, insect metamorphosis

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8 Effect of Diazepam on Internal Organs of Chrysomya megacephala Using Micro-Computed Tomograph

Authors: Sangkhao M., Butcher B. A.

Abstract:

Diazepam (known as valium) is a medication for calming effect. Many reports on committed suicide cases shown that diazepam is frequently used for this purpose. This research aims to study effect of diazepam on the development of forensically important blowflies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using micro-computed tomography (micro CT). In this study, four rabbits were treated with three different lethal doses of diazepam and one control (LD₀, LD₅₀, LD₁₀₀ and LC). The rabbit’s livers were removed for rearing the blowflies. Pupae were sampled for two series (ages; S1: 24h and S2: 120h) of development. After preparing the specimens, all samples were performed Micro CT using Skyscan 1172. The results shown the effect of diazepam on internal organs and tissues such as brain, cavity of the body, gas bubble, meconium and especially fat body. In the control group, in series 1 (LCS1), fat body was equally dispersed in the head, thorax, and abdomen, development of internal organs were not completed, however, brain, thoracic muscle, wings, legs and rectum were able to observe at 24h after developing into the pupal stage. Development of each organ in the control group in the series two was completed. In the treatment groups, LD₀, LD₅₀, LD₁₀₀ (Series 1 and Series 2), tissues are different, such as gas bubble in LD₀S1, was observed due to rapidity morphological changes during the metamorphosis of blowfly’s pupa in this treatment. Meconium was observed in LD₅₀S2 group because excretion of metabolic waste was not completed. All of the samples in the treatment groups had differentiation of fat bodies because metabolic activities were not completed and these changes affected on functions of every internal system. Discovering of differentiated fat bodies are important results because fat bodies of insect functions as liver in human, therefore it is shown that toxin eliminates from blowfly’s body and homeostatic maintenance of the hemolymph proteins, lipid and carbohydrates in each treatment group are abnormal.

Keywords: forensic toxicology, forensic entomology, diptera, diazepam

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7 Dematerialized Beings in Katherine Dunn's Geek Love: A Corporeal and Ethical Study under Posthumanities

Authors: Anum Javed

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This study identifies the dynamical image of human body that continues its metamorphosis in the virtual field of reality. It calls attention to the ways where humans start co-evolving with other life forms; technology in particular and are striving to establish a realm outside the physical framework of matter. The problem exceeds the area of technological ethics by explicably and explanatorily entering the space of literary texts and criticism. Textual analysis of Geek Love (1989) by Katherine Dunn is adjoined with posthumanist perspectives of Pramod K. Nayar to beget psycho-somatic changes in man’s nature of being. It uncovers the meaning people give to their experiences in this budding social and cultural phenomena of material representation tied up with personal practices and technological innovations. It also observes an ethical, physical and psychological reassessment of man within the context of technological evolutions. The study indicates the elements that have rendered morphological freedom and new materialism in man’s consciousness. Moreover this work is inquisitive of what it means to be a human in this time of accelerating change where surgeries, implants, extensions, cloning and robotics have shaped a new sense of being. It attempts to go beyond individual’s body image and explores how objectifying media and culture have influenced people’s judgement of others on new material grounds. It further argues a decentring of the glorified image of man as an independent entity because of his energetic partnership with intelligent machines and external agents. The history of the future progress of technology is also mentioned. The methodology adopted is posthumanist techno-ethical textual analysis. This work necessitates a negotiating relationship between man and technology in order to achieve harmonic and balanced interconnected existence. The study concludes by recommending a call for an ethical set of codes to be cultivated for the techno-human habituation. Posthumanism ushers a strong need of adopting new ethics within the terminology of neo-materialist humanism.

Keywords: corporeality, dematerialism, human ethos, posthumanism

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6 The Role of Evaluation for Effective and Efficient Change in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Pattaka Sa-Ngimnet

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That the University as we have known it is no longer serving the needs of the vast majority of students and potential students has been a topic of much discussion. Institutions of higher education, in this age of global culture, are in a process of metamorphosis. Technology is being used to allow more students, older students, working students and disabled students, who cannot attend conventional classes, to have greater access to higher education through the internet. But change must come about only after much evaluation and experimentation or education will simply become a commodity as, in some cases, it already has. This paper will be concerned with the meaning and methods of change and evaluation as they are applied to institutions of higher education. Organization’s generally have different goals and different approaches in order to be successful. However, the means of reaching those goals requires rational and effective planning. Any plans for successful change in any institution must take into account both effectiveness and efficiency and the differences between them. “Effectiveness” refers to an adequate means of achieving an objective. “Efficiency” refers to the ability to achieve an objective without waste of time or resources (The Free Dictionary). So an effective means may not be efficient and an efficient means may not be effective. The goal is to reach a synthesis of effectiveness and efficiency that will maximize both to the extent each is limited by the other. This focus of this paper then is to determine how an educational institution can become either successful or oppressive depending on the kinds of planning, evaluating and changes that operate by and on the administration. If the plan is concerned only with efficiency, the institution can easily become oppressive and lose sight of its purpose of educating students. If it is overly concentrated on effectiveness, the students may receive a superior education in the short run but the institution will face operating difficulties. In becoming only goal oriented, institutions also face problems. Simply stated, if the institution reaches its goals, the stake holders may become satisfied and fail to change and keep up with the needs of the times. So goals should be seen only as benchmarks in a process of becoming even better in providing quality education. Constant and consistent evaluation is the key to making all these factors come together in a successful process of planning, testing and changing the plans as needed. The focus of the evaluation has to be considered. Evaluations must take into account progress and needs of students, methods and skills of instructors, resources available from the institution and the styles and objectives of administrators. Thus the role of evaluation is pivotal in providing for the maximum of both effective and efficient change in higher education institutions.

Keywords: change, effectiveness, efficiency, education

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5 Fuzzy Expert Approach for Risk Mitigation on Functional Urban Areas Affected by Anthropogenic Ground Movements

Authors: Agnieszka A. Malinowska, R. Hejmanowski

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A number of European cities are strongly affected by ground movements caused by anthropogenic activities or post-anthropogenic metamorphosis. Those are mainly water pumping, current mining operation, the collapse of post-mining underground voids or mining-induced earthquakes. These activities lead to large and small-scale ground displacements and a ground ruptures. The ground movements occurring in urban areas could considerably affect stability and safety of structures and infrastructures. The complexity of the ground deformation phenomenon in relation to the structures and infrastructures vulnerability leads to considerable constraints in assessing the threat of those objects. However, the increase of access to the free software and satellite data could pave the way for developing new methods and strategies for environmental risk mitigation and management. Open source geographical information systems (OS GIS), may support data integration, management, and risk analysis. Lately, developed methods based on fuzzy logic and experts methods for buildings and infrastructure damage risk assessment could be integrated into OS GIS. Those methods were verified base on back analysis proving their accuracy. Moreover, those methods could be supported by ground displacement observation. Based on freely available data from European Space Agency and free software, ground deformation could be estimated. The main innovation presented in the paper is the application of open source software (OS GIS) for integration developed models and assessment of the threat of urban areas. Those approaches will be reinforced by analysis of ground movement based on free satellite data. Those data would support the verification of ground movement prediction models. Moreover, satellite data will enable our mapping of ground deformation in urbanized areas. Developed models and methods have been implemented in one of the urban areas hazarded by underground mining activity. Vulnerability maps supported by satellite ground movement observation would mitigate the hazards of land displacements in urban areas close to mines.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, open source geographic information science (OS GIS), risk assessment on urbanized areas, satellite interferometry (InSAR)

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4 Relationship between Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in Educational Supervision in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Jawaher Bakheet Almudarra

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The Saudi Arabian educational system shared the philosophical principles, in its foundation, which concentrated on the achievement of goals, thereby taking up authoritative styles of leadership. However, organisations are beginning to be more liberal in today’s environment than in the 1940s and 1950s, and appealing to emotional intelligence as a tool and skill are needed for effective leadership. In the Saudi Arabian case, such developments are characterised by changes such as that of the educational supervisor having the role redefined to that of a director. This review tracks several parts: the first section helps western reader to understand the subtleties, complexities, and intricacies of the Saudi Arabia education system and its approach to leadership system of education, history, culture and political contribution. This can lead to the larger extent understand if emotional intelligence is a provocation for better leadership of Saudi Arabian education sector or not. The second part is the growth of educational supervision in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the education system, and evaluates the impact of emotional intelligence as a necessary skill in leadership. The third section looks at emotions and emotional intelligence, gender roles, and contributions by emotional intelligence in the education system. The education system of Saudi Arabia has undergone significant transformation. To fully understand the current climate of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to review this process of transformation in terms of the historical, cultural, political and social positions and transformations. Over the years, the education system in Saudi Arabia has undergone significant metamorphosis. The Saudi government has instituted a wide range of reforms in an attempt to improve education standards and outcomes, facilitate improvements and ensure that high standards of education standards are upheld to keep pace with the global environment and knowledge economy. Leadership itself has become an increasingly prominent aspect of educational reform worldwide. Emotional intelligence is often considered a significant aspect of leadership, but it is in its early stages in Saudi Arabia. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices, particularly among educational supervisors and contribute to national and international understandings of leadership in Saudi Arabia. Studying leadership in the Saudi Arabian context is imperative as the new generation of leaders need to cultivate pertinent skills that will allow them to become fundamentally and positively involved in the regions’ decision making processes in order to impact the progression of the Saudi Arabian education system. Understanding leadership in the education context will allow for suitable inculcation of leadership skills. These skills include goal-setting, sound decision-making as well as problem-solving within the education system of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: educational supervision, educational administration, emotional intelligence, educational leadership

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3 Reflections of Narrative Architecture in Transformational Representations on the Architectural Design Studio

Authors: M. Mortas, H. Asar, P. Dursun Cebi

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The visionary works of architectural representation in the 21st century's present situation, are practiced through the methodologies which try to expose the intellectual and theoretical essences of futurologist positions that are revealed with this era's interactions. Expansions of conceptual and contextual inputs related to one architectural design representation, depend on its deepness of critical attitudes, its interactions with the concepts such as experience, meaning, affection, psychology, perception and aura, as well as its communication with spatial, cultural and environmental factors. The purpose of this research study is to be able to offer methodological application areas for the design dimensions of experiential practices into architectural design studios, by focusing on the architectural representative narrations of 'transformation,' 'metamorphosis,' 'morphogenesis,' 'in-betweenness', 'superposition' and 'intertwine’ in which they affect and are affected by the today’s spatiotemporal hybridizations of architecture. The narrative representations and the visual theory paradigms of the designers are chosen under the main title of 'transformation' for the investigation of these visionary and critical representations' dismantlings and decodings. Case studies of this research area are chosen from Neil Spiller, Bryan Cantley, Perry Kulper and Dan Slavinsky’s transformative, morphogenetic representations. The theoretical dismantlings and decodings which are obtained from these artists’ contemporary architectural representations are tried to utilize and practice in the structural design studios as alternative methodologies when to approach architectural design processes, for enriching, differentiating, diversifying and 'transforming' the applications of so far used design process precedents. The research aims to indicate architectural students about how they can reproduce, rethink and reimagine their own representative lexicons and so languages of their architectural imaginations, regarding the newly perceived tectonics of prosthetic, biotechnology, synchronicity, nanotechnology or machinery into various experiential design workshops. The methodology of this work can be thought as revealing the technical and theoretical tools, lexicons and meanings of contemporary-visionary architectural representations of our decade, with the essential contents and components of hermeneutics, etymology, existentialism, post-humanism, phenomenology and avant-gardism disciplines to re-give meanings the architectural visual theorists’ transformative representations of our decade. The value of this study may be to emerge the superposed and overlapped atmospheres of futurologist architectural representations for the students who need to rethink on the transcultural, deterritorialized and post-humanist critical theories to create and use the representative visual lexicons of themselves for their architectural soft machines and beings by criticizing the now, to be imaginative for the future of architecture.

Keywords: architectural design studio, visionary lexicon, narrative architecture, transformative representation

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2 Redeeming the Self-Settling Scores with the Nazis by the Means of Poetics

Authors: Liliane Steiner

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Beyond the testimonial act, that sheds light on the feminine experience in the Holocaust, the survivors' writing voices first and foremost the abjection of the feminine self brutally inflicted by the Nazis in the Holocaust, and in the same movement redeems the self by the means of poetics, and brings it to an existential state of being a subject. This study aims to stress the poetics of this writing in order to promote the Holocaust literature from the margins to the mainstream and to contribute to the commemoration of the Holocaust in the next generations. Methodology: The study of the survivors' redeeming of self is based on Julia Kristeva's theory of the abject: the self-throws out everything that threatens its existence and Liliane Steiner's theory of the post- abjection of hell: the belated act of vomiting the abject experiences settles cores with the author of the abject to redeem the self. The research will focus on Ruth Sender's trilogy The Cage, To Life and The Holocaust Lady as a case study. Findings: The binary mode that characterizes this writing reflects the experience of Jewish women, who were subject(s), were treated violently as object(s), debased, defeminized and, eventually turned into abject by the Nazis. In a tour de force, this writing re-enacts the postponed resistance, that vomited the abject imposed on the feminine self by the very act of narration, which denounces the real abject, the perpetrators. The post-abjection of self is acted out in constructs of abject, relating the abject experience of the Holocaust as well as the rehabilitation of the surviving self (subject). The transcription of abject surfaces in deconstructing the abject through self- characterization, and in the elusive rendering of bad memories, having recourse to literary figures. The narrative 'I' selects, obstructs, mends and tells the past events from an active standpoint, as would a subject in control of its (narrative) fate. In a compensatory movement, the narrating I tells itself by reconstructing the subject and proving time and again that I is other. Moreover, in the belated endeavor to revenge, testify and narrate the abject, the narrative I defies itself, and represents itself as a dialectical I, splitting and multiplying itself in a deconstructing way. The dialectical I is never (one) I. It voices not only the unvoiced but also and mainly the other silenced 'I's. Drawing its nature and construct from traumatic memories, the dialectical I transgresses boundaries to narrate her story, and in the same breath, the story of Jewish women doomed to silence. In this narrative feat, the dialectical I stresses its essential dialectical existence with the past, never to be (one) again. Conclusion: The pattern of I is other generates patterns of subject(s) that defy, transgress and repudiate the abject and its repercussions on the feminine I. The feminine I writes itself as a survivor that defies the abject (Nazis) and takes revenge. The paradigm of metamorphosis that accompanies the journey of the Holocaust memoirist engenders life and surviving as well as a narration that defies stagnation and death.

Keywords: abject, feminine writing, holocaust, post-abjection

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1 Metamorphosis of Caste: An Examination of the Transformation of Caste from a Material to Ideological Phenomenon in Sri Lanka

Authors: Pradeep Peiris, Hasini Lecamwasam

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The fluid, ambiguous, and often elusive existence of caste among the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka has inspired many scholarly endeavours. Originally, Sinhalese caste was organized according to the occupational functions assigned to various groups in society. Hence cultivators came to be known as Goyigama, washers Dobi, drummers Berava, smiths Navandanna and so on. During pre-colonial times the specialized services of various groups were deployed to build water reservoirs, cultivate the land, and/or sustain the Buddhist order by material means. However, as to how and why caste prevails today in Sinhalese society when labour is in ideal terms free to move where it wants, or in other words, occupation is no longer strictly determined or restricted by birth, is a question worth exploring. Hence this paper explores how, and perhaps more interestingly why, when the nexus between traditional occupations and caste status is fast disappearing, caste itself has managed to survive and continues to be salient in politics in Sri Lanka. In answer to this larger question, the paper looks at caste from three perspectives: 1) Buddhism, whose ethical project provides a justification of social stratifications that transcends economic bases 2) Capitalism that has reactivated and reproduced archaic relations in a process of 'accumulation by subordination', not only by reinforcing the marginality of peripheral caste groups, but also by exploiting caste divisions to hinder any realization of class interests and 3) Democracy whose supposed equalizing effect expected through its ‘one man–one vote’ approach has been subverted precisely by itself, whereby the aggregate ultimately comes down to how many such votes each ‘group’ in society has. This study draws from field work carried out in Dedigama (in the District of Kegalle, Central Province) and Kelaniya (in the District of Colombo, Western Province) in Sri Lanka over three years. The choice of field locations was encouraged by the need to capture rural and urban dynamics related to caste since caste is more apparently manifest in rural areas whose material conditions partially warrant its prevalence, whereas in urban areas it exists mostly in the ideological terrain. In building its analysis, the study has employed a combination of objectivist and subjectivist approaches to capture the material and ideological existence of caste and caste politics in Sinhalese society. Therefore, methods such as in-depth interviews, observation, and collection of demographical and interpretive data from secondary sources were used for this study. The paper has been situated in a critical theoretical framework of social inquiry in an attempt to question dominant assumptions regarding such meta-labels as ‘Capitalism’ and ‘Democracy’, and also the supposed emancipatory function of religion (focusing on Buddhism).

Keywords: Buddhism, capitalism, caste, democracy, Sri Lanka

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