Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: desertification

45 Influence of Temperature and Precipitation Changes on Desertification

Authors: Kukuri Tavartkiladze, Nana Bolashvili

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper was separation and study of the part of structure regime, which directly affects the process of desertification. A simple scheme was prepared for the assessment of desertification process; surface air temperature and precipitation for the years of 1936-2009 were analyzed.  The map of distribution of the Desertification Contributing Coefficient in the territory of Georgia was compiled. The simple scheme for identification of the intensity of the desertification contributing process has been developed and the illustrative example of its practical application for the territory of Georgia has been conducted.

Keywords: aridity, climate change, desertification, precipitation

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44 Modelization of Land Degradation by Desertification Using Medalus Method, Case Study of the Wilaya of Saida, Algeria

Authors: Fekir Youcef, Mederbal Khalladi, M. A. Hamadouche, D. Anteur

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Algeria is one of the countries that are highly affected by desertification which is the consequence of several factors. For this purpose, there is a need to study this problem by quantitative approaches. In this study, we apply the MEDALUS method (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use) to a watershed located in Saida town in semi-arid environment in the south west of Algeria. The method is based on sensitive areas identification by making use of the different parameters that may affect the desertification process such as vegetation, soil, climate and management. Spatial analyses are strong tools that allow modelization of each indicator. Results show that according to European standards, a large scale of the watershed falls into critical classes. And therefore, the modelization approach can be an effective way to study and understand the desertification showing an example of the project of the green dam that limits the desertification process to affect the north areas off Algeria.

Keywords: Algeria, desertification, MEDALUS, modelization

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43 Using Geographic Information Systems in the Desertification Risk’s Cartography: Case South of the Aurès Region, Algeria

Authors: Benmessaoud Hassen

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The sensitivity to the desertification map of the south of Aurès region has been elaborated by the crossing of four thematic layers capable to have an impact on the process of desertification. The following step is inspired of MEDALUS (Mediterranean desertification and land Use), which use qualitative index to define the environment zones sensitive to the desertification. The cartographical information of vegetation, the climate, the soil and the socioeconomic state descended from cartographic data transformed to numerical data then seized on, structured and managed by an algorithm dedicated to a geographical information system. In step with information, each layer makes object of 3 or 4 classes, the geometrical median of the four layers used are leaded to sensitivity classes (ISD) of different mapped environment.

Keywords: information systems, thematic layers, the sensitivity to the desertification map, concept MEDALUS, South of Aurès

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42 Restoration of Steppes in Algeria: Case of the Stipa tenacissima L. Steppe

Authors: H. Kadi-Hanifi, F. Amghar

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Steppes of arid Mediterranean zones are deeply threatened by desertification. To stop or alleviate ecological and economic problems associated with this desertification, management actions have been implemented since the last three decades. The struggle against desertification has become a national priority in many countries. In Algeria, several management techniques have been used to cope with desertification. This study aims at investigating the effect of exclosure on floristic diversity and chemical soil proprieties after four years of implementation. 167 phyto-ecological samples have been studied, 122 inside the exclosure and 45 outside. Results showed that plant diversity, composition, vegetation cover, pastoral value and soil fertility were significantly higher in protected areas.

Keywords: Algeria, arid, desertification, pastoral management, soil fertility

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41 Impact of the Action Antropic in the Desertification of Steppe in Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima

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Stipa tenacissima is a plant with a big ecological value (against desertification) and economical stake (paper industry). It is important by its pastoral value due to the inflorescence. It occupied large areas between the Tellian atlas and the Saharian atlas, at the present, these areas of alfa have regressed a lot. This regression is estimated at 1% per year. The principal cause is a human responsibility. The drought is just an aggravating circumstance. The eradication of such a kind of species will have serious consequences upon the equilibrium of all the steppic ecosystem. Thus, we have thought necessary and urgent to know the alfa ecosystem, under all its aspects (climatic, floristic, and edaphic), this diagnostic could direct the fight actions against desertification

Keywords: desertification, anthropic action, soils, Stipa tenacissima

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40 Performance of Exclosure in Restoring Arid Degraded Steppes of Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima, Amghar Fateh

Abstract:

Steppes of arid Mediterranean zones are deeply threatened by desertification. To stop or alleviate ecological and economic problems associated with this desertification, management actions have been implemented since the last three decades. The struggle against desertification has become a national priority in many countries. In Algeria, several management techniques have been used to cope with desertification. This study aims at investigating the effect of exclosure on floristic diversity and chemical soil properties after four years of implementation. 167 phyto-ecological samples have been studied, 122 inside the exclosure and 45 outside. Results showed that plant diversity, composition, vegetation cover, pastoral value and soil fertility were significantly higher in protected areas.

Keywords: desertification, arid, pastoral management, plant community soil fertility, gestation of environment, Algeria

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39 Change Detection and Analysis of Desertification Processes in Semi Arid Land in Algeria Using Landsat Data

Authors: Zegrar Ahmed, Ghabi Mohamed

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The degradation of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in Algeria has become a palpable fact that only hinders progress and rural development. In these exceptionally fragile environments, the decline of vegetation is done according to an alarming increase and wind erosion dominates. The ecosystem is subjected to a long hot dry season and low annual average rainfall. The urgency of the fight against desertification is imposed by the very nature of the process that tends to self-accelerate, resulting when human intervention is not forthcoming the irreversibility situations, preventing any possibility of restoration state of these zones. These phenomena have led to different degradation processes, such as the destruction of vegetation, soil erosion, and deterioration of the physical environment. In this study, the work is mainly based on the criteria for classification and identification of physical parameters for spatial analysis and multi-sources to determine the vulnerability of major steppe formations and their impact on desertification. we used Landsat data with two different dates March 2010 and November 2014 in order to determine the changes in land cover, sand moving and land degradation for the diagnosis of the desertification Phenomenon. The application, through specific processes, including the supervised classification was used to characterize the main steppe formations. An analysis of the vulnerability of plant communities was conducted to assign weights and identify areas most susceptible to desertification. Vegetation indices are used to characterize the steppe formations to determine changes in land use.

Keywords: remote sensing, SIG, ecosystem, degradation, desertification

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38 Desertification of Earth and Reverting Strategies

Authors: V. R. Venugopal

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Human being evolved 200,000 years ago in an area which is now the Sahara desert and lived all along in the northern part of Africa. It was around 10,000 to15,00 years that he moved out of Africa. Various ancient civilizations – mainly the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Indus valley and the Chinese yellow river valley civilizations - developed and perished till the beginning of the Christian era. Strangely the regions where all these civilizations flourished are no deserts. After the ancient civilizations the two major religions of the world the Christianity and Islam evolved. These too evolved in the regions of Jerusalem and Mecca which are now in the deserts of the present Israel and Saudi Arabia. Human activity since ancient age right from his origin was in areas which are now deserts. This is only because wherever Man lived in large numbers he has turned them into deserts. Unfortunately, this is not the case with the ancient days alone. Over the last 500 years the forest cover on the earth is reduced by 80 percent. Even more currently Just over the last forty decades human population has doubled but the number of bugs, beetles, worms and butterflies (micro fauna) have declined by 45%. Deforestation and defaunation are the first signs of desertification and Desertification is a process parallel to the extinction of life. There is every possibility that soon most of the earth will be in deserts. This writer has been involved in the process of forestation and increase of fauna as a profession since twenty years and this is a report of his efforts made in the process, the results obtained and concept generated to revert the ongoing desertification of this earth. This paper highlights how desertification can be reverted by applying these basic principles. 1) Man is not owner of this earth and has no right destroy vegetation and micro fauna. 2) Land owner shall not have the freedom to do anything that he wishes with the land. 3) The land that is under agriculture shall be reduced at least by a half. 4) Irrigation and modern technology shall be used for the forest growth also. 5) Farms shall have substantial permanent vegetation and the practice of all in all out shall stop.

Keywords: desertification, extinction, micro fauna, reverting

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37 Efficacy of Remote Sensing Application in Monitoring the Effectiveness of Afforestation Project in Northern Nigeria

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Babanyara, K. G. Ilellah, M. A. Modibbo, T. O. Quddus, M. J. Sani

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After the United Nation Convention on Desertification (UNCD) in 1977 which was preceded by extensive, regional, and local studies, and consultations with numerous scientists, decision-makers, and relevant institutions. Global Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (PACD) was formulated, endorsed by member Countries. The role of implementing PACD was vested with Governments of countries affected by desertification. The Federal Government of Nigeria as a signatory and World Bank funded and implement afforestation project aimed at combating desertification between 1988 and 1999. This research, therefore, applied remote sensing techniques to assess the effectiveness of the project. To achieve that a small portion of about 143,609 hectares was curved out from the project area. Normalized Difference of the Vegetative Index (NDVI) and Land Use Land Cover were derived from Landsat TM 1986, Landsat ETM 1999 and Nigeria Sat 1, 2007 of the project area. The findings show that there was an increase in cultivated area due to the project from 1986 through 1999 and 2007. This is further buttressed by the three NDVI imageries due to their high positive pixel value from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 in 1999 and to 0.32 in 2007 These signifies the gradual physical development of Afforestation project in the area. In addition, it was also verified by histograms of changes in vegetation which indicated an increased vegetative cover from 60,192 in 1986, to 102,476 in 1999 and then to 88,343 in 2007. The study concluded that Remote Sensing approach has actually confirmed that the project was indeed successful and effective.

Keywords: afforestation, desertification, landsat, vegetative index, remote sensing

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36 Identifying the Phases of Indian Agriculture Towards Desertification: An Introspect of Karnataka State, India

Authors: Arun Das

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Indian agriculture is acclaimed from the dates of Indus civilization (2500 BC). Since this time until the day, there were tremendous expansion in terms of space and technology has taken place. Abrupt growth in technology took place past one and half century. Consequent to this development, the land which was brought under agriculture in the initial stages of introducing agriculture for the first time, that land is not possessing the same physical condition. Either it has lost the productive capacity or modified into semi agriculture land. On the grounds of its capacity and interwoven characteristics seven phases of agriculture scenario has been identified. Most of the land is on the march of desertification. Identifying the stages and the phase of the agriculture scenario is most relevant from the point of view of food security at regional, national and at global level. Secondly decisive measure can put back the degenerating environmental condition into arrest. GIS and Remote sensing applications have been used to identify the phases of agriculture.

Keywords: agriculture phases, desertification, deforestation, foods security, transmigration

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35 Calculation of Water Economy Balance for Water Management

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Ana Karalashvili, George Geladze, Nana Kvirkvelia

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Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia is rich in water resources, but there are disbalance between the eastern and western parts of the country. The goal of the study is to integrate the recent mechanisms compatible with European standards into Georgian water resources management system on the basis of GIS. Moreover, to draw up water economy balance for the purpose of proper determination of water consumption priorities that will be an exchange ratio of water resources and water consumption of the concrete territory. For study region was choose south-eastern part of country, Kvemo kartli Region. This is typical agrarian region, tends to the desertification. The water supply of the region was assessed on the basis of water economy balance, which was first time calculated for this region.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, sustainable management, water management

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34 Phytoadaptation in Desert Soil Prediction Using Fuzzy Logic Modeling

Authors: S. Bouharati, F. Allag, M. Belmahdi, M. Bounechada

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In terms of ecology forecast effects of desertification, the purpose of this study is to develop a predictive model of growth and adaptation of species in arid environment and bioclimatic conditions. The impact of climate change and the desertification phenomena is the result of combined effects in magnitude and frequency of these phenomena. Like the data involved in the phytopathogenic process and bacteria growth in arid soil occur in an uncertain environment because of their complexity, it becomes necessary to have a suitable methodology for the analysis of these variables. The basic principles of fuzzy logic those are perfectly suited to this process. As input variables, we consider the physical parameters, soil type, bacteria nature, and plant species concerned. The result output variable is the adaptability of the species expressed by the growth rate or extinction. As a conclusion, we prevent the possible strategies for adaptation, with or without shifting areas of plantation and nature adequate vegetation.

Keywords: climate changes, dry soil, phytopathogenicity, predictive model, fuzzy logic

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33 Transformation of the Ili Delta Ecosystems Related to the Runoff Control of the Ile-Balkhash Basin Rivers

Authors: Ruslan Salmurzauli, Sabir Nurtazin, Buho Hoshino, Niels Thevs, A. B. Yeszhanov, Aiman Imentai

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This article presents the results of a research on the transformation of the diverse ecosystems of the Ili delta during the period 1979-2014 based on the analysis of the hydrological regime dynamics, weather conditions and satellite images. Conclusions have been drawn on the decisive importance of the water runoff of the Ili River in the negative changes and environmental degradation in delta areas over the past forty-five years. The increase of water consumption in the Chinese and Kazakhstan parts of the Ili-Balkhash basin caused desiccation and desertification of many hydromorphic delta ecosystems and the reduction of water flow into Lake Balkhash. We demonstrate that a significant reduction of watering of the delta areas could drastically accelerate the aridization and degradation of the hydromorphic ecosystems. Under runoff decrease, a transformation process of the delta ecosystems begins from the head part and gradually spread northward to the periphery of the delta. The desertification is most clearly expressed in the central and western parts of the delta areas.

Keywords: Ili-Balkhash basin, Ili river delta, runoff, hydrological regime, transformation of ecosystems, remote sensing

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32 Design Transformation to Reduce Cost in Irrigation Using Value Engineering

Authors: F. S. Al-Anzi, M. Sarfraz, A. Elmi, A. R. Khan

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Researchers are responding to the environmental challenges of Kuwait in localized, innovative, effective and economic ways. One of the vital and significant examples of the natural challenges is lack or water and desertification. In this research, the project team focuses on redesigning a prototype, using Value Engineering Methodology, which would provide similar functionalities to the well-known technology of Waterboxx kits while reducing the capital and operational costs and simplifying the process of manufacturing and usability by regular farmers. The design employs used tires and recycled plastic sheets as raw materials. Hence, this approach is going to help not just fighting desertification but also helping in getting rid of ever growing huge tire dumpsters in Kuwait, as well as helping in avoiding hazards of tire fires yielding in a safer and friendlier environment. Several alternatives for implementing the prototype have been considered. The best alternative in terms of value has been selected after thorough Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) exercise has been developed. A prototype has been fabricated and tested in a controlled simulated lab environment that is being followed by real environment field testing. Water and soil analysis conducted on the site of the experiment to cross compare between the composition of the soil before and after the experiment to insure that the prototype being tested is actually going to be environment safe. Experimentation shows that the design was equally as effective as, and may exceed, the original design with significant savings in cost. An estimated total cost reduction using the VE approach of 43.84% over the original design. This cost reduction does not consider the intangible costs of environmental issue of waste recycling which many further intensify the total savings of using the alternative VE design. This case study shows that Value Engineering Methodology can be an important tool in innovating new designs for reducing costs.

Keywords: desertification, functional analysis, scrap tires, value engineering, waste recycling, water irrigation rationing

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31 Geographical Information System for Sustainable Management of Water Resources

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Nino Machavariani, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Chikhradze, Davit Kartvelishvili

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Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. In the countries with scarce water resources, they often become a reason of armed conflicts. The peaceful settlement of relations connected with management and water consumption issues within and beyond the frontiers of the country is an important guarantee of the region stability. The said problem is urgent in Georgia as well because of its water objects are located at the borders and the transit run-off that is 12% of the total one. Fresh water resources are the major natural resources of Georgia. Despite of this, water supply of population at its Eastern part is an acute issue. Southeastern part of the country has been selected to carry out the research. This region is notable for deficiency of water resources in the country. The region tends to desertification which aggravates fresh water problem even more and presumably may lead to migration of local population from the area. The purpose of study was creation geographical information system (GIS) of water resources. GIS contains almost all layers of different content (water resources, springs, channels, hydrological stations, population water supply, etc.). The results of work provide an opportunity to identify the resource potential of the mentioned region, control and manage it, carry out monitoring and plan regional economy.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, irrigation, water resources

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30 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover of Desertification Vulnerable Areas in Nigeria

Authors: T. Garba, Y. Y. Sabo A. Babanyara, K. G. Ilellah, A. K. Mutari

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This study used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and maps compiled from the classification of Landsat TM and Landsat ETM images of 1986 and 1999 respectively and Nigeria sat 1 images of 2007 to quantify changes in land use and land cover in selected areas of Nigeria covering 143,609 hectares that are threatened by the encroaching Sahara desert. The results of this investigation revealed a decrease in natural vegetation over the three time slices (1986, 1999 and 2007) which was characterised by an increase in high positive pixel values from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 and 0.32 in 1999 and 2007 respectively and, a decrease in natural vegetation from 74,411.60ha in 1986 to 28,591.93ha and 21,819.19ha in 1999 and 2007 respectively. The same results also revealed a periodic trend in which there was progressive increase in the cultivated area from 60,191.87ha in 1986 to 104,376.07ha in 1999 and a terminal decrease to 88,868.31ha in 2007. These findings point to expansion of vegetated and cultivated areas in in the initial period between 1988 and 1996 and reversal of these increases in the terminal period between 1988 and 1996. The study also revealed progressive expansion of built-up areas from 1, 681.68ha in 1986 to 2,661.82ha in 1999 and to 3,765.35ha in 2007. These results argue for the urgent need to protect and conserve the depleting natural vegetation by adopting sustainable human resource use practices i.e. intensive farming in order to minimize persistent depletion of natural vegetation.

Keywords: changes, classification, desertification, vegetation changes

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29 Green Revolution and Reckless Use of Water and Its Implication on Climate Change Leading to Desertification: Situation of Karnataka, India

Authors: Arun Das

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One of the basic objectives of Independent India five decades ago was to meet the increasing demand for food to its growing population. Self-sufficiency was accomplished towards food production and it was attained through launching green revolution program. The green revolution repercussions were not realized at that moment. Many projects were undertaken. Especially, major and minor irrigation projects were executed to harness the river water in the dry land regions of Karnataka. In the elevated topographical lands, extraction of underground water was a solace given by the government to protect the interest of the dry land farmers whose land did not come under the command area. Free borewell digging, pump sets, and electricity were provided. Thus, the self-sufficiency was achieved. Contrary to this, the Continuous long-term extraction of water for agriculture from bore well and in the irrigated tracks has lead to two-way effect such as soil leeching (Alkalinity and Salinity), secondly, depleted underground water to incredible deeps has pushed the natural process to an un-reparable damage which in turn the nature lost to support even a tiny plants like grass to grow, discouraging human and animal habitation, Both the process is silently turning southwestern, central, northeastern and north western regions of Karnataka into desert. The grave situation of Karnataka green revolution is addressed in this paper to alert reckless use of water and also some of the suggestions are recommended based on the ground information.

Keywords: alkalinity, desertification, green revolution, salinity, water

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28 Impact of Egypt’s Energy Demand on Oil and Gas Power Systems Environment

Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohamed

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This paper will explore the influence of energy sector in Arab Republic of Egypt which has shared its responsibilities of many environmental challenges as the second largest economy in the Middle East (after Iran). Air and water pollution, desertification, inadequate disposal of solid waste and damage to coral reefs are serious problems that influence environmental management in Egypt. The intensive reliance of high population density and strong industrial growth are wearing Egypt's resources, and the rapidly-growing population has forced Egypt to breakdown agricultural land to residential and relevant use of commercial ingestion. The depletion effects of natural resources impose the government to apply innovation techniques in emission control and focus on sustainability. The cogeneration will be presented to control thermal losses and increase efficiency of energy power system.

Keywords: cogeneration, environmental management, power electricity, energy indicators

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27 Effects of Drought and Anthropism on Vegetation and Soil Elements in the Steppe of Algeria: Case of the Station of Tadmit (Wilaya of Djelfa)

Authors: L. Benseghir, H. Kadi-Hanifi

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Vegetation of the high steppic plains of southern Algiers region has ever been used by human occupation. The harsh climatic context characterized by long periods of drought and an ovine livestock in constant growth lead us to devote a particular attention to the biodiversity of those living environment. The diachronic study made in Tadmit (50 km south of the district of Djelfa) about the specific recording led us to notice that: The floristic recording of Tadmit is not reduced in time but fluctuate, depending on the pasture intensity, the annual rainfall and especially by the protection area of the following two years from January 2004. The forming specific recording of the station undergo significant changes from a period to another. Those changes in floristic list concern nearly 50% of the initial flora that could disappear or be replaced by new species. Finally, the alfa steppe is in a marked decline and is substituted by new facies that were privileged by the overgrazing, stranding or clearance.

Keywords: overgrazing, diachronic study, protection area, climate, desertification

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26 Hominin Niche in the Times of Climate Change

Authors: Emilia Hunt, Sally C. Reynolds, Fiona Coward, Fabio Parracho Silva, Philip Hopley

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Ecological niche modeling is widely used in conservation studies, but application to the extinct hominin species is a relatively new approach. Being able to understand what ecological niches were occupied by respective hominin species provides a new perspective into influences on evolutionary processes. Niche separation or overlap can tell us more about specific requirements of the species within the given timeframe. Many of the ancestral species lived through enormous climate changes: glacial and interglacial periods, changes in rainfall, leading to desertification or flooding of regions and displayed impressive levels of adaptation necessary for their survival. This paper reviews niche modeling methodologies and their application to hominin studies. Traditional conservation methods might not be directly applicable to extinct species and are not comparable to hominins. Hominin niche also includes aspects of technologies, use of fire and extended communication, which are not traditionally used in building conservation models. Future perspectives on how to improve niche modeling for extinct hominin species will be discussed.

Keywords: hominin niche, climate change, evolution, adaptation, ecological niche modelling

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25 Environmental Issues in Construction Projects in India

Authors: Gurbir Singh Khaira, Anmoldeep Singh Kang

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Exposures to environmental pollution remain a major source of health risk throughout the world, though risks are generally higher in developing countries, where poverty, lack of investment in modern technology and weak environmental legislation combine to cause high pollution levels. This paper will tell us about the environment is threatened severely by so many problems, some of which are caused by the activities of Construction Projects. The research reveals major environmental impacts of building construction projects to include environmental pollution, resource depletion and habitat destruction causing Destruction of ecosystem, Desertification, Soil Erosion and increasing Material Wastage. Construction is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollution in the world, the level of knowledge and awareness of project participants, especially project managers, with regards to environmental impacts of construction processes needs to be enhanced. It was found that ‘Transportation Resource’, ‘Noise Pollution’, and ‘Dust Generation with Construction Machinery’ are the greatest environmental impacts in INDIA respectively. The results of this study are useful for construction managers and other participants in construction sites to become aware of construction processes impacts on the environment.

Keywords: construction projects, environmental impacts, material waste age, awareness

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24 Problems of Drought and Its Management in Yobe State, Nigeria

Authors: Hassan Gana Abdullahi, Michael A. Fullen, David Oloke

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Drought poses an enormous global threat to sustainable development and is expected to increase with global climate change. Drought and desertification are major problems in Yobe State (north-east Nigeria). This investigation aims to develop a workable framework and management tool for drought mitigation in Yobe State. Mixed methods were employed during the study and additional qualitative information was gathered through Focus Group Discussions (FGD). Data on socio-economic impacts of drought were thus collected via both questionnaire surveys and FGD. In all, 1,040 questionnaires were distributed to farmers in the State and 721 were completed, representing a return rate of 69.3%. Data analysis showed that 97.9% of respondents considered themselves to be drought victims, whilst 69.3% of the respondents were unemployed and had no other means of income, except through rain-fed farming. Developing a viable and holistic approach to drought mitigation is crucial, to arrest and hopefully reverse environment degradation. Analysed data will be used to develop an integrated framework for drought mitigation and management in Yobe State. This paper introduces the socio-economic and environmental effects of drought in Yobe State.

Keywords: drought, climate change, mitigation, management, Yobe State

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23 Environmental Refugees in Africa: A Case Study of Sahel Region

Authors: Ahlem Setrallah

Abstract:

Environment has become a phenomenon directly linked to security in recent decades. This security aspect of environment is justified by the challenges that environment problems can have on human life and thus security especially within the scope of human security that is based mainly on the individual rather than on the state. Because Africa is not safe from the global warming and all its consequences on environment, this continent has witnessed many crises related to environment and that have had direct impact on security in Africa. One of those crises is environmental displacement or immigration which was caused by natural disasters like draught, desertification and food shortage to name but a few. This paper aims at shedding light at some important cases in the Africa focusing mainly on the Sahel region. The main research questions that we are trying to answer are the following: 1-What is the relationship between environment and forced immigration in the Sahel region? 2-What is the impact of environmental immigration on Security in the region? 3-How have the states in this region reacted to this crisis? 4-Is the measures taken by those states adequate or not? 5- How to remedy for the limitations of those measures? The paper is based on case study methodology as a way to better understand the relationship between security and environment using library research for data collection and analysis. This paper aims also at presenting some suggesting regarding possible ways of reducing the negative impact of environmental immigration.

Keywords: environment, refugees, Sahel region, security

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22 The Study of the Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact on the Semi-Arid Environments Using GIS in the Eastern Aurès, Algeria

Authors: Benmessaoud Hassen

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We propose in this study to address the impact of socio-economic and environmental impact on the physical environment, especially their spatiotemporal dynamics in semi-arid and arid eastern Aurès. Including 11 municipalities, the study area spreads out over a relatively large surface area of about 60.000 ha. The hindsight is quite important and is determined by 03 days of analysis of environmental variation spread over thirty years (between 1987 and 2007). The multi-source data acquired in this context are integrated into a geographic information system (GIS).This allows, among other indices to calculate areas and classes for each thematic layer of the 4 layers previously defined by a method inspired MEDALUS (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use).The database created is composed of four layers of information (population, livestock, farming and land use). His analysis in space and time has been supplemented by a validation of the ground truth. Once the database has corrected it used to develop the comprehensive map with the calculation of the index of socio-economic and environmental (ISCE). The map supports and the resulting information does not consist only of figures on the present situation but could be used to forecast future trends.

Keywords: impact of socio-economic and environmental, spatiotemporal dynamics, semi-arid environments, GIS, Eastern Aurès

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21 Importance of Cadastral Infrastructure in Rural Development

Authors: Saban Inam, Necdet Sahiner, Tayfun Cay

Abstract:

Environmental factors such as rapid population growth, changing economic conditions, desertification and climate change increase demand for the acquisition and use of land. Demands on the land are increasing due to the lack of production of soils and scarcity. This causes disagreements on the land. Reducing the pressure on the land and protecting the natural resources, public investments should be directed economically and rationally. This will make it possible to achieve equivalent living conditions between the rural area and the urban area. Initiating the development from the rural area and the cadastre needs to be redefined to allow the management of the land. The planned, regular, effective agriculture and rural development policies that Turkey will implement in the process of European Union membership will also significantly shape Turkey's position in the European Union. For this reason, Turkey enjoys the most appropriate use of natural resources, which is one of the main objectives of the European Union's recent rural development policy. This study deals with the urgent need to provide cadastral data infrastructure that will form the basis for land management which is supposed to support economic and societal sustainable development in rural and urban areas.

Keywords: rural development, cadastre, land management, agricultural reform implementation project, land parcel identification system

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20 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze

Abstract:

Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, water consumption, water management, water resources

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19 Change Detection of Vegetative Areas Using Land Use Land Cover Derived from NDVI of Desert Encroached Areas

Authors: T. Garba, T. O. Quddus, Y. Y. Babanyara, M. A. Modibbo

Abstract:

Desertification is define as the changing of productive land into a desert as the result of ruination of land by man-induced soil erosion, which forces famers in the affected areas to move migrate or encourage into reserved areas in search of a fertile land for their farming activities. This study therefore used remote sensing imageries to determine the level of changes in the vegetative areas. To achieve that Normalized Difference of the Vegetative Index (NDVI), classified imageries and image slicing derived from landsat TM 1986, land sat ETM 1999 and Nigeria sat 1 2007 were used to determine changes in vegetations. From the Classified imageries it was discovered that there a more natural vegetation in classified images of 1986 than that of 1999 and 2007. This finding is also future in the three NDVI imageries, it was discovered that there is increased in high positive pixel value from 0.04 in 1986 to 0.22 in 1999 and to 0.32 in 2007. The figures in the three histogram also indicted that there is increased in vegetative areas from 29.15 Km2 in 1986, to 60.58 Km2 in 1999 and then to 109 Km2 in 2007. The study recommends among other things that there is need to restore natural vegetation through discouraging of farming activities in and around the natural vegetation in the study area.

Keywords: vegetative index, classified imageries, change detection, landsat, vegetation

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18 Moroccan Human Ecological Behavior: Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: Dalal Tarfaoui, Salah Zkim

Abstract:

Today, environmental sustainability is everyone’s concern as it contributes in many aspects to a country's development. Morocco is also aware of the increasing threats to its natural resources. Accordingly, many projects and research have been discussed pointing mainly to water security, pollution, desertification, and land degradation, but few studies bothered to dig into the human demeanor to disclose its ecological behavior. Human behavior is accountable for environment deterioration in the first place, but we keep fighting the symptoms instead of limiting the root causes. In the conceptual framework highlighted in the present article, semi-structured interviews have been conducted using a grounded theory approach. Initially this study will serve as a pilot study and a cornerstone to approve a bigger project now in progress. Beyond the existing general ecological measures (GEM), this study has chosen the grounded theory approach to bring out firsthand insights, and probe to which extent an ecological dimension exists in Morocco as a developing country. The discourse of the ecological behavior within the Moroccan context is seen in more realist, social, and community philosophy. The study has revealed an appreciative ecological behavior that is unfortunately repressed by variables beyond people’s control, which would prevent the people’s environmental good intentions to be translated into real ecological actions.

Keywords: ecological behavior, ecological dimension, variables beyond people’s control, Morocco

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17 Characterization of the Microbial Induced Carbonate Precipitation Technique as a Biological Cementing Agent for Sand Deposits

Authors: Sameh Abu El-Soud, Zahra Zayed, Safwan Khedr, Adel M. Belal

Abstract:

The population increase in Egypt is urging for horizontal land development which became a demand to allow the benefit of different natural resources and expand from the narrow Nile valley. However, this development is facing challenges preventing land development and agriculture development. Desertification and moving sand dunes in the west sector of Egypt are considered the major obstacle that is blocking the ideal land use and development. In the proposed research, the sandy soil is treated biologically using Bacillus pasteurii bacteria as these bacteria have the ability to bond the sand partials to change its state of loose sand to cemented sand, which reduces the moving ability of the sand dunes. The procedure of implementing the Microbial Induced Carbonate Precipitation Technique (MICP) technique is examined, and the different factors affecting on this process such as the medium of bacteria sample preparation, the optical density (OD600), the reactant concentration, injection rates and intervals are highlighted. Based on the findings of the MICP treatment for sandy soil, conclusions and future recommendations are reached.

Keywords: soil stabilization, biological treatment, microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP), sand cementation

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16 Plant Supporting Units (Ekobox) Application Project for Increasing Planting Success in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Authors: Gürcan D. Baysal, Ali Tanış

Abstract:

In this study, samples of plant types including rose hip (Rosa canina L.), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) were grown using plant supporting units called Ekobox and drip irrigation systems in the Karapınar, Konya region of Turkey to reveal the efficiency of Ekobox and drip irrigation compared against a control with no irrigation. The plant diameter, height, and survival rates were determined, compared with each other, and statistically analyzed. According to the statistical analysis of the results, Ekobox applications resulted in the highest values for survival rate, diameter, and height measurements whereas the lowest values were determined in the control groups. These results indicate that the cultivation of plants with Ekobox may help protect against the loss of fertile soils as an effective mechanism for combating erosion and desertification. These advantages may also lead to a lasting economic effect on the cultivation of plants by locals of the Karapınar, Konya province who suffer from an ever-decreasing underground water level as a result of agricultural consumption.

Keywords: drip irrigation, ekobox, plant diameter, plant height, plant survival rate

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