Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 236

Search results for: George Geladze

236 Calculation of Water Economy Balance for Water Management

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Ana Karalashvili, George Geladze, Nana Kvirkvelia

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia is rich in water resources, but there are disbalance between the eastern and western parts of the country. The goal of the study is to integrate the recent mechanisms compatible with European standards into Georgian water resources management system on the basis of GIS. Moreover, to draw up water economy balance for the purpose of proper determination of water consumption priorities that will be an exchange ratio of water resources and water consumption of the concrete territory. For study region was choose south-eastern part of country, Kvemo kartli Region. This is typical agrarian region, tends to the desertification. The water supply of the region was assessed on the basis of water economy balance, which was first time calculated for this region.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, sustainable management, water management

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235 Politicizing Literature: Henry Fielding’s the Authors Farce and George II’s Policies of Nonsense and Ignorance

Authors: Samia Al-Shayban

Abstract:

Conventionally, Fielding Author’s Farce is read as an attack on literary and theatrical establishment. This paper attempt to read it as a disguised scathing political attack upon, King George II, his court and administration. Fielding achieves his design through complex dramatization based on implicit connections between King George II and the poor poet Luckless who shifts his stand from defending the liberties of the authors into becoming one of their oppressors. Through the same connection, the king is accused of being the originator and protector of literary corruption. To strengthen the attack against the king, the court of nonsense which appeared in Luckless’ play is connected to George II’s court through the presence of opera and ignorance. Thus, Fielding’s literary dramatization is used as a medium to expose the corrupting influence of the ruling elite. The King, his court and administration are all complacent in devaluing the English theatre and turning it into a circus that generate nothing but ignorance and poverty. This practice is deliberately designed to keep people ignorant and authors poor so they remain unable to challenge their corrupt politics.

Keywords: fielding, King George II, ignorance, theatre, plays

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234 The Potential Fresh Water Resources of Georgia and Sustainable Water Management

Authors: Nana Bolashvili, Vakhtang Geladze, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, George Geladze, Davit Kartvelishvili, Ana Karalashvili

Abstract:

Fresh water is the major natural resource of Georgia. The average perennial sum of the rivers' runoff in Georgia is 52,77 km³, out of which 9,30 km³ inflows from abroad. The major volume of transit river runoff is ascribed to the Chorokhi river. Average perennial runoff in Western Georgia is 41,52 km³, in Eastern Georgia 11,25 km³. The indices of Eastern and Western Georgia were calculated with 50% and 90% river runoff respectively, while the same index calculation for other countries is based on a 50% river runoff. Out of total volume of resources, 133,2 m³/sec (4,21 km³) has been geologically prospected by the State Commission on Reserves and Acknowledged as reserves available for exploitation, 48% (2,02 km³) of which is in Western Georgia and 2,19 km³ in Eastern Georgia. Considering acknowledged water reserves of all categories per capita water resources accounts to 2,2 m³/day, whereas high industrial category -0. 88 m³ /day fresh drinking water. According to accepted norms, the possibility of using underground water reserves is 2,5 times higher than the long-term requirements of the country. The volume of abundant fresh-water reserves in Georgia is about 150 m³/sec (4,74 km³). Water in Georgia is consumed mostly in agriculture for irrigation purposes. It makes 66,4% around Georgia, in Eastern Georgia 72,4% and 38% in Western Georgia. According to the long-term forecast provision of population and the territory with water resources in Eastern Georgia will be quite normal. A bit different is the situation in the lower reaches of the Khrami and Iori rivers which could be easily overcome by corresponding financing. The present day irrigation system in Georgia does not meet the modern technical requirements. The overall efficiency of their majority varies between 0,4-0,6. Similar is the situation in the fresh water and public service water consumption. Organization of the mentioned systems, installation of water meters, introduction of new methods of irrigation without water loss will substantially increase efficiency of water use. Besides new irrigation norms developed from agro-climatic, geographical and hydrological angle will significantly reduce water waste. Taking all this into account we assume that for irrigation agricultural lands in Georgia is necessary 6,0 km³ water, 5,5 km³ of which goes to Eastern Georgia on irrigation arable areas. To increase water supply in Eastern Georgian territory and its population is possible by means of new water reservoirs as the runoff of every river considerably exceeds the consumption volume. In conclusion, we should say that fresh water resources by which Georgia is that rich could be significant source for barter exchange and investment attraction. Certain volume of fresh water can be exported from Western Georgia quite trouble free, without bringing any damage to population and hydroecosystems. The precise volume of exported water per region/time and method/place of water consumption should be defined after the estimation of different hydroecosystems and detailed analyses of water balance of the corresponding territories.

Keywords: GIS, management, rivers, water resources

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233 An Exploration of Early Cinematic Technology (1890s-1920s) and Shifting Cinematic Styles

Authors: Adam L. Miller

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The aim of this paper is to look back to the very beginning of cinematic history and explore the connection between the differing technology used, and the varying styles adopted by early filmmakers. The paper will be structured chronologically, first looking at the advances that predated Thomas Edison and his Kinetograph and Kinetogram. This paper will then explore how Edison’s technology and films varied from the Lumiere brothers and their Cinematograph. Finally, the paper will go on to draw parallels and differences between French filmmakers such as Alice Guy and George Melies, and American filmmakers like Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith.

Keywords: film studies, early cinema, silent cinema, early cinematic technology, Thomas Edison, Alice Guy, George Melies, Edwin S. Porter, Lumiere brothers, D. W. Griffith

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232 Ideological and Poetological Tensions: Wu Mi’s Enterprise of Imitating and Translating George Gordon Byron

Authors: Hanjin Yan

Abstract:

The English Romantic George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) was widely celebrated by men of letters in early republican China as a Satanic freedom fighter challenging classical poetics and traditional values. However, Wu Mi (1894-1978), the most persistent critic of contemporary iconoclasm, perceived Byron as a paragon of self-righteous poet-exiles who maintained moral integrity and achieved poetic excellence during times of frustration, just like canonized classical Chinese poets. Wu Mi not only composed lengthy imitations of the third canto of Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1816) but also patronized a rendering of the canto. Taking André Lefevere’s rewriting theory as a framework, this paper explores the interplay of ideology and poetics by examining Wu Mi’s imitations against Byron’s original and its Chinese translation patronized by Wu Mi. Textual analysis shows that Wu Mi’s approach to Byron’s poetry was informed not only by his endeavor to invigorate classical Chinese poetics, but also by his program to preserve China’s cultural traditions and integrate Western new humanism, a theory proposed by his Harvard mentor Irving Babbitt (1865-1933). This study reveals how Byron was appropriated to serve conflicting poetic and ideological purposes in early republican China and suggests that imitation as a type of rewriting merits further attention.

Keywords: George Gordon Byron, ideology, imitation, poetics, translation

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231 Spatial Comparative Analysis on Travels of Mackay in Taiwan

Authors: Shao-Chi Chien, Ying-Ju Chen, Chiao-Yu Tseng, Wan-Ting Lee, Yi-Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Dr. George Leslie Mackay arrived at Takoukang (now Port of Kaohsiung) in Taiwan on December 30, 1871. When Dr. Mackay dedicated at Taiwan for 30 years, he has been an important factor in such areas as preaching, medical and engaged in education. Many researchers have thoroughly studied Dr. Mackay's travels to understand his impact on the state of education, medicine and religion in Taiwan. In the 30-year period of hard work, Dr. Mackay's made outstanding influence on the church in Taiwan. Therefore, the present study will be the mission of the establishment of hospitals, schools, churches which preaching, education, and medicine whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. According to The Diaries of George Leslie Mackay, our research uses the Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the location of Dr. Mackay's travel in Taiwan and compares it with today's local churches, hospitals, and schools whether there are related the number of comparisons to explore. Therefore, our research focuses on the whole of Taiwan, divided into missionary, medical and education as the main content of the three major parts. Additionally, use of point layer, the surface layer of the property table to establish, in-depth mission of Dr. Mackay's development in Taiwan and Today's comparison. The results will be based on the classification of three different colors pictures that the distance of Mackay's contribution of preaching, medicine, and education. Our research will be compared with the current churches, hospitals, schools and the past churches, hospitals, schools. The results of the present study will provide a reference for future research.

Keywords: George Leslie Mackay, geographic information system, spatial distribution, color categories analysis

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230 Patronage Network and Ideological Manipulations in Translation of Literary Texts: A Case Study of George Orwell's “1984” in Persian Translation in the Period 1980 to 2015

Authors: Masoud Hassanzade Novin, Bahloul Salmani

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The process of the translation is not merely the linguistic aspects. It is also considered in the cultural framework of both the source and target text cultures. The translation process and translated texts are confronted the new aspect in 20th century which is considered mostly in the patronage framework and ideological grillwork of the target language. To have these factors scrutinized in the process of the translation both micro-element factors and macro-element factors can be taken into consideration. For the purpose of this study through a qualitative type of research based on critical discourse analysis approach, the case study of the novel “1984” written by George Orwell was chosen as the corpus of the study to have the contrastive analysis by its Persian translated texts. Results of the study revealed some distortions embedded in the target texts which were overshadowed by ideological aspect and patronage network. The outcomes of the manipulated terms were different in various categories which revealed the manipulation aspects in the texts translated.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, ideology, patronage network, translated texts

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229 Ecosystem Post-Wildfires Effects of Thasos Island

Authors: George D. Ranis, Valasia Iakovoglou, George N. Zaimes

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Fires are one of the main types of disturbances that shape ecosystems in the Mediterranean region. However nowadays, climate alterations towards higher temperature regimes results on the increased levels of the intensity, frequency and the spread of fires inducing obstacles for the natural regeneration. Thasos Island is one of the Greek islands that have experienced those problems. Since 1984, a series of wildfires led to the reduction of forest cover from 61.6% to almost 20%. The negative impacts were devastating in many different aspects for the island. The absence of plant cover, post-wildfire precipitation and steep slopes were the major factors that induced severe soil erosion and intense flooding events. That also resulted to serious economic problems to the local communities and the ability of the burnt areas to regenerate naturally. Despite the substantial amount of published work regarding Thasos wildfires, there is no information related to post-wildfire effects on the hydrology and soil erosion. More research related to post-fire effects should help to an overall assessment of the negative impacts of wildfires on land degradation through processes such as soil erosion and flooding.

Keywords: erosion, land degradation, Mediterranean islands, regeneration, Thasos, wildfires

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228 Postmodernism and Metanarrative: Deconstruction of Narrative in a Song of Ice and Fire Fantasy TV Series

Authors: Narjes Azimi

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It has been a while that narrative and storytelling turned to be the inevitable part of media. The narrative has so many aspects and among those entire aspects, the fantasy genre is consciously challenging one as fantasy readers are used to reading narratives like good versus evil plot. This paper will analyze the ASOIF TV series as a Meta narrative cultural production that deconstructs the elements of a traditional narrative. This study will shade on a grand narrative perspective from poststructuralism point of view. The theoretical framework is structuralism and post structuralism. Lyotard and Barthes are two main poststructuralists and focus of the study. Lyotard grand narrative elements will analyze in this research study. Fantasy genre generated a number of outstanding authors that explore innovative perspectives. Among all these leading authors George R.R Martin is one of the best. George R. R. Martin’s Fantasy a Song of Ice and Fire picturized the brutal world that seven kingdoms struggling for the power. Since 2011 this production has been followed and watched by millions of audiences all around the world. The methodology is the textual analysis of selected scenes. Martin’s distinctive fantasy style which makes it different from other fantasies, yet this shift does not negate how the previous fantasy writers represent the mentioned concepts of war, and etc., but Martin’ fantasy and left the mature audiences full of uncertainty.

Keywords: narrative theory, metanarrative, deconstruction, post-structuralism, Lyotard, Barthes

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227 Enhancing Cooperation Between LEAs and Citizens: The INSPEC2T Approach

Authors: George Leventakis, George Kokkinis, Nikos Moustakidis, George Papalexandratos, Ioanna Vasiliadou

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Enhancing the feeling of public safety and crime prevention are tasks customarily assigned to the Police. Police departments have, however, recognized that traditional ways of policing methods are becoming obsolete; Community Policing (CP) philosophy; however, when applied appropriately, leads to seamless collaboration between various stakeholders like the Police, NGOs and the general public and provides the opportunity to identify risks, assist in solving problems of crime, disorder, safety and crucially contribute to improving the quality of life for everyone in a community. Social Media, on the other hand, due to its high level of infiltration in modern life, constitutes a powerful mechanism which offers additional and direct communication channels to reach individuals or communities. These channels can be utilized to improve the citizens’ perception of the Police and to capture individual and community needs, when their feedback is taken into account by Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) in a structured and coordinated manner. This paper presents research conducted under INSPEC2T (Inspiring CitizeNS Participation for Enhanced Community PoliCing AcTions), a project funded by the European Commission’s research agenda to bridge the gap between CP as a philosophy and as an organizational strategy, capitalizing on the use of Social Media. The project aims to increase transparency, trust, police accountability, and the role of civil society. It aspires to build strong, trusting relationships between LEAs and the public, supporting two-way, contemporary communication while at the same time respecting anonymity of all affected parties. Results presented herein summarize the outcomes of four online multilingual surveys, focus group interviews, desktop research and interviews with experts in the field of CP practices. The above research activities were conducted in various EU countries aiming to capture requirements of end users from diverse backgrounds (social, cultural, legal and ethical) and determine public expectations regarding CP, community safety and crime prevention.

Keywords: community partnerships, next generation community policing, social media, public safety

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226 Vitrification and Devitrification of Chromium Containing Tannery Ash

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Kaimakamis, Eleni Pavlidou, George Vourlias, Konstantinos Chrysafis, Philomela Komninou, Theodoros Karakostas

Abstract:

Tannery industry produces high quantities of chromium containing waste which also have high organic content. Processing of this waste is important since the organic content is above the disposal limits and the containing trivalent chromium could be potentially oxidized to hexavalent in the environment. This work aims to fabricate new vitreous and glass ceramic materials which could incorporate the tannery waste in stabilized form either for safe disposal or for the production of useful materials. Tannery waste was incinerated at 500oC in anoxic conditions so most of the organic content would be removed and the chromium remained trivalent. Glass forming agents SiO2, Na2O and CaO were mixed with the resulting ash in different proportions with decreasing ash content. Considering the low solubility of Cr in silicate melts, the mixtures were melted at 1400oC and/or 1500oC for 2h and then casted on a refractory steel plate. The resulting vitreous products were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM). XRD reveals the existence of Cr2O3 (eskolaite) crystallites embedded in a glassy amorphous matrix. Such crystallites are not formed under a certain proportion of the waste in the ash-vitrified material. Reduction of the ash proportion increases chromium content in the silicate matrix. From these glassy products, glass-ceramics were produced via different regimes of thermal treatment.

Keywords: chromium containing tannery ash, glass ceramic materials, thermal processing, vitrification

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225 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze

Abstract:

Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, water consumption, water management, water resources

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224 Geographical Information System for Sustainable Management of Water Resources

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Nino Machavariani, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Chikhradze, Davit Kartvelishvili

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. In the countries with scarce water resources, they often become a reason of armed conflicts. The peaceful settlement of relations connected with management and water consumption issues within and beyond the frontiers of the country is an important guarantee of the region stability. The said problem is urgent in Georgia as well because of its water objects are located at the borders and the transit run-off that is 12% of the total one. Fresh water resources are the major natural resources of Georgia. Despite of this, water supply of population at its Eastern part is an acute issue. Southeastern part of the country has been selected to carry out the research. This region is notable for deficiency of water resources in the country. The region tends to desertification which aggravates fresh water problem even more and presumably may lead to migration of local population from the area. The purpose of study was creation geographical information system (GIS) of water resources. GIS contains almost all layers of different content (water resources, springs, channels, hydrological stations, population water supply, etc.). The results of work provide an opportunity to identify the resource potential of the mentioned region, control and manage it, carry out monitoring and plan regional economy.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, irrigation, water resources

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223 Contrast-to-Noise Ratio Comparison of Different Calcification Types in Dual Energy Breast Imaging

Authors: Vaia N. Koukou, Niki D. Martini, George P. Fountos, Christos M. Michail, Athanasios Bakas, Ioannis S. Kandarakis, George C. Nikiforidis

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Various substitute materials of calcifications are used in phantom measurements and simulation studies in mammography. These include calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminum. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values of the different calcification types using the dual energy method. The constructed calcification phantom consisted of three different calcification types and thicknesses: hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate of 100, 200, 300 thicknesses. The breast tissue equivalent materials were polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate slabs simulating adipose tissue and glandular tissue, respectively. The total thickness was 4.2 cm with 50% fixed glandularity. The low- (LE) and high-energy (HE) images were obtained from a tungsten anode using 40 kV filtered with 0.1 mm cadmium and 70 kV filtered with 1 mm copper, respectively. A high resolution complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) X-ray detector was used. The total mean glandular dose (MGD) and entrance surface dose (ESD) from the LE and HE images were constrained to typical levels (MGD=1.62 mGy and ESD=1.92 mGy). On average, the CNR of hydroxyapatite calcifications was 1.4 times that of calcite calcifications and 2.5 times that of calcium oxalate calcifications. The higher CNR values of hydroxyapatite are attributed to its attenuation properties compared to the other calcification materials, leading to higher contrast in the dual energy image. This work was supported by Grant Ε.040 from the Research Committee of the University of Patras (Programme K. Karatheodori).

Keywords: calcification materials, CNR, dual energy, X-rays

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222 Liver Histopathological Findings after Treatment with Anastrazole and Letrozole in Ovariectomized Rats

Authors: Ioannis Boutas, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Nicolaos Salakos, George Agrogiannis, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Theodoros Kalampokas, Odysseas Gregoriou, George Creatsas, Despina Perrea

Abstract:

Introduction: The effect of third generation aromatase inhibitors in the lipid profile among women with breast cancer, present diversities. It has been also shown that low levels of estrogens affect liver metabolism in mice in numerous ways, such as lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five female Wistar rats underwent surgical ovariectomy. The animals were anesthetized with a combination of ketamine (75 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) which were administered intraperitoneally. After the ovariectomy, the operated animals were randomized in three groups. The first group did not receive any drug regimen (ovariectomized control group). The second group received Anastrazole and the third group received Letrozole. Four months after the initiation of the study, the animals were euthanized and livers were dissected immediately for further histopathological analysis. The histological features were grouped into 4 broad categories: steatosis, ballooning, portal inflammation and lobular activity. A score from 0 (absence) to 3 (severe) was assigned to each parameter. Results: The liver pathology analysis revealed significant differences among groups with favored mild steatosis and ballooning among animals that received Anastrazole or Letrozole. Conclusion: The effect of Anastrazole and Letrozole on liver function have not yet been clarified. In our study mild histological liver alterations seem also to occur and these alterations should be taken in mind in future clinical studies

Keywords: anastrazole, letrozole, liver, rats

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221 Oak Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) and Galls Form Recorded from Georgia

Authors: Marine Nozadze, George Japoshvili, George Melika

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In 2020-2021 we studied oaks gall wasps of different oak species in Georgia at 7 locations of their natural distribution: 1. Quercuse petrea subsp. iberica - Mtskheta municipality, village. Mukhattskaro; 2. Quercus subsp. pendunculifloria - Kvareli municipality, village. Gramy;3. Quercus robur subsp. imeretina -Baghdati Municipality, Ajameti Reserve; 4. Quercus pontica -Chokhatauri municipality, village. Tskhratskaro; 5. Quercus macranthera -Tetritskaro Municipality, Algeti National Park; 6. Quercuse petrea subsp. iberica - Shuakhevi municipality, village. Uchamba 7. Quercus hartwissiana - Baghdatis municipality, village. Dimi. Samples were collected from early spring to late autumn. As a result, 7 forms of galls were collected and described wich caused by different species of oak gall wasps: 1. Neuroterus numismalis asexual gall 2. Neuroterus quercusbaccarum asexual galls 3. Cynips korsakovi asexual gall 4. Biorhiza pallida sexual gall 5. Neuroterus quercusbaccarum asexual galls 6. Neuroterus numismalis sexual gall 7. Cynips quercusfolii. Neuroterus quercusbaccarum asexual galls form the most represented of them: In Algeti National Park; In Mtskheta municipality; In Shuakhevi municipality and Ajameti reserve. The most damaged locations by oak gall wasps were Algeti National Park and Mtskheta Municipality, whereas the most biodiversity according to galls form was represented In Algeti National Park.

Keywords: gall wasps, oak, cynipidae, species

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220 Refining Scheme Using Amphibious Epistemologies

Authors: David Blaine, George Raschbaum

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The evaluation of DHCP has synthesized SCSI disks, and current trends suggest that the exploration of e-business that would allow for further study into robots will soon emerge. Given the current status of embedded algorithms, hackers worldwide obviously desire the exploration of replication, which embodies the confusing principles of programming languages. In our research we concentrate our efforts on arguing that erasure coding can be made "fuzzy", encrypted, and game-theoretic.

Keywords: SCHI disks, robot, algorithm, hacking, programming language

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219 Heritage Landmark of Penang: Segara Ninda, a Mix of Culture

Authors: Normah Sulaiman, Yong Zhi Kang, Nor Hayati Hussain, Abdul Rehman Khalid

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Segara Ninda owned by Din Ku Meh, the governor of the province Satul, a Malay man with a big role liaising with Thailand. This mansion is part of the legacy he left behind among other properties in George Town, Penang, besides his family. The island’s geographical location is strategic which has benefitted it through important trade routes for Europe, Middle, East, India, and China in the past. Due to this reasoning, various architectural styles were introduced in Penang; Late Straits Eclectic style is one of the forms of the Colonial Architectural style widely spread as vernacular shophouses in George Town. Segara Ninda is located among the mixture of nouveau-riche, historical and heritage sites at the most important street; Penang Road, which dated back to the late 18th century. This paper examines the strait eclectic style that Segara Ninda encompasses. Acknowledging the mixture of colonial architecture in Georgetown, we argue that the mansion faces challenging issues in conservation processes to be vindicated. This is reflected by analysing the spatial layout, visual elements quality, and its activity through interviews with the occupants of the mansion. The focus will be on the understanding of building form, features, and functions; respecting the architectural spaces and their activity. The methodology applied is to promote our understanding of the mix of culture that the mansion holds through documentation, observation and measuring exercises. This offers a positional interpretation of the mix of culture that the mansion holds. This conservation effort will further contribute exposure to the public and recognize it in the society as its essence is a deficiency character to the existing built environment.

Keywords: eclectic, heritage, spatial organization, culture

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218 Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations

Authors: Kyriaki G. Giota, George Kleftaras

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The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media presents to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.

Keywords: social media, counseling, risks, ethics

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217 Bubble Scrum: How to Run in Organizations That Only Know How to Walk

Authors: Zaheer A. Ali, George Szabo

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SCRUM has roots in software and web development and works very well on that in that space. However, any technical person who has watched a typical waterfall managed project spiral out of control or into an abyss, has thought: "there must be a better way". I will discuss how that thought leads naturally to adopting Agile principles and SCRUM, as well as how Agile and SCRUM can be implemented in large institutions with long histories via a method I developed: Bubble Scrum. We will also see how SCRUM can be implemented in interesting places outside of the technical sphere and also discuss where and how to subtly bring Agility and SCRUM into large, rigid, institutions.

Keywords: agile, enterprise-agile, agile at scale, agile transition, project management, scrum

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216 Comparison of Monte Carlo Simulations and Experimental Results for the Measurement of Complex DNA Damage Induced by Ionizing Radiations of Different Quality

Authors: Ifigeneia V. Mavragani, Zacharenia Nikitaki, George Kalantzis, George Iliakis, Alexandros G. Georgakilas

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Complex DNA damage consisting of a combination of DNA lesions, such as Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and non-DSB base lesions occurring in a small volume is considered as one of the most important biological endpoints regarding ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Strong theoretical (Monte Carlo simulations) and experimental evidence suggests an increment of the complexity of DNA damage and therefore repair resistance with increasing linear energy transfer (LET). Experimental detection of complex (clustered) DNA damage is often associated with technical deficiencies limiting its measurement, especially in cellular or tissue systems. Our groups have recently made significant improvements towards the identification of key parameters relating to the efficient detection of complex DSBs and non-DSBs in human cellular systems exposed to IR of varying quality (γ-, X-rays 0.3-1 keV/μm, α-particles 116 keV/μm and 36Ar ions 270 keV/μm). The induction and processing of DSB and non-DSB-oxidative clusters were measured using adaptations of immunofluorescence (γH2AX or 53PB1 foci staining as DSB probes and human repair enzymes OGG1 or APE1 as probes for oxidized purines and abasic sites respectively). In the current study, Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) values for DSB and non-DSB induction have been measured in different human normal (FEP18-11-T1) and cancerous cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, A549, MO59K/J). The experimental results are compared to simulation data obtained using a validated microdosimetric fast Monte Carlo DNA Damage Simulation code (MCDS). Moreover, this simulation approach is implemented in two realistic clinical cases, i.e. prostate cancer treatment using X-rays generated by a linear accelerator and a pediatric osteosarcoma case using a 200.6 MeV proton pencil beam. RBE values for complex DNA damage induction are calculated for the tumor areas. These results reveal a disparity between theory and experiment and underline the necessity for implementing highly precise and more efficient experimental and simulation approaches.

Keywords: complex DNA damage, DNA damage simulation, protons, radiotherapy

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215 Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications

Authors: George Eduful, Kingsford J. A. Atanga

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Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce the high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.

Keywords: copper clad steel wire, conductivity, grounding, skin effect

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214 Effect of Varying Zener-Hollomon Parameter (Temperature and Flow Stress) and Stress Relaxation on Creep Response of Hot Deformed AA3104 Can Body Stock

Authors: Oyindamola Kayode, Sarah George, Roberto Borrageiro, Mike Shirran

Abstract:

A phenomenon identified by our industrial partner has experienced sag on AA3104 can body stock (CBS) transfer bar during transportation of the slab from the breakdown mill to the finishing mill. Excessive sag results in bottom scuffing of the slab onto the roller table, resulting in surface defects on the final product. It has been found that increasing the strain rate on the breakdown mill final pass results in a slab resistant to sag. The creep response for materials hot deformed at different Zener–Holloman parameter values needs to be evaluated experimentally to gain better understanding of the operating mechanism. This study investigates this identified phenomenon through laboratory simulation of the breakdown mill conditions for various strain rates by utilizing the Gleeble at UCT Centre for Materials Engineering. The experiment will determine the creep response for a range of conditions as well as quantifying the associated material microstructure (sub-grain size, grain structure etc). The experimental matrices were determined based on experimental conditions approximate to industrial hot breakdown rolling and carried out on the Gleeble 3800 at the Centre for Materials Engineering, University of Cape Town. Plane strain compression samples were used for this series of tests at an applied load that allow for better contact and exaggerated creep displacement. A tantalum barrier layer was used for increased conductivity and decreased risk of anvil welding. One set of tests with no in-situ hold time was performed, where the samples were quenched after deformation. The samples were retained for microstructure analysis of the micrographs from the light microscopy (LM), quantitative data and images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), sub-grain size and grain structure from electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD).

Keywords: aluminium alloy, can-body stock, hot rolling, creep response, Zener-Hollomon parameter

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213 Analysis of Ferroresonant Overvoltages in Cable-fed Transformers

Authors: George Eduful, Ebenezer A. Jackson, Kingsford A. Atanga

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impacts of cable length and capacity of transformer on ferroresonant overvoltage in cable-fed transformers. The study was conducted by simulation using the EMTP RV. Results show that ferroresonance can cause dangerous overvoltages ranging from 2 to 5 per unit. These overvoltages impose stress on insulations of transformers and cables and subsequently result in system failures. Undertaking Basic Multiple Regression Analysis (BMR) on the results obtained, a statistical model was obtained in terms of cable length and transformer capacity. The model is useful for ferroresonant prediction and control in cable-fed transformers.

Keywords: ferroresonance, cable-fed transformers, EMTP RV, regression analysis

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212 Formulation of a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria for National Bridges in the National Capital Region Affected by the West Valley Fault Using GIS Data Integration

Authors: George Mariano Soriano

Abstract:

In this study, a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria was formulated by integrating various existing maps and databases by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) software, the above-mentioned maps and databases were used in extracting seismic hazard parameters and bridge vulnerability characteristics in order to rank the seismic damage risk rating of bridges in the National Capital Region.

Keywords: bridge, earthquake, GIS, hazard, risk, vulnerability

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211 Computational Approach to the Interaction of Neurotoxins and Kv1.3 Channel

Authors: Janneth González, George Barreto, Ludis Morales, Angélica Sabogal

Abstract:

Sea anemone neurotoxins are peptides that interact with Na+ and K+ channels, resulting in specific alterations on their functions. Some of these neurotoxins (1ROO, 1BGK, 2K9E, 1BEI) are important for the treatment of nearly eighty autoimmune disorders due to their specificity for Kv1.3 channel. The aim of this study was to identify the common residues among these neurotoxins by computational methods, and establish whether there is a pattern useful for the future generation of a treatment for autoimmune diseases. Our results showed eight new key common residues between the studied neurotoxins interacting with a histidine ring and the selectivity filter of the receptor, thus showing a possible pattern of interaction. This knowledge may serve as an input for the design of more promising drugs for autoimmune treatments.

Keywords: neurotoxins, potassium channel, Kv1.3, computational methods, autoimmune diseases

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210 Overall Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Kenya

Authors: George Ogono Muok, N. Obange, S. A. Odhiambo

Abstract:

Empirical literature on the determinants of foreign direct investments (FDI) flows is extensive but controversial over some determinants of FDI in-flows in developing countries. The objective of this study therefore was to investigate the overall determinants of FDI inflows in Kenya. Dynamic macroeconomic theory and correlational study design provided theoretical framework for specification of a time series model. The study used data observed from 1970 to 2015 in World Development Indicators (WDI) data bank. The results show that annual growth rate of GDP, inflation rates and external debt as a proportion of GDP are significant determinants of FDI inflows in Kenya and are therefore important macroeconomic parameters for policy formulation for promotion of FDI inflows in Kenya.

Keywords: determinants of foreign, direct, investment inflows in, Kenya, Africa

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209 The Effects of the Inference Process in Reading Texts in Arabic

Authors: May George

Abstract:

Inference plays an important role in the learning process and it can lead to a rapid acquisition of a second language. When learning a non-native language, i.e., a critical language like Arabic, the students depend on the teacher’s support most of the time to learn new concepts. The students focus on memorizing the new vocabulary and stress on learning all the grammatical rules. Hence, the students became mechanical and cannot produce the language easily. As a result, they are unable to predict the meaning of words in the context by relying heavily on the teacher, in that they cannot link their prior knowledge or even identify the meaning of the words without the support of the teacher. This study explores how the teacher guides students learning during the inference process and what are the processes of learning that can direct student’s inference.

Keywords: inference, reading, Arabic, language acquisition

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208 Optimization of Human Hair Concentration for a Natural Rubber Based Composite

Authors: Richu J. Babu, Sony Mathew, Sharon Rony Jacob, Soney C. George, Jibin C. Jacob

Abstract:

Human hair is a non-biodegradable waste available in plenty throughout the world but is rarely explored for applications in engineering fields. Tensile strength of human hair ranges from 170 to 220 MPa. This property of human hair can be made use in the field of making bio-composites[1]. The composite is prepared by commixing the human hair and natural rubber in a two roll mill along with additives followed by vulcanization. Here the concentration of the human hair is varied by fine-tuning the fiber length as 20 mm and sundry tests like tensile, abrasion, tear and hardness were conducted. While incrementing the fiber length up to a certain range the mechanical properties shows superior amendments.

Keywords: human hair, natural rubber, composite, vulcanization, fiber loading

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207 Investigation of Riders' Path on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Lemonakis Panagiotis, Eliou Nikos, Karakasidis Theodoros, Botzoris George

Abstract:

It is well known that trajectory along with speed are two of the most important contributing factors in road accidents. Trajectory is meant as the "line“, usually different from the center-line that a driver traverses through horizontal curves which depends on the characteristics of the road environment (especially the curvature), the vehicle and the driver himself. Drivers and especially riders, tend to broaden their paths in order to succeed greater path radiuses and hence, reduce the applied centrifugal force enhancing safety. The objective of the present research is to investigate riders’ path on horizontal curves. Within the context of the research, field measurements were conducted on a rural two lane highway, with the participation of eight riders and the use of an instrumented motorcycle. The research has shown that the trajectory of the riders is correlated to the radius and the length of the horizontal curve as well.

Keywords: trajectory, path, riders, horizontal curves

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