Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2829

Search results for: fatty acid

2829 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

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2828 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC

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2827 Proximate Analysis of Muscle of Helix aspersa Living in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of variations in the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn (November) in 2015. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and cholesterol analysis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The protein contents of snail muscle were determined with Kjeldahl distillation units. Statistical comparisons were made by using SPSS Software (version 16.0). Thirty different fatty acids of different saturation levels were detected. As the predominant fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), palmitic acid (C16:0), arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) were found in Helix aspersa. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was identified as the major SFA in autumn. Linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6) have the highest levels among the PUFAs. In the present study, ω3 were found 5.48% in autumn. Linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acid amounts in the autumn decreased significantly but cholesterol content was not affected in Helix aspersa in autumn (November) in 2015.

Keywords: Helix aspersa, fatty acid, SFA, PUFA, cholesterol

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2826 Fatty Acid Composition and Therapeutic Effects of Beebread

Authors: Sibel Silici

Abstract:

Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acids composition of eight beebread samples obtained from different geographical origins were determined. Beebread moisture contents varied between 11.4-15.9 %, ash 1.9-2.54 %, fat 5.9-11.5 %, and protein between 14.8-24.3 %. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating fatty acids (FAs) composition of the selected monofloral beebreads. A total of thirty-seven FAs were identified. Of these (9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadeca-9, 12, 15-trienoic acid, (9Z, 12Z)-octadeca-9, 12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, (Z)-icos-11-enoic acid and octadecanoic acid were the most abundant in all the samples. Cotton beebread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, 41.3 %. Unsaturated/saturated FAs ratios ranged between 1.38 and 2.39 indicating that beebread is a good source of unsaturated FAs. The pollen, proximate and FAs composition of beebread samples of different botanical and geographical origins varied significantly.

Keywords: bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, pollen analysis

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2825 Fatty Acid Profile of Meat from Lambs Fed on Diets Containing Mulberry Hay

Authors: A. G. Silva Sobrinho, L. G. A. Cirne, V. T. Santana

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The aim of this trial was to evaluate fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed on diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty-four feedlot Ile de France lambs (average weight of 15kg and average age of 60 days) were randomized to receive the different diets and slaughtered at 32kg body weight. Increases were observed in the concentrations of the saturated pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic and arachidic fatty acids; of the monounsaturated nervonic fatty acid and of the polyunsaturated α-linolenic, ɣ-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids. Increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was also found in the meat of lambs fed on 12.5% mulberry hay. In addition, the omega-3 composition was augmented, while the omega-3/omega-6 ratio was decreased in mulberry hay-fed animals. In conclusion, a more desirable fatty acid profile was observed in lamb meat following the substitution of mulberry hay in the concentrate of fed, resulting in improved nutritional characteristics of the meat.

Keywords: alternative food, fatty acids, feedlot, sheep meat

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2824 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey

Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz

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In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.

Keywords: Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid, composition, gas chromatography

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2823 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C .D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi

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The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals, sugar

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2822 Engineering Escherichia coli for Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid by Exploiting Fatty Acid Metabolic Pathway

Authors: Kamran Jawed, Anu Jose Mattam, Zia Fatma, Saima Wajid, Malik Z. Abdin, Syed Shams Yazdani

Abstract:

Worldwide demand of natural and sustainable fuels and chemicals have encouraged researchers to develop microbial platform for synthesis of short chain fatty acids as they are useful precursors to replace petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. In this study, we evaluated the role of fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation cycle of Escherichia coli to produce butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, with the help of three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. We found that E. coli strain transformed with gene for TesBT and grown in presence of 8 g/L glucose produced maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g/L, followed by that of TesBF at 0.85 g/L and TesAT at 0.12 g/L, indicating that these thioesterases were efficiently converting short chain fatty acyl-ACP intermediate of fatty acid synthesis pathway into the corresponding acid. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. Deletion of genes for fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which are involved in initiating the fatty acid degradation cycle, and overexpression of FadR, which is a dual transcriptional regulator and exerts negative control over fatty acid degradation pathway, reduced up to 30% of butyric acid titer. This observation suggested that β-oxidation pathway is working synergistically with fatty acid synthesis pathway in production of butyric acid. Moreover, accelerating the fatty acid elongation cycle by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase (Acc) and 3-hydroxy-acyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) or by deleting FabR, the transcription suppressor of elongation, did not improve the butyric acid titer, rather favored the long chain fatty acid production. Finally, a balance between cell growth and butyric acid production was achieved with the use of phosphorous limited growth medium and 14.3 g/L butyric acid, and 17.5 g/L total free fatty acids (FFAs) titer was achieved during fed-batch cultivation. We have engineered an E. coli strain which utilizes the intermediate of both fatty acid synthesis and degradation pathway, i.e. butyryl-ACP and -CoA, to produce butyric acid from glucose. The strategy used in this study resulted in highest reported titers of butyric acid and FFAs in engineered E. coli.

Keywords: butenoic acid, butyric acid, Escherichia coli, fed-batch fermentation, short chain fatty acids, thioesterase

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2821 Study of Coconut and Babassu Oils with High Acid Content and the Fatty Acids (C6 to C16) Obtained from These Oils

Authors: Flávio A. F. da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, José A. S. Ramos Filho, Monica C. G. Albuquerque

Abstract:

The vegetable oils have many applications in industrial processes and due to this potential have constantly increased the demand for the use of low-quality oils, mainly in the production of biofuel. This work aims to the physicochemical evaluation of babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) of low quality, as well the obtaining the free fatty acids 6 to 16 carbon atoms, with intention to be used as raw material for the biofuels production. The babassu oil and coconut low quality, as well the fatty acids obtained from these oils were characterized as their physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition (using gas chromatography coupled to mass). The NMR technique was used to assess the efficiency of fractional distillation under reduced pressure to obtain the intermediate carbonic chain fatty acids. The results showed that the bad quality in terms of physicochemical evaluation of babassu oils and coconut oils interfere directly in industrial application. However the fatty acids of intermediate carbonic chain (C6 to C16) may be used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and particularly as the biokerosene fuel. The chromatographic analysis showed that the babassu oil and coconut oil have as major fatty acids are lauric acid (57.5 and 38.6%, respectively), whereas the top phase from distillation of coconut oil showed caprylic acid (39.1%) and major fatty acid.

Keywords: babassu oil (Orbinya speciosa), coconut oil (Cocos nucifera), fatty acids, biomass

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2820 Characterization of Fatty Acid Glucose Esters as Os9BGlu31 Transglucosidase Substrates in Rice

Authors: Juthamath Komvongsa, Bancha Mahong, Kannika Phasai, Sukanya Luang, Jong-Seong Jeon, James Ketudat-Cairns

Abstract:

Os9BGlu31 is a rice transglucosidase that transfers glucosyl moieties to various acceptors such as carboxylic acids and alcohols, including phenolic acids and flavonoids, in vitro. The role of Os9BGlu31 transglucosidase in rice plant metabolism has not been reported to date. Methanolic extracts of rice bran and flag leaves were found to contain substrates to which Os9BGlu31 could transfer glucose from 4-nitrophenyl β -D-glucopyranoside donor. The semi-purified substrate from rice bran was found to contain oleic acid and linoleic acid and the pure fatty acids were found to act as acceptor substrates for Os9BGlu31 transglucosidase to form 1-O-acyl glucose esters. Os9BGlu31 showed higher activity with oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) than stearic acid (18:0), and had both higher kcat and higher Km for linoleic than oleic acid in the presence of 8 mM 4NPGlc donor. This transglucosidase reaction is reversible, Os9bglu31 knockout rice lines of flag leaves were found to have higher amounts of fatty acid glucose esters than wild type control lines, these data conclude that fatty acid glucose esters act as glucosyl donor substrates for Os9BGlu31 transglucosidase in rice.

Keywords: fatty acid, fatty acid glucose ester, transglucosidase, rice flag leaf, homologous knockout lines, tandam mass spectrometry

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2819 Cadaver Free Fatty Acid Distribution Associated with Burial in Mangrove and Oil Palm Plantation Soils under Tropical Climate

Authors: Siti Sofo Ismail, Siti Noraina Wahida Mohd Alwi, Mohamad Hafiz Ameran, Masrudin M. Yusoff

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Locating clandestine cadaver is crucially important in forensic investigations. However, it requires a lot of man power, costly and time consuming. Therefore, the development of a new method to locate the clandestine graves is urgently needed as the cases involve burial of cadaver in different types of soils under tropical climates are still not well explored. This study focused on the burial in mangrove and oil palm plantation soils, comparing the fatty acid distributions in different soil acidities. A stimulated burial experiment was conducted using domestic pig (Sus scrofa) to substitute human tissues. Approximately 20g of pig fatty flesh was allowed to decompose in mangrove and oil palm plantation soils, mimicking burial in a shallow grave. The associated soils were collected at different designated sampling points, corresponding different decomposition stages. Modified Bligh-Dyer Extraction method was applied to extract the soil free fatty acids. Then, the obtained free fatty acids were analyzed with gas chromatography-flame ionization (GC-FID). A similar fatty acid distribution was observed for both mangrove and oil palm plantations soils. Palmitic acid (C₁₆) was the most abundance of free fatty acid, followed by stearic acid (C₁₈). However, the concentration of palmitic acid (C₁₆) higher in oil palm plantation compare to mangrove soils. Conclusion, the decomposition rate of cadaver can be affected by different type of soils.

Keywords: clandestine grave, burial, soils, free fatty acid

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2818 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın

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Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

Keywords: aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue

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2817 The Effects of Extraction Methods on Fat Content and Fatty Acid Profiles of Marine Fish Species

Authors: Yesim Özogul, Fethiye Takadaş, Mustafa Durmus, Yılmaz Ucar, Ali Rıza Köşker, Gulsun Özyurt, Fatih Özogul

Abstract:

It has been well documented that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on health, regarding prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and autoimmune disorders, development the brain and retina and treatment of major depressive disorder etc. Thus, an adequate intake of omega PUFA is essential and generally marine fish are the richest sources of PUFA in human diet. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of different extraction methods (Bligh and Dyer, soxhlet, microwave and ultrasonics) on the fat content and fatty acid profiles of marine fish species (Mullus babatus, Upeneus moluccensis, Mullus surmuletus, Anguilla anguilla, Pagellus erythrinus and Saurida undosquamis). Fish species were caught by trawl in Mediterranean Sea and immediately iced. After that, fish were transported to laboratory in ice and stored at -18oC in a freezer until the day of analyses. After extracting lipid from fish by different methods, lipid samples were converted to their constituent fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid composition was analysed by a GC Clarus 500 with an autosampler (Perkin Elmer, Shelton, CT, USA) equipped with a flame ionization detector and a fused silica capillary SGE column (30 m x 0.32 mm ID x 0.25 mm BP20 0.25 UM, USA). The results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in fatty acids of all species and also extraction methods affected fat contents and fatty acid profiles of fish species.

Keywords: extraction methods, fatty acids, marine fish, PUFA

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2816 Physico-Chemical, GC-MS Analysis and Cold Saponification of Onion (Allium cepa L) Seed Oil

Authors: A. A Warra, S. Fatima

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The experimental investigation revealed that the hexane extract of onion seed oil has acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, relative density and refractive index of 0.03±0.01 mgKOH/g, 129.80±0.21 gI2/100g, 3.00± 0.00 meq H2O2 203.00±0.71 mgKOH/g, 0.82±0.01and 1.44±0.00 respectively. The percentage yield was 50.28±0.01%. The colour of the oil was light green. We restricted our GC-MS spectra interpretation to compounds identification, particularly fatty acids and they are identified as palmitic acid, linolelaidic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, behenic acid, linolenic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid. The pH , foam ability (cm³), total fatty matter, total alkali and percentage chloride of the onion oil soap were 11.03± 0.02, 75.13±0.15 (cm³), 36.66 ± 0.02 %, 0.92 ± 0.02% and 0.53 ± 0.15 % respectively. The texture was soft and the colour was lighter green. The results indicated that the hexane extract of the onion seed oil has potential for cosmetic industries.

Keywords: onion seeds, soxhlet extraction, physicochemical, GC-MS, cold saponification

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2815 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Alla V. Goncharova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. It were defined the features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids varies from 16 to 36 %, the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 65% of total fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).

Keywords: microalgae, lipids, fatty acids, culture conditions

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2814 Fatty Acid Composition, Total Sugar Content and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of Nine Different Fruit Tree Leaves Collected from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Authors: Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Sukru Karatas

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In this research, we determined the total sugar content, fatty acid compositions and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanolic and water extracts of nine different fruit tree leaves. α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity were determined by using Caraway-Somogyi–iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as substrate, respectively. Total sugar content of the nine different fruit tree leaves varies from 281.02 mg GE/g (glucose equivalents) to 643.96 mg GE/g. Methanolic extract from avocado leaves had the strongest in α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 69.21% and 96.26 %, respectively. Fatty acid composition of nine fruit tree leaves was characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and twenty-four components were identified. Among the tested fruit tree leaves, the main component was linolenic acid (49.09%). The level of essential fatty acids are over 50% in mulberry, grape and loquat leaves. PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were major group of fatty acids present in oils of mulberry, fig, pomegranate, grape, and loquat leaves. Therefore, these oils can be considered as a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, avocado can be regarded as a new source for diabetic therapies.

Keywords: fatty acid compositions, total sugar contents, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, fruit tree leaves, Turkey

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2813 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: antioxidant, palm oil biodiesel, decomposition, oxidation, tocopherol

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2812 Comparison of Fatty Acids Composition of Three Commercial Fish Species Farmed in the Adriatic Sea

Authors: Jelka Pleadin, Greta Krešić, Tina Lešić, Ana Vulić, Renata Barić, Tanja Bogdanović, Dražen Oraić, Ana Legac, Snježana Zrnčić

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Fish has been acknowledged as an integral component of a well-balanced diet, providing a healthy source of energy, high-quality proteins, vitamins, essential minerals and, especially, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3 EPA), and docosahexaenoicacid, (22:6 n-3 DHA), whose pleiotropic effects in terms of health promotion and disease prevention have been increasingly recognised. In this study, the fatty acids composition of three commercially important farmed fish species: sea bream (Sparus aurata), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and dentex (Dentex dentex) was investigated. In total, 60 fish samples were retrieved during 2015 (n = 30) and 2016 (n = 30) from different locations in the Adriatic Sea. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). The results show that the most represented fatty acid in all three analysed species is oleic acid (C18:1n-9, OA), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, LA) and palmitic acid (C16:0, PA). Dentex was shown to have two to four times higher eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid content as compared to sea bream and sea bass. The recommended n-6/n-3 ratio was determined in all fish species but obtained results pointed to statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in fatty acid composition among the analysed fish species and their potential as a dietary source of valuable fatty acids. Sea bass and sea bream had a significantly higher proportion of n-6 fatty acids, while dentex had a significantly higher proportion of n-3 (C18:4n-3, C20:4n-3, EPA, DHA) fatty acids. A higher hypocholesterolaemic and hypercholesterolaemic fatty acids (HH) ratio was determined for sea bass and sea bream, which comes as the consequence of a lower share of SFA determined in these two species in comparison to dentex. Since the analysed fish species vary in their fatty acids composition consumption of diverse fish species would be advisable. Based on the established lipid quality indicators, dentex, a fish species underutilised by the aquaculture, seems to be a highly recommendable and important source of fatty acids recommended to be included into the human diet.

Keywords: dentex, fatty acids, farmed fish, sea bass, sea bream

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2811 Anti-Acanthamoeba Activities of Fatty Acid Salts and Fatty Acids

Authors: Manami Masuda, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita

Abstract:

Objectives: Fatty acid salts are a type of anionic surfactant and are produced from fatty acids and alkali. Moreover, fatty acid salts are known to have potent antibacterial activities. Acanthamoeba is ubiquitously distributed in the environment including sea water, fresh water, soil and even from the air. Although generally free-living, Acanthamoeba can be an opportunistic pathogen, which could cause a potentially blinding corneal infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. So, in this study, we evaluated the anti-amoeba activity of fatty acid salts and fatty acids to Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of 9 fatty acid salts (potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K), linolenate (C18:3K)) tested on cells of Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30010. Fatty acid salts (concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH. The amoeba suspension mixed with KOH with a pH adjusted solution was used as the control. Fatty acids (concentration of 175 mM) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with Tween 80 (20 %). The amoeba suspension mixed with Tween 80 (20 %) was used as the control. The anti-amoeba method, the amoeba suspension (3.0 × 104 cells/ml trophozoites) was mixed with the sample of fatty acid potassium (final concentration of 175 mM). Samples were incubated at 30°C, for 10 min, 60 min, and 180 min and then the viability of A. castellanii was evaluated using plankton counting chamber and trypan blue stainings. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Acanthamoeba was determined using the two-fold dilution method. The MIC was defined as the minimal anti-amoeba concentration that inhibited visible amoeba growth following incubation (180 min). Results: C8K, C10K, and C12K were the anti-amoeba effect of 4 log-unit (99.99 % growth suppression of A. castellanii) incubated time for 180 min against A. castellanii at 175mM. After the amoeba, the suspension was mixed with C10K or C12K, destroying the cell membrane had been observed. Whereas, the pH adjusted control solution did not exhibit any effect even after 180 min of incubation with A. castellanii. Moreover, C6, C8, and C18:3 were the anti-amoeba effect of 4 log-unit incubated time for 60 min. C4 and C18:2 exhibited a 4-log reduction after 180 min incubation. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The MIC of C10K, C12K and C4 were 2.7 mM. These results indicate that C10K, C12K and C4 have high anti-amoeba activity against A. castellanii and suggest C10K, C12K and C4 have great potential for antimi-amoeba agents.

Keywords: Fatty acid salts, anti-amoeba activities, Acanthamoeba, fatty acids

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2810 Effect of Extraction Methods on the Fatty Acids and Physicochemical Properties of Serendipity Berry Seed Oil

Authors: Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo, Samson A. Oyeyinka

Abstract:

Serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii diel) is a tropical dioecious rainforest vine and native to tropical Africa. The vine grows during the raining season and is used mainly as sweetener. The sweetener in the berry is known as monellin which is sweeter than sucrose. The sweetener is extracted from the fruits and the seed is discarded. The discarded seeds contain bitter principles but had high yield of oil. Serendipity oil was extracted using three methods (N-hexane, expression and expression/n-hexane). Fatty acids and physicochemical properties of the oil obtained were determined. The oil obtained was clear, liquid and have odour similar to hydrocarbon. The percentage oil yield was 38.59, 12.34 and 49.57% for hexane, expression and expression-hexane method respectively. The seed contained high percentage of oil especially using combination of expression and hexane. Low percentage of oil was obtained using expression method. The refractive index values obtained were 1.443, 1.442 and 1.478 for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively. Peroxide value obtained for expression-hexane was higher than those for hexane and expression. The viscosities of the oil were 125.8, 128.76 and 126.87 cm³/s for hexane, expression and expression-hexane methods respectively which showed that the oil from expression method was more viscous than the other oils. The major fatty acids in serendipity seed oil were oleic acid (62.81%), linoleic acid (22.65%), linolenic (6.11%), palmitic acid (5.67%), stearic acid (2.21%) in decreasing order. Oleic acid which is monounsaturated fatty acid had the highest value. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 91.574, 92.256 and 90.426% for hexane, expression, and expression-hexane respectively. Combination of expression and hexane for extraction of serendipity oil produced high yield of oil. The oil could be refined for food and non-food application.

Keywords: serendipity seed oil, expression method, fatty acid, hexane

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2809 Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Spelt and Flaxseed Pasta

Authors: Jelena Filipovic, Milenko Kosutic

Abstract:

The dynamic way of life has the tendency to simplify and decrease preparing healthy, quick, cheap and safe meals. Spelt pasta is meeting most of these goals. Contrary to bread, pasta can be stored a long time without deterioration in flavour, odour and usability without losing quality. This paper deals with the chemical composition and content of fatty acids in flaxseed and spelt flour. Ratio of essential fatty acids ω-6/ω-3 is also analysed in spelt pasta and pasta with 0%, 10% and 20% flaxseed flour. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is used for carrying out a quantitative analysis of flaxseed flour, spelt flour and pasta liposoluble extracts. Flaxseed flour has a better fatty acid profile than spelt flour, with low levels of saturated fat (approximately 9g/100g), high concentration of linolenic acid (57g/100g) and lower content of linoleic acid (16g/100g), as well as superior ω-6/ω-3 ratio that is 1:4. Flaxseed flour in the share of 10% and 20% in spelt pasta positively contributes to the essential fatty acids daily intake recommended by nutritionists and the improvement of ω-6/ω-3 ratio (6,7:1 and 1:1.2). This paper points out that investigated pasta with flaxseed is a new product with improved functional properties due to high level of ω-3 fatty acids and it is acceptable for consumers in regard to sensory properties.

Keywords: flaxseed, spelt, fatty acids, ω-3/ω-6 ratio, pasta

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
2808 Desirable Fatty Acids in Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipid-Based Diets

Authors: Tiago N. P. Valente, Erico S. Lima, Roberto O. Roça

Abstract:

Introduction: Research has stimulated animal production studies on solutions to decrease the level of saturated fatty acids and increase unsaturated in foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the dietary inclusion of lipid-based diets on the fatty acid profiles from finishing cattle. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months, and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After 63 days mean final live weight was 577.01 kg ± 11.34. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 hours at 2°C. Then, part of the M. longissimus thoracis of each animal was removed between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. The samples steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids was carried out in a gas chromatograph. Desirable fatty acids (FADes) were determined by the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and stearic acid (C18:0). Results and Discussion: No differences (P>0.05) between the diets for the proportion of FADes in the meat of the animals in this study, according to the lipid sources used. The inclusion of protected fat or cottonseed in the diet did not change the proportion of FADes in the meat. The proportion mean of FADes in meat in the present study were: as pentadecanoic acid (C15:1 = 0.29%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 = 4.26%), heptadecanoic acid (C17:1 = 0.07%), oleic acid (C18:1n9c = 37.32%), γ-linolenic acid (0.94%) and α-linolenic acid (1.04%), elaidic acid (C18:1n9t = 0.50%), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3 = 0.03%), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 = 0.04%), erucic acid (C22:1n9 = 0.89%), docosadienoic acid (C22:2 = 0.04%) and stearic acid (C18:0 = 21.53%). Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected fatty acids profiles the desirable fatty acids in meat. Acknowledgements: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, unsaturated fatty acids

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2807 Determination of Hydrolisis Condition in the Extraction of Fatty Acids from Pinchagua's (Opisthonema libertate) Heads, a By-Product of Sardine Industry

Authors: Belen Carrillo, Mauricio Mosquera

Abstract:

Fatty acids are bioactive compounds widely used as nutritional supplements in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Bluefish such as sardines have a large variety of these fatty acids in their composition. The objective of this project is to extract these compounds from fishing wastes, to do this, heads of known species as Pinchagua (Opistonema libertate) were used. The conducted study represents a simplified alternative for obtaining and simultaneous saponification of oil through basic hydrolysis, which separates lipids from protein and saponifies sample all the same time to isolate the fatty acid accurately through salts formation. To do these different concentrations of sodium hydroxide were used, it was demonstrated at a concentration of 1 M the highest yield of saponified oil recovery corresponding a value of 3,64% was obtained. Subsequently, the saponified oil was subjected to an acid hydrolysis in which fatty acids were isolated. Different sulfuric acid concentrations and temperatures for the process were tested. Thus, it was shown that the great fatty acids variety were obtained at a 60 °C temperature and sulfuric acid concentration of 50% v/v. Among the obtained compounds the presence of acids such as palmitic, lauric, caproic and myristic are highlighted. Applications of this type of elements are varied and widely used in the nutritional supplements development. Thus, the described methodology proposes a simple mechanism in the revaluation of fishing industry wastes that allow directly generate high added value elements.

Keywords: fatty acids, hydrolysis, Pinchagua, saponification

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2806 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of Olea europea Var. Oleaster Oil and Determination of Its Effects on Blood Parameters

Authors: Asma Gherib, Imen Merzougui, Cherifa Henchiri

Abstract:

This present study has allowed to evaluate the physico chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and the hypolipidemic effect of Oleaster oil Olea europea var. Oleaster, from the area of El Kala, "Eastern Algeria" on rats "Wistar albinos". The physico chemical characteristics: acidity (0,73%), peroxide value (14, 16 meqO2/kg oil) and iodine value (74,08 g iodine/100 g of oil) are consistent with international standards. The dosage of FA revealed a wealth of oil with UFA (76,7%), mainly composed of 65.43% of MUFA whose major fatty acid is oleic acid (63,57%). The experiment on rats receiving a diet rich in saturated fats and hydrogenated oils revealed that the consumption of Oleaster oil at the dose of 10 g and 20 g for 15 and 30 days improves plasma lipid profile by decreasing the rates of TC, TG, TL, and LDL-C with an increase in the rate of HDL-C serum. The importance of these effects depends on the dose and period of treatment.

Keywords: oleaster oil, fatty acid, Olea europea, oleic acid, lipid profile

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2805 Inhibitory Action of Fatty Acid Salts against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Dermatophagoides farinae

Authors: Yui Okuno, Mariko Era, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita

Abstract:

Introduction: Fungus and mite are known as allergens that cause an allergic disease for example asthma bronchiale and allergic rhinitis. Cladosporium cladosporioides is one of the most often detected fungi in the indoor environment and causes pollution and deterioration. Dermatophagoides farinae is major mite allergens indoors. Therefore, the creation of antifungal agents with high safety and the antifungal effect is required. Fatty acid salts are known that have antibacterial activities. This report describes the effects of fatty acid salts against Cladosporium cladosporioides NBRC 30314 and Dermatophagoides farinae. Methods: Potassium salts of 9 fatty acids (C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) were prepared by mixing the fatty acid with the appropriate amount of KOH solution to a concentration of 175 mM and pH 10.5. The antifungal method, the spore suspension (3.0×104 spores/mL) was mixed with a sample of fatty acid potassium (final concentration of 175 mM). Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, 180 min by plating (100 µL) on PDA. Fungal colonies were counted after incubation for 3 days at 30 °C. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) against the fungi was determined by the two-fold dilution method. Each fatty acid salts were inoculated separately with 400 µL of C. cladosporioides at 3.0 × 104 spores/mL. The mixtures were incubated at the respective temperature for each organism for 10 min. The tubes were then contacted with the fungi incubated at 30 °C for 7 days and examined for growth of spores on PDA. The acaricidal method, twenty D. farinae adult females were used and each adult was covered completely with 2 µL fatty acid potassium for 1 min. The adults were then dried with filter paper. The filter paper was folded and fixed by two clips and kept at 25 °C and 64 % RH. Mortalities were determained 48 h after treatment under the microscope. D. farina was considered to be dead if appendages did not move when prodded with a pin. Results and Conclusions: The results show that C8K, C10K, C12K, C14K was effective to decrease survival rate (4 log unit) of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min against C. cladosporioides. C18:3K was effective to decrease 4 log unit of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 60 min. Especially, C12K was the highest antifungal activity and the MIC of C12K was 0.7 mM. On the other hand, the fatty acids potassium showed no acaricidal effects against D. farinae. The activity of D. farinae was not adversely affected after 48 hours. These results indicate that C12K has high antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides and suggest the fatty acid potassium will be used as an antifungal agent.

Keywords: fatty acid salts, antifungal effects, acaricidal effects, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Dermatophagoides farinae

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
2804 Fatty Acid Structure and Composition Effects of Biodiesel on Its Oxidative Stability

Authors: Gelu Varghese, Khizer Saeed

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Biodiesel is as a mixture of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Recent studies in the literature suggest that end property of biodiesel such as its oxidative stability (OS) is highly influenced by the structure and composition of its alkyl esters than by environmental conditions. The structure and composition of these long chain fatty acid components have been also associated with trends in Cetane number, heat of combustion, cold flow properties viscosity, and lubricity. In the present work, detailed investigation has been carried out to decouple and correlate the fatty acid structure indices of biodiesel such as degree of unsaturation, chain length, double bond orientation, and composition with its oxidative stability. Measurements were taken using the EN14214 established Rancimat oxidative stability test method (EN141120). Firstly, effects of the degree of unsaturation, chain length and bond orientation were tested for the pure fatty acids to establish their oxidative stability. Results for pure Fatty acid show that Saturated FAs are more stable than unsaturated ones to oxidation; superior oxidative stability can be achieved by blending biodiesel fuels with relatively high in saturated fatty acid contents. A lower oxidative stability is noticed when a greater quantity of double bonds is present in the methyl ester. A strong inverse relationship with the number of double bonds and the Rancimat IP values can be identified. Trans isomer Methyl elaidate shows superior stability to oxidation than its cis isomer methyl oleate (7.2 vs. 2.3). Secondly, the effects of the variation in the composition of the biodiesel were investigated and established. Finally, biodiesels with varying structure and composition were investigated and correlated.

Keywords: biodiesel, fame, oxidative stability, fatty acid structure, acid composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2803 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of an Oil of Pistacia Lentiscus Fruits and Its Effects on Blood Lipid Profile (10364 EJSR)

Authors: Merzougui Imene, Gherib Asma, Henchiri Cherifa

Abstract:

This study has allowed to confirm the physico chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition by GC of the oil of Pistacia lentiscus extracted by traditional method and evaluate its effect on some blood lipid parameters. The results showed that the main physico chemical characteristics of Pistacia lentiscus oil are: moisture (0.84 %), a relatively high iodine value (80,44) indicating that this oil has an important degree of unsaturation. The oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) where oleic acid dominate with 47,01 % of total fatty acids and PUFA's represented by linoleic acid (19,26 %). Concerning the biological survey, oil, at 10% and 20% doses of diet for 15 and 30 days of two periods of treatment, resulted in beneficial effects on the lipid profile of Wistar albinos rats previously fed with animal and vegetable fats. We observed decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGA), total lipids and LDL-C, and an increase in HDL-C "good cholesterol" probably related to the presence of a large amount of (MUFA) and (PUFA).

Keywords: Pistacia lentiscus, oil, lipid profile, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2802 The Potency of Sandfish (Holothuria scraba) Flesh Powder to Improve Reproduction Quality of Man

Authors: E. Riani, T. T. Irawadi, S. Nurjanah, K. Syamsu, E. G. Said, Suprihatin, M. R. Cordova

Abstract:

Especially coastal, Indonesian and Chinese communities have utilized sandfish to improve reproduction quality of men. This study aimed to examine the nutrition on sandfish flesh that has the potency to improve reproduction quality of men. The materials used were sandfish with weight of 200-500 g, and then analysis of proximate, analysis of amino acid, analysis of fatty acid and analysis of mineral contained in the sandfish were performed. The results showed that protein content (39.96%) was the main component of the flesh; the carbohydrate and fat were 25.43% and 4.18%, respectively. Sandfish powder contains several essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids. Nine of ten amino acids needed by human body are contained in sandfish powder, i.e. arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine and valine; only tryptophan that are not contained in sandfish powder. Sandfish powder contains saturated fatty acid kaproat, kaprilat, kaprat, laurat, miristat, stearat, arakhidat and behenat; monosaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). MUFA is composed of fatty acid oleat, while PUFA is composed fatty acid omega 3 (linonenat, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) and omega 6 (linoleat and arakhidonat). The minerals contained in sandfish powder are macrominerals and microminerals. Based on the findings, the nutrition in sandfish powder has a good potency to improve reproduction of men, especially PUFA for the maturation of spermatozoa, zinc for production function and spermatogenesis, motility of spermatozoa, acromoson reaction; Mg for transformation of genetic information and motility of spermatozoa; calcium for spermatogenesis, capacity and fertilization of spermatozoa. Thus, sandfish flesh powder has the potency to improve reproduction quality of men.

Keywords: sandfish flesh powder, nutrition, reproduction quality, men

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
2801 Application of Fatty Acid Salts for Antimicrobial Agents in Koji-Muro

Authors: Aya Tanaka, Mariko Era, Shiho Sakai, Takayoshi Kawahara, Takahide Kanyama, Hiroshi Morita

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Objectives: Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji) was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. So this study examined antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus and Bacillus spp. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro as antimicrobial agents. Materials & Methods: A. niger NBRC 31628, A. oryzae NBRC 5238, A. oryzae (Akita Konno store) and Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 were chosen as tested. Nine fatty acid salts including potassium butyrate (C4K), caproate (C6K), caprylate (C8K), caprate (C10K), laurate (C12K), myristate (C14K), oleate (C18:1K), linoleate (C18:2K) and linolenate (C18:3K) at 350 mM and pH 10.5 were used as antimicrobial activity. FASs and spore suspension were prepared in plastic tubes. The spore suspension of each fungus (3.0×104 spores/mL) or the bacterial suspension (3.0×105 CFU/mL) was mixed with each of the fatty acid salts (final concentration of 175 mM). The mixtures were incubated at 25 ℃. Samples were counted at 0, 10, 60, and 180 min by plating (100 µL) on potato dextrose agar. Fungal and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation for 1 or 2 days at 30 ℃. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) is defined as the lowest concentration of drug sufficient for inhibiting visible growth of spore after 10 min of incubation. MICs against fungi and bacteria were determined using the two-fold dilution method. Each fatty acid salt was separately inoculated with 400 µL of Aspergillus spp. or B. subtilis NBRC 3335 at 3.0 × 104 spores/mL or 3.0 × 105 CFU/mL. Results: No obvious change was observed in tested fatty acid salts against A. niger and A. oryzae. However, C12K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. Thus, C12K suppressed 99.999 % of bacterial growth. Besides, C10K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 180 min against B. subtilis. C18:1K, C18:2K and C18:3K was the antibacterial effect of 5 log-unit incubated time for 10 min against B. subtilis. However, compared to saturated fatty acid salts to unsaturated fatty acid salts, saturated fatty acid salts are lower cost. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro. It is necessary to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against other fungi and bacteria, in the future.

Keywords: Aspergillus, antimicrobial, fatty acid salts, koji-muro

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2800 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 376