Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12144

Search results for: dietary effect

12144 Effect of Dietary Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela, Aziz Bin Ahmad, A. B. Abol-Munafi

Abstract:

Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.

Keywords: dietary cellulose, growth parameters, oreochromis niloticus, purified diets

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12143 Interaction of Dietary Protein and Vitamin E Supplementation on Gastrointestinal Nematode (Gnt) Parasitism of Naturally Infected Lambs

Authors: Ayobami Adeyemo, Michael Chimonyo, Munyaradzi Marufu

Abstract:

Gastrointestinal nematode (GNT) infection significantly hinder sustainable and profitable sheep production on rangelands. While vitamin E and protein supplementation have individually proven to improve host immunity to parasitism in lambs, to our knowledge, there is no information on the interaction of dietary vitamin E and protein supplementation on lamb growth and GIN faecal egg counts in naturally infected lambs. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on faecal egg counts (FEC) and growth performance of lambs. Twenty four Dohne Merino lambs aged 12 months were allocated equally to each of four treatment combinations, with six lambs in each treatment group for a period of eight weeks. Treatment one lambs received dietary protein and vitamin E (PE), treatment two lambs received dietary protein and no vitamin E (PNE), treatment three received dietary vitamin E and no protein (NPE), and treatment four received no dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation (NPNE). The lambs were allowed to graze on Pennisetum clandestinum contaminated with a heavy load of nematodes. Dietary protein supplementation increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and body condition scores (BCS). Dietary vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG and BCS. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on ADG and BCS. Combined supplementation of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation significantly reduced (P < 0.01) faecal egg counts and larval counts, respectively. Also, dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation reduced GNT faecal egg counts over the exposure period. The current findings support the hypothesis that the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation reduced faecal egg counts and larval counts in lambs. This necessitates future findings on the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on blood associated profiles.

Keywords: gastrointestinal nematodes, nematode eggs, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus

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12142 The Effect of Different Levels of Seed and Extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on Immune Responses of Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. Toghyani, A. Ghasemi, S. A. Tabeidian

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different levels of dietary seed and extract of Harmal (Peganum harmala L.) on immunity of broiler chicks. A total of 350 one-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates pen of 14 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of control, 1 and 2 g/kg Harmal seed in diet, 100 and 200 mg/L Harmal seed extract in water. Broilers received dietary treatments from 1 to 42 d. Two birds from each pen were randomly weighed and sacrificed at 42 d of age, the relative weight of lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabercius and spleen) to live weight were calculated. Antibody titers against Newcastle and influenza viruses and sheep red blood cell were measured at 30 d of age. Results showed that the relative weights of lymphoid organs were not affected by dietary treatments. Furthermore, antibody titer against Newcastle and influenza viruses as well as sheep red blood cell antigen were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by feeding Harmal seed and extract. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary inclusion of Harmal seed and extract enhanced immunological responses in broiler chicks.

Keywords: broiler chicks, Harmal, immunity, Peganum harmala

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12141 The Effect of Aerobics Course on Fitness Ability of the University Students

Authors: Hui-Fang Lee, Hsuan-Jung Hsieh, Wen-Chi Lu, Meng-Chu Liu

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine abnormal BMI students of Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, implement teaching aerobics course through elementary and advanced curriculum design, dietary education and three-day dietary record, analyze participant fitness improvement, an 10-week course as well as pre-test and post-test were carried out to evaluate the effect of the aerobics course on the fitness ability. The actual participate elementary and advanced courses each of 40 people, with low participation deduction course unfinished fitness testing, access to elementary curriculum valid samples 35 (87.5%) people, advanced courses valid samples 38(95%) people, 16 students participated in two consecutive courses. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one-minute sit-ups, standing long jump, and three minutes to board the stage. Analysis and comparison to the average three-day dietary record difference, an independent samples t-test was conducted to analyze the differences in the four activities between pre-test and post-test. The results showed that the elementary course had significant effects on females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-ups, the females also had high fat intake in three-day dietary record. The advanced course had significant effects on males’ sit-bending and on females’ BMI, sit-bending and standing long jump, males and females in three-day dietary record carbohydrate intake slightly low, slightly higher protein and fat intake. In conclusion, aerobics course teaching, dietary education and three-day, dietary record implementation can significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators, and continued to participate in advanced courses better. In the practice of sport should be the future course planning elementary and advanced courses, while introducing dietary education, achieve concrete results in improving physical fitness.

Keywords: physical fitness, aerobics course, dietary education, three-day dietary record

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12140 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: vitamin C, oxidative stress, zinc, experimental diabetes, rats

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12139 Effect of Dietarty Diversity on Maternal Dietary Diversity of Anemia of the Mother during Pregnancy and Prenatal Outcomes: Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Central Ethiopia

Authors: Taddese Alemu Zerfu, Melaku Umeta Deressa, Kaleab Baye

Abstract:

Background: Maternal and child under-nutrition is the underlying cause of 3•5 million annual deaths, globally. Anemia during pregnancy is among the leading nutritional disorders with serious short and long term consequences to both the mother and fetus. Objective: Examine the effect of dietary diversity on maternal anemia, nutritional status and key pregnancy outcomes of pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study design, involving a total of 432 eligible pregnant women, in their second antenatal care visit was conducted between August 2014 to March, 2015. The individual dietary diversity status of mothers was used as the exposure variable to select, enroll and follow the mothers. All mothers were enrolled during second antenatal care visit and followed until delivery. Epi-data, SPSS and STATA software are used to enter and analyze the data. Chi-square test, independent 't'-test, and GLM are used to calculate risk, association and differences between key variables at P < 0.05. Results: Study participants did not differ in many of the basic characteristics (p < 0.05). The incidence of maternal anemia increased significantly from 28.6% to 32.1% between baseline and term. Pregnant mothers with inadequate dietary diversity groups had more (56% at baseline and 68% at term) risk of anemia than the comparison (adequate) groups, (RR, 1.56 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 - 1.83 and 1.39 - 2.04). The overall incidence of still birth, low birth weight and pre-term birth was 4.5%, 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively. The variation of these outcomes was significant across study groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendations: Dietary diversity status of pregnant mothers has significant effect on the incidence of anemia and key pregnancy outcomes in resource limited settings, like rural Ethiopia. Therefore, apart from the ongoing routine IFA supplementation, special emphasis should be given to dietary diversity of mothers to improve related outcomes of pregnancy and maternal health.

Keywords: anemia, birth weight, dietary diversity, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome

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12138 The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahboobeh Gholipour, Moona Naghshbandi

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01 kg/m2, and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2 cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. 45% of participants had low adherence, and just 4% had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher than women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.

Keywords: dietary adherence, Mediterranean dietary pattern, cardiovascular disease, north of Iran

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12137 The Effect of Health Program on the Fitness Ability of Abnormal BMI University Students

Authors: Hui-Fang Lee, Meng-Chu Liu, Wen-Chi Lu, Hsuan-Jung Hsieh

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of health program on the fitness ability of abnormal BMI students of Ching-Yun University of Science and Technology. In order to achieve this purpose, self-regulation theory and dietary education were applied, and the effect of 10-week sports activities and three-day diet records on pre-test and post-test of fitness activities was analyzed. There were 40 original participants. Then, nine people who were with normal BMI, low attendance or unfinished fitness test were eliminated from this research. The valid samples were 31 (77.5%) participants. The fitness activities included sit-bending, one minute sit-up, standing long jump, and three-minute stage boarding. The averages of three-day diet records were compared, and differences of pre-test and post-test of the four fitness activities were analyzed with paired-samples t test. The results showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post of male students’ BMI and one minute sit-up. Females’ sit-bending and one minute sit-up had the same effect. Females had high fat intake in three-day diet records. The research showed that the use of self-regulation theory and dietary education, the implementation of sports activities and three-day diet records could significantly enhance the physical fitness indicators or effects. While in the course of sports, we should guide students to think about the gap between self-behavior and ideal behavior, then realize the main reasons and improving methods, and finally go towards the goal and improve the effect of physical fitness.

Keywords: self-regulation theory, dietary education, three-day diet records, physical fitness

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12136 Impact of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program on Household Dietary Diversity and Child Nutrition in Rural Ethiopia

Authors: Tagel Gebrehiwot, Carolina Castilla

Abstract:

Food insecurity and child malnutrition are among the most critical issues in Ethiopia. Accordingly, different reform programs have been carried to improve household food security. The Food Security Program (FSP) (among others) was introduced to combat the persistent food insecurity problem in the country. The FSP combines a safety net component called the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) started in 2005. The goal of PSNP is to offer multi-annual transfers, such as food, cash or a combination of both to chronically food insecure households to break the cycle of food aid. Food or cash transfers are the main elements of PSNP. The case for cash transfers builds on the Sen’s analysis of ‘entitlement to food’, where he argues that restoring access to food by improving demand is a more effective and sustainable response to food insecurity than food aid. Cash-based schemes offer a greater choice of use of the transfer and can allow a greater diversity of food choice. It has been proven that dietary diversity is positively associated with the key pillars of food security. Thus, dietary diversity is considered as a measure of household’s capacity to access a variety of food groups. Studies of dietary diversity among Ethiopian rural households are somewhat rare and there is still a dearth of evidence on the impact of PSNP on household dietary diversity. In this paper, we examine the impact of the Ethiopia’s PSNP on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using panel household surveys. We employed different methodologies for identification. We exploit the exogenous increase in kebeles’ PSNP budget to identify the effect of the change in the amount of money households received in transfers between 2012 and 2014 on the change in dietary diversity. We use three different approaches to identify this effect: two-stage least squares, reduced form IV, and generalized propensity score matching using a continuous treatment. The results indicate the increase in PSNP transfers between 2012 and 2014 had no effect on household dietary diversity. Estimates for different household dietary indicators reveal that the effect of the change in the cash transfer received by the household is statistically and economically insignificant. This finding is robust to different identification strategies and the inclusion of control variables that determine eligibility to become a PSNP beneficiary. To identify the effect of PSNP participation on children height-for-age and stunting we use a difference-in-difference approach. We use children between 2 and 5 in 2012 as a baseline because by then they have achieved long-term failure to grow. The treatment group comprises children ages 2 to 5 in 2014 in PSNP participant households. While changes in height-for-age take time, two years of additional transfers among children who were not born or under the age of 2-3 in 2012 have the potential to make a considerable impact on reducing the prevalence of stunting. The results indicate that participation in PSNP had no effect on child nutrition measured as height-for-age or probability of beings stunted, suggesting that PSNP should be designed in a more nutrition-sensitive way.

Keywords: continuous treatment, dietary diversity, impact, nutrition security

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12135 Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaves on Wheat Offal Replacement for Chicks Feed Production

Authors: C. C. Okafor, T. M. Ezeh

Abstract:

The effect of addition of sweet potato leaves in replacement of wheat offal in the production of broiler chicks feed was studied. 72 day-old marshal strain chicks were used and brooded for two weeks with a normal commercial feed in Nigeria called top feed and weighed separately at the end of the two weeks, complete randomized design (CRD) was used. The weighed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated to twice with eighteen birds per replicate. The four dietary treatment identified as T1, T2, T3 and T4. T1 served as control diet with 21% crude protein content, while T2 was prepared with Enzyme and in T3 and T4, wheat offal was replaced with sweet potato leaves and in T4 with inclusion of enzyme. Growth performance was studied using the following daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The result in daily weight gain showed that chicks fed with T2 feed had the highest weight gain (93.75) while chicks fed with T3 had the least weight gain of (34.5 gm). In daily feed intake chicks fed with T4 fed more (53.06 gm) than chicks fed with T2 (51.08 gm). In feed efficiency T3 had the highest value of 30% while the T2 had the least efficiency of 22%. There was no significant difference (P≥ 0.05) in all the three parameter tested. Sweet potato leaves can replace wheat offal in broiler feed production without any adverse effect on the growth performance.

Keywords: broiler, diet, dietary, potato leaves, wheat offal

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12134 Major Dietary Patterns in Relationship with Anthropometric Indices in North West of Iran

Authors: Arezou Rezazadeh, Nasrin Omidvar, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Mahmoud Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Reza Majdzadeh, Saeid Ghavamzadeh, Sakineh Nouri-Saeidlou

Abstract:

Dietary pattern analysis method can reflect more information about the nutritional etiology of chronic diseases such as obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and anthropometric measures in men and women living in the city of Urmia. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men), aged 20–64 in Urmia city were selected from all four zones of Urmia city, in the north-west of Iran. Anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference) were measured with standard methods. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by dividing weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meter). Dietary intake information was collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in the last year. Dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. The relationship between dietary patterns and obesity was analyzed by logistic regression. Three major dietary patterns (DPs) were identified that were named ‘Traditional Higher SES (THS)’, ‘Traditional Low SES (TLS)’ and ‘Transitional’. THS DP was positively and Transitional DP was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference (W.C), however, after adjusting for confounding variables (age, gender, ethnicity, energy intake, physical activity and SES), the associations were not significant. The TLS was not significantly associated with BMI, but after adjusting for confounders, a significant positive association was detected with W.C and Waist to hip ratio (WHR). Findings showed that both traditional patterns were positively and the western type transitional pattern was reversely associated with anthropometric indices. But this relationship was highly affected by demographic, socioeconomic and energy input and output determinants. The results indicate the inevitable effect of environmental factors on the relationship between dietary patterns and anthropometric indices.

Keywords: anthropometric indices, dietary pattern, Iran, North-west

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12133 The Interactions of Attentional Bias for Food, Trait Self-Control, and Motivation: A Model Testing Study

Authors: Hamish Love, Navjot Bhullar, Nicola Schutte

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Self-control and related psychological constructs have been shown to have a large role in the improvement and maintenance of healthful dietary behaviour. However, self-control for diet, and related constructs such as motivation, level of conflict between tempting desires and dietary goals, and attentional bias for tempting food, have not been studied together to establish their relationships, to the author’s best knowledge. Therefore the aim of this paper was to conduct model testing on these constructs and evaluate how they relate to affect dietary outcomes. 400 Australian adult participants will be recruited via the Qualtrics platform and will be representative across age and gender. They will complete survey and reaction timing surveys to gather data on the five target constructs: Trait Self-control, Attentional Bias for Food, Dietary Goal-Desire Incongruence, Motivation for Dietary Self-control, and Satisfaction with Dietary Behaviour. A model of moderated mediation is predicted, whereby the initial predictor (Dietary Goal-Desire Incongruence) predicts the level of the outcome variable, Satisfaction with Dietary Behaviour. We hypothesise that the relationship between these two variables will be mediated by Trait Self-Control and that the extent that Trait Self-control is allowed to mediate dietary outcome is moderated by both Attentional Bias for Food and Motivation for Dietary Self-control. The analysis will be conducted using the PROCESS module in SPSS 23. The results of model testing in this current study will be valuable to direct future research and inform which constructs could be important targets for intervention to improve dietary outcomes.

Keywords: self-control, diet, model testing, attentional bias, motivation

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12132 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin

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In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

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12131 Dietary Supplementation with Coula edulis B. Walnuts Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as adipogenesis, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with African walnuts (Aw) could have an effect on adipogenesis and others dysfunctions associated with obesity in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (SD) or high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFS) and HFS with supplemented (HFS-Aw) for eight weeks. Results: HFS diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to SD. In addition HFS-fed rats developed fasting hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia as well as insulin resistance. Aw supplementation in HFS rats had a protective effect against adipose tissues weigh gain but slightly against body weight gain and major study related disorders. This could be mainly due to decreased food intake dependently of effect in food intake in central nervous system, which decreased in HFS rats supplemented with African walnut compared to the HFS-diet group. Interestingly, African walnut supplementation induced a slight decrease of fasting glycaemia, insulinaemia and Nitric Oxide which could partially explain its minor protective effect against diet-induced insulin resistance. Additionally a decrease in hepatic TG and transaminases levels suggesting a protective effect against liver injury. Conclusion: Taken together these data suggested that supplementation of African walnut could be used to prevent adipose weight gain and related disorders on the other hand, minimally reduced insulin resistance.

Keywords: African walnut, dietary fiber, insulin resistance, oxidative stress

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12130 Effect of Chromium Yeast on Hematological Parameters in Camel Calves (Camelus dromedaries) Reared under Hot Summer Conditions

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Abdoun, Mohamed Abdulwahid Alsoufi, Ibrahim Abdullah Alhidary

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The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr supplementation on haematological parameters in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. Fifteen male camel calves (5 – 6 months old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 5) for a period of 84 days. Camel calves were fed ad libitum on basal diet without Cr supplementation (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 0.5) or basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 1.0). During this, blood samples were collected every four weeks for hematological examination. The obtained results revealed that dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves reared under hot summer did not show significant effects (P> 0.05) on hematological variables. However, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in camel calves fed on diets supplemented with chromium. In conclusion, Chromium supplementation to the diet of camel calves did not show any significant effects on hematological variables. Whereas, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was reduced in camel calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Keywords: camel calves, chromium, haematological, immune response

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12129 Effects of Four Dietary Oils on Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

Authors: A. F. Agboola, B. R. O. Omidiwura, A. Oyeyemi, E. A. Iyayi, A. S. Adelani

Abstract:

Dietary cholesterol has elicited the most public interest as it relates with coronary heart disease. Thus, humans have been paying more attention to health, thereby reducing consumption of cholesterol enriched food. Egg is considered as one of the major sources of human dietary cholesterol. However, an alternative way to reduce the potential cholesterolemic effect of eggs is to modify the fatty acid composition of the yolk. The effect of palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO), sesame seed oil (SSO) and fish oil (FO) supplementation in the diets of layers on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, egg production and egg quality parameters were evaluated in a 42-day feeding trial. One hundred and five Isa Brown laying hens of 34 weeks of age were randomly distributed into seven groups of five replicates and three birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Seven corn-soybean basal diets (BD) were formulated: BD+No oil (T1), BD+1.5% PO (T2), BD+1.5% SO (T3), BD+1.5% SSO (T4), BD+1.5% FO (T5), BD+0.75% SO+0.75% FO (T6) and BD+0.75% SSO+0.75% FO (T7). Five eggs were randomly sampled at day 42 from each replicate to assay for the cholesterol, fatty acid profile of egg yolk and egg quality assessment. Results showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) differences observed in production performance, egg cholesterol and egg quality parameters except for yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, egg shape index, haugh unit, and yolk colour. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels of egg yolk across the treatments. However, diets had effect (P<0.05) on TAG (triacylglycerol) and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) of the egg yolk. The highest TAG (603.78 mg/dl) and VLDL values (120.76 mg/dl) were recorded in eggs of hens on T4 (1.5% sesame seed oil) and was similar to those on T3 (1.5% soybean oil), T5 (1.5% fish oil) and T6 (0.75% soybean oil + 0.75% fish oil). However, results revealed a significant (P<0.05) variations on eggs’ summation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary oils could be included in layers’ diets to produce designer eggs low in cholesterol and high in PUFA especially omega-3 fatty acids.

Keywords: dietary oils, egg cholesterol, egg fatty acid profile, egg quality parameters

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12128 Effect of Electron Beam Irradiated Cottonseed Meal on Carcass and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens

Authors: Somayyeh Salari, Marziyeh Nayefi, Mohsen Sari, Mehdi Behgar

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam- irradiated cottonseed meal at a dose of 30 KGy on carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Various levels of cottonseed meal (CSM) (0, 12, and 24%, radiation and no radiation) were used with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. At 42 d of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreatic, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p<0/05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, and phosphorous concentrations increased and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p<0/05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve blood parameters of chickens.

Keywords: blood parameters, carcass characteristics, cottonseed meal, electron beam

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12127 Association of Maternal Diet Quality Indices and Dietary Patterns during Lactation and the Growth of Exclusive Breastfed Infant

Authors: Leila Azadbakht, Maedeh Moradi, Mohammad Reza Merasi, Farzaneh Jahangir

Abstract:

Maternal dietary intake during lactation might affect the growth rate of an exclusive breastfed infant. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal dietary patterns and quality during lactation on the growth of the exclusive breastfed infant. Methods: 484 healthy lactating mothers with their infant were enrolled in this study. Only exclusive breastfed infants were included in this study which was conducted in Iran. Dietary intake of lactating mothers was assessed using a validated and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality indices such as alternative Healthy eating index (HEI), Dietary energy density (DED), and adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern score, Nordic and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating pattern were created. Anthropometric features of infant (weight, height, and head circumference) were recorded at birth, two and four months. Results: Weight, length, weight for height and head circumference of infants at two months and four months age were mostly in the normal range among those that mothers adhered more to the HEI in lactation period (normal weight: 61%; normal height: 59%). The prevalence of stunting at four months of age among those whose mothers adhered more to the HEI was 31% lower than those with the least adherence to HEI. Mothers in the top tertiles of HEI score had the lowest frequency of having underweight infants (18% vs. 33%; P=0.03). Odds ratio of being overweight or obese at four months age was the lowest among those infants whose mothers adhered more to the HEI (OR: 0.67 vs 0.91; Ptrend=0.03). However, there was not any significant association between adherence of mothers to Mediterranean diet as well as DASH diet and Nordic eating pattern and the growth of infants (none of weight, height or head circumference). Infant weight, length, weight for height and head circumference at two months and four months did not show significant differences among different tertile categories of mothers’ DED. Conclusions: Higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI (as an indicator of diet quality) may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. However, it seems that DED of the lactating mother does not affect the growth of the breastfed infant. Adherence to the different dietary patterns such as Mediterranean, DASH or Nordic among mothers had no different effect on the growth indices of the infants. However, higher diet quality indices and more adherence of lactating mother to HEI may be associated with better growth indices of the breastfed infant. Breastfeeding is a complete way that is not affected much by the dietary patterns of the mother. However, better diet quality might be associated with better growth.

Keywords: breastfeeding, growth, infant, maternal diet

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12126 Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Fancy Carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Koi

Authors: Jin Choi, Zahra Aminikhoei, Yi-Oh Kim, Sang-Min Lee

Abstract:

A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile fancy carp, Cyprinus carpio var. koi. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (200, 300, 400, and 500 g kg-1) with two lipid levels (70 and 140 g kg-1). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 12.1±0.2 g fish-1) were hand-fed the diets to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Weight gain, daily feed intake, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio were significantly (P < 0.0001) affected by dietary protein level, but not by dietary lipid level (P > 0.05). Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio tended to increase as dietary protein level increased up to 400 and 500 g kg-1, respectively. Daily feed intake of fish decreased with increasing dietary protein level and that of fish fed diet contained 500 g kg-1 protein was significantly lower than other fish groups. The protein efficiency ratio of fish fed 400 and 500 g kg-1 protein was lower than that of fish fed 200 and 300 g kg-1 protein. Moisture, crude protein and crude lipid contents of muscle and liver were significantly affected by dietary protein, but not by dietary lipid level (P > 0.05). The increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increase in linoleic acid in liver and muscle paralleled with a decrease in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids content in muscle of fish. In considering these results, it was concluded that the diet containing 400 g kg-1 protein with 70 g kg-1 lipid level is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fancy carp.

Keywords: fancy carp, dietary protein, dietary lipid, Cyprinus carpio, fatty acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
12125 Components of Arterial Pressure and Its Association with Dietary Inflammatory Potential of Older Individuals: The Multinational Medis Study

Authors: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to evaluate dietary habits’ inflammatory potential with various components of arterial blood pressure (hypertension, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)) in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005-2011, 2,813 older (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial blood pressure, as well as PP and MAP, and for the evaluation of dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. A dietary inflammatory index (DII) was assessed based on the participants specific dietary habits, and its calculation was based on a standard procedure. It was reported that the higher the DII level of a diet (adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet) the greater was the likelihood of having an older adult hypertension [OR=3.82 (95% CI): 1.24 to 11.71]. Moreover, the higher the level of DII (more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) the greater were the levels of MAP [b-coefficient (95% CI): 7.23 (+1.86 to +12.59)] and PP, [b-coefficient (95% CI): 10.86 (+2.70 to +19.01)]. Diet’s inflammatory potential is related with various components of arterial pressure. Adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet seems to be associated with increased arterial peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness.

Keywords: dietary inflammatory index, hypertension, mean arterial pressure, elderly

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12124 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Performance of Commercial Layer Hens

Authors: P. Arun Subhash, B. N. Suresh, M. C. Shivakumar, N. Suma

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder on the egg production performance and egg quality in commercial layer birds. A practical type layer diet was prepared as per Bureau of Indian Standards (1992) to serve as the control, and the test diet was prepared by supplementing control diet with ashwagandha powder at 1kg/ton of feed. Each diet was assigned to twenty replicate groups of 5 laying hens each for duration of 84 days. The result revealed that cumulative egg production (%) was comparable between control and test group. The feed consumption and its conversion efficiency were similar among both the groups. The egg weight and egg characteristics viz., yolk index, yolk color, haugh unit score, albumen index, egg shape index and eggshell thickness were also remained similar between both the groups. It was concluded that supplementation of ashwagandha powder at 1kg/ton in layer diets has no beneficial effect on egg production and egg quality parameters.

Keywords: ashwagandha, egg production, egg quality, layers

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12123 Dietary Intake and the Risk of Hypertriglyceridemia in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Zahra Bahadoran, Sahar Mirzae, Fereidoun Azizi

Abstract:

Background and aim: Lifestyle factors, especially dietary intakes play an important role in metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In this study, we assessed the association between dietary factors and 3-year changes of serum triglycerides (TG), HDL-C and the atherogenic index of plasma among Iranian adults. This longitudinal study was conducted on 1938 subjects, aged 19-70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measurements including serum TG were assessed at baseline (2006-2008) and after a 3-year follow-up (2009-2011). Dietary data were collected by using a 168-food item, validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. The risk of hypertriglyceridemia in the quartiles of dietary factors was evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and energy intakes. Results: Mean age of the participants at baseline was 41.0±13.0 y. Mean TG and HDL-C at baseline was 143±86 and 42.2±10.0 mg/dl, respectively. Three-year change of serum TG were inversely related energy intake from phytochemical rich foods, whole grains, and legumes (P<0.05). Higher intakes compared to lower ones of dietary fiber and phytochemical-rich foods had similar impact on decreased risk of hyper-triglyceridemia (OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.34-1.00). Higher- compared to lower-dietary sodium to potassium ratios (Na/K ratio) increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia by 63% (OR=0.1.63, 95% CI= 0.34-1.00). Conclusion: Findings showed that higher intakes of fiber and phytochemical rich foods especially whole grain and legumes could have protective effects against lipid disorders; in contrast higher sodium to potassium ratio had undesirable effect on triglycerides.

Keywords: lipid disorders, hypertriglyceridemia, diet, food science

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12122 Optimization of Digestive Conditions of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten using Food-Grade Enzymes

Authors: Byung Wook Yang, Sae Kyul Kim, Seung Il Ahn, Jae Hee Choi, Heejung Jung, Yejin Choi, Byung Yong Kim, Young Tae Hahm

Abstract:

Opuntia ficus-indica is a member of the Cactaceae family that is widely grown in all the semiarid countries throughout the world. Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS), commonly known as prickly pear cactus, is commercially cultivated as a dietary foodstuffs and medicinal stuffs in Jeju Island, Korea. Owing to high viscosity of OFS’ pad, its application to the commercial field has been limited. When the low viscosity of OFS’s pad is obtained, it is useful for the manufacture of healthy food in the related field. This study was performed to obtain the optimal digestion conditions of food-grade enzymes (Pectinex, Viscozyme and Celluclast) with the powder of OFS stem. And also, the contents of water-soluble dietary fiber (WSDF) of the dried powder prepared by the extraction of OFS stem were monitored and optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM), which included 20 experimental points with 3 replicates for two independent variables (fermentation temperature and time). A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of fermentation temperature (30-90 °C, X1) and fermentation time (1-10h, X2) on dependent variables, such as viscosity (Y1), water-soluble dietary fiber (Y2) and dietary fiber yield (Y3). Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in agreement with experimental values. Optimum temperature and duration were 50°C and 12 hours, respectively. Viscosity value reached 3.4 poise. Yield of water-soluble dietary fiber is determined in progress.

Keywords: Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten, enzymatic fermentation, response surface methodology, water-soluble dietary fiber, viscosity

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12121 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Allium Hookeri Root and Processed Sulfur on the Growth Performance of Guinea Pigs

Authors: Nayeon, Lee, Won-Young, Cho, Hyun Joo, Jang, Chi-Ho, Lee

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of the dietary supplementation of the Allium hookeri root, and processed sulfur, on the growth performance of guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were fed a control diet (CON), as well as the control diet including 1% freeze-dried Allium hookeri root (AH), or 0.1% processed sulfur (S), or including both the freeze-dried Allium hookeri root and the processed sulfur (AHS). The weight of perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) and the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) in the AH were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.05). The serum cholesterols levels of the AH and the AHS were significantly lower than the S (p < 0.05). While the total saturated fatty acid content in the serum of the AH and AHS groups showed a tendency to decrease, the total monounsaturated fatty acid increased. The results of this study suggested that dietary consumption of Allium hookeri root may help to decrease fat accumulation, lower serum cholesterol levels, and control serum free fatty acid contents in the guinea pigs.

Keywords: Allium hookeri, dietary supplementation, growth performance, processed sulfur, Guinea pig

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
12120 Libido and Semen Quality Characteristics of Post-Pubertal Rabbit Bucks Fed Ginger Rhizome Meal Based Diets

Authors: I. P. Ogbuewu, I. F. Etuk, V. U. Odoemelam, I. C. Okoli, M. U. Iloeje

Abstract:

The effect of dietary ginger rhizome meal on libido and semen characteristics of post-pubertal rabbit bucks was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 12 weeks. Thirty-six post-pubertal bucks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary groups of 9 rabbits each in a completely randomized design. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain ginger rhizome meal at 0 g/kg feed (BT0), 5g/kg feed (BT5), 10 g/kg feed (BT10), and 15g/kg feed (BT15) were fed ad libitum to the experimental animals. Results revealed that semen colour changed from cream milky to milky. Data on semen pH and sperm concentration were similar (p>0.05) among the dietary groups. Semen volume for the bucks in BT0 (0.64 mL) and BT5 (0.60 mL) groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in BT10 (0.44 mL) and BT15 (0.46 mL) groups. Total spermatozoa concentration value was significantly (p<0.05) higher in BT0 and BT5 groups than those in BT10 and BT15 groups. Sperm motility and percent live sperm declined (p<0.05) progressively among the treatment groups. Percent dead sperm were significantly (p<0.05) lower for bucks in BT0 group than in BT10 and BT15 groups. Reaction time had a dose-dependent increase; however, the observed difference was not significant (p>0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of ginger rhizome meal at 5-15g per kg feed in ration for post-pubertal rabbit bucks could cause mild depressive effect on semen production and quality.

Keywords: rabbits, semen, libido, ginger

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
12119 Effects of Different Dietary Crude Fiber Levels on the Growth Performance of Finishing Su-Shan Pigs

Authors: Li Bixia, Ren Shouwen, Fu Yanfeng, Tu Feng, Xiaoming Fang, Xueming Wang

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The utilization of dietary crude fiber in different breed pigs is not the same. Su-shan pigs are a new breed formed by crossing Taihu pigs and Yorkshire pigs. In order to understand the resistance of Su-shan pigs to dietary crude fiber, 150 Su-shan pigs with 60 kg of average body weight and similar body conditions were allocated to three groups randomly, and there are 50 pigs in each group. The percentages of dietary crude fiber were 8.35%, 9.10%, and 11.39%, respectively. At the end of the experiment, 15 pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered. The results showed as follows: average daily gain of the 9.10% group was higher than that of the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group; there was a significant difference between the 9.10% group and the 8.35% group (p < 0.05. Levels of urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in the 9.10% group were significantly higher than those in the 8.35% group and the 11.39% group (p < 0.05). Ratios of meat to fat in the 9.10% group and the 11.39% group were significantly higher than that in the 8.35% group (p < 0.05). Lean percentage of 9.10% group was higher than that of 8.35% group and 11.39% group, but there was no significant difference in three groups (p > 0.05). The weight of small intestine and large intestine in the 11.39% group was higher than that in the 8.35% group, and the 9.10% group and the difference reached a significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, increasing dietary crude fiber properly could reduce fat percentage, and improve the ratio of meat to fat of finishing Su-shan pigs. The digestion and metabolism of dietary crude fiber promoted the development of stomach and intestine of finishing Su-shan pig.

Keywords: Su-shan pigs, dietary crude fiber, growth performance, serum biochemical indexes

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
12118 Effect of Feeding Camel Rumen Content on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Broiler Chickens under Semi-Arid Condition

Authors: Alhaji Musa Abdullahi, Usman Abdullahi, Adamu Adamu, Aminu Maidala

Abstract:

One hundred and fifty (150) day old chicks were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments birds and each treatment where replicated twice in groups of fifteen birds in each replicate. Camel rumen content (CRC) was included in the diets of broiler at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to replace maize and groundnut cake to evaluate the effect on the performance and hematological parameters at the starter and finisher phase. A completely randomized design was used and 600g of feed was given daily and water was given ad libitum. At the starter phase, the daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by the test ingredients, although T1(0% CRC) which serve as a control, were similar with T2(5% CRC), T3(10% CRC), and T4(15% CRC), while the lowest value was recorded in T5(20% CRC). The result indicates that up to 15% (CRC) level can be included in the starter diet to replace maize and groundnut cake without any effect on the performance. However, at the finisher phase, the daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio show no significant (F>0.05) difference among the dietary treatments. Similarly, Packed cell volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) also did not differ significantly (F>0.05) among the dietary treatments while hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) differs significantly. The differential counts of eosinophils, heterophils, and lymphocytes differ significantly among the treatment groups, while that of basophils and monocytes shows no significant difference among the treatment groups. This means up to 20% CRC inclusion level can be used to replaced maize and groundnut cake in the finisher diet without any adverse effect on the performance and hematological parameters of the chickens.

Keywords: camel, rumen content, growth, hematology

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12117 Assessment of Nutrient Intake, Nutritional Knowledge and Dietary Habits of Omani University Student Athletes

Authors: Amanat Ali, Muhammad S. Al-Siyabi, Mostafa I. Waly, Hashem Al-Kilani

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In a cross-sectional research design, we assessed the nutrient intake, nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) student athletes. A total of 71 (49 male and 22 female) student athletes with a mean age of 21.0 ± 1.81 and 19.32 ± 0.72 years and body mass index (BMI) of 22.51 ± 1.98 and 20.34 ± 2.97 kg/m2 for male and female respectively, participated in this study. A study questionnaire consisting of 2 sections was distributed to the participants. Section I included 18 questions regarding the demographic information, whereas the Section II consisted of 20 questions regarding the nutrition knowledge. The dietary intake of participants was collected by using a 7-days food diary identifying the frequency as well as the variety of food consumption. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the main sources of nutrition information used by the male and female athletes. Male athletes mainly had most of the nutrition information from friends (17%) whereas female athletes relied mainly on the family (20%). More female athletes (20%) were using TV as a source of nutrition information as compared to male athletes (15%). Both male and female athletes had the minimum nutrition information from dietitians and physicians. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were also observed in the nutritional knowledge and dietary habits scores of male and female athletes, which were 57 % and 49 %, respectively. Male athletes were classified to have fair nutritional knowledge and dietary habits, whereas the female athletes had poor nutritional knowledge and dietary habits. The average daily energy intake of male athletes was 2595 ± 358 kcal/day. Carbohydrate, fat, and protein contributed 64%, 22%, and 14%, of the total energy intake for the male athletes, respectively. The energy and macronutrients intake of male athletes was within the recommended dietary intake. The results indicated some gaps in the nutritional knowledge of SQU student athletes and suggest that there is a need for developing strategies in counseling and teaching the athletes to improve their nutritional knowledge and dietary habits.

Keywords: nutrient assessment, nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, Omani University athletes

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12116 Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues by Various Physiological Groups of Population in Andhra Pradesh, South India

Authors: Padmaja R. Jonnalagadda

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Dietary exposure assessment of fifteen pesticide residues was done in Andhra Pradesh. Twelve commonly consumed foods including water, which were representative of the diet, were collected, processed as table ready and analysed for the presence of various Organochlorines, organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroids. All the samples were contaminated with one or more of the 15 pesticide residues and all of them were within the MRLs. DDT and its isomers, Chlorpyriphos and Cypermethrin were frequently detected in many of the food samples. The mean concentration of the pesticide residues ranged from 0.02 μg kg-1 to 5.1 μg kg-1 (fresh weight) in the analysed foods. When exposure assessments was carried out for different age, sex and physiological groups it was found that the estimates of daily dietary intakes of the analysed pesticide residues in the present study are much lower than the violative levels in all age groups that were computed.

Keywords: table ready foods, pesticide residues, dietary intake, physiological groups, risk

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12115 Response to Comprehensive Stress of Growing Greylag Geese Offered Alternative Fiber Sources

Authors: He Li Wen, Meng Qing Xiang, Li De Yong, Zhang Ya Wei, Ren Li Ping

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Stress always exerts some extent adverse effects on the animal production, food safety and quality concerns. Stress is commonly-seen in livestock industry, but there is rare literature focusing on the effects of nutrition stress. What’s more, the research always concentrates on the effect of single stress additionally, there is scarce information about the stress effect on waterfowl like goose as they are commonly thought to be tolerant to stress. To our knowledge, it is not always true. The object of this study was to evaluate the response of growing Greylag geese offered different fiber sources to the comprehensive stress, primarily involving the procedures of fasting, transport, capture, etc. The birds were randomly selected to rear with the diets differing in fiber source, being corn straw silage (CSS), steam-exploded corn straw (SECS), steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), and steam-exploded rice straw (SERS), respectively. Blood samples designated for the determination of stress status were collected before (pre-stress ) and after (post-stress ) the stressors carried out. No difference (P>0.05) was found on the pre-stress blood parameters of growing Greylags fed alternative fiber sources. Irrespective of the dietary differences, the comprehensive stress decreased (P<0.01) the concentration of SOD and increased (P<0.01) that of CK. Between the dietary treatments, the birds fed CSS had a higher (P<0.05)post-stress concentration of MDA than those offered SECS, along with a similarity to those fed the other two fiber sources. There was no difference (P>0.05) found on the stress response of the birds fed different fiber sources. In conclusion, SOD and CK concentration in blood may be more sensitive in indicating stress status and dietary fiber source exerted no effect on the stress response of growing Greylags. There is little chance to improve the stress status by ingesting different fiber sources.

Keywords: blood parameter, fiber source, Greylag goose, stress

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