Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Davit Kartvelishvili

10 Imperial/Royal Renewal in Byzantium and Medieval Georgia: Case of Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and Davit IV the Builder (r. 1089–1125)

Authors: Sandro Nikolaishvili

Abstract:

The end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century was a transitional period for the Byzantine empire as well as for the Caucasus. The empire was struggling for its survival under Alexios I Komnenos while Medieval Georgia was emerging as a dominant player in the Caucasus under Davit IV the Builder. The reigns of these two rulers were periods of renewal and transformation. I aim to compare the imperial image of Alexios I Komnenos with the renewed kingship ideology under Davit IV. I will hypothesize about the possible translation of the Byzantine political culture into the Medieval Georgia.

Keywords: Byzantium, Georgia, imperial, image

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9 Geographical Information System for Sustainable Management of Water Resources

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Nino Machavariani, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Chikhradze, Davit Kartvelishvili

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. In the countries with scarce water resources, they often become a reason of armed conflicts. The peaceful settlement of relations connected with management and water consumption issues within and beyond the frontiers of the country is an important guarantee of the region stability. The said problem is urgent in Georgia as well because of its water objects are located at the borders and the transit run-off that is 12% of the total one. Fresh water resources are the major natural resources of Georgia. Despite of this, water supply of population at its Eastern part is an acute issue. Southeastern part of the country has been selected to carry out the research. This region is notable for deficiency of water resources in the country. The region tends to desertification which aggravates fresh water problem even more and presumably may lead to migration of local population from the area. The purpose of study was creation geographical information system (GIS) of water resources. GIS contains almost all layers of different content (water resources, springs, channels, hydrological stations, population water supply, etc.). The results of work provide an opportunity to identify the resource potential of the mentioned region, control and manage it, carry out monitoring and plan regional economy.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, irrigation, water resources

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8 The Potential Fresh Water Resources of Georgia and Sustainable Water Management

Authors: Nana Bolashvili, Vakhtang Geladze, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, George Geladze, Davit Kartvelishvili, Ana Karalashvili

Abstract:

Fresh water is the major natural resource of Georgia. The average perennial sum of the rivers' runoff in Georgia is 52,77 km³, out of which 9,30 km³ inflows from abroad. The major volume of transit river runoff is ascribed to the Chorokhi river. Average perennial runoff in Western Georgia is 41,52 km³, in Eastern Georgia 11,25 km³. The indices of Eastern and Western Georgia were calculated with 50% and 90% river runoff respectively, while the same index calculation for other countries is based on a 50% river runoff. Out of total volume of resources, 133,2 m³/sec (4,21 km³) has been geologically prospected by the State Commission on Reserves and Acknowledged as reserves available for exploitation, 48% (2,02 km³) of which is in Western Georgia and 2,19 km³ in Eastern Georgia. Considering acknowledged water reserves of all categories per capita water resources accounts to 2,2 m³/day, whereas high industrial category -0. 88 m³ /day fresh drinking water. According to accepted norms, the possibility of using underground water reserves is 2,5 times higher than the long-term requirements of the country. The volume of abundant fresh-water reserves in Georgia is about 150 m³/sec (4,74 km³). Water in Georgia is consumed mostly in agriculture for irrigation purposes. It makes 66,4% around Georgia, in Eastern Georgia 72,4% and 38% in Western Georgia. According to the long-term forecast provision of population and the territory with water resources in Eastern Georgia will be quite normal. A bit different is the situation in the lower reaches of the Khrami and Iori rivers which could be easily overcome by corresponding financing. The present day irrigation system in Georgia does not meet the modern technical requirements. The overall efficiency of their majority varies between 0,4-0,6. Similar is the situation in the fresh water and public service water consumption. Organization of the mentioned systems, installation of water meters, introduction of new methods of irrigation without water loss will substantially increase efficiency of water use. Besides new irrigation norms developed from agro-climatic, geographical and hydrological angle will significantly reduce water waste. Taking all this into account we assume that for irrigation agricultural lands in Georgia is necessary 6,0 km³ water, 5,5 km³ of which goes to Eastern Georgia on irrigation arable areas. To increase water supply in Eastern Georgian territory and its population is possible by means of new water reservoirs as the runoff of every river considerably exceeds the consumption volume. In conclusion, we should say that fresh water resources by which Georgia is that rich could be significant source for barter exchange and investment attraction. Certain volume of fresh water can be exported from Western Georgia quite trouble free, without bringing any damage to population and hydroecosystems. The precise volume of exported water per region/time and method/place of water consumption should be defined after the estimation of different hydroecosystems and detailed analyses of water balance of the corresponding territories.

Keywords: GIS, management, rivers, water resources

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7 The Platform for Digitization of Georgian Documents

Authors: Erekle Magradze, Davit Soselia, Levan Shughliashvili, Irakli Koberidze, Shota Tsiskaridze, Victor Kakhniashvili, Tamar Chaghiashvili

Abstract:

Since the beginning of active publishing activity in Georgia, voluminous printed material has been accumulated, the digitization of which is an important task. Digitized materials will be available to the audience, and it will be possible to find text in them and conduct various factual research. Digitizing scanned documents means scanning documents, extracting text from the scanned documents, and processing the text into a corresponding language model to detect inaccuracies and grammatical errors. Implementing these stages requires a unified, scalable, and automated platform, where the digital service developed for each stage will perform the task assigned to it; at the same time, it will be possible to develop these services dynamically so that there is no interruption in the work of the platform.

Keywords: NLP, OCR, BERT, Kubernetes, transformers

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6 On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit

Authors: Ararat Khachatryan, Davit Mirzoyan

Abstract:

In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.

Keywords: aging effect, HCI, NBTI, nanoscale

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5 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation

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4 Review of Current Literature on Use of Prazosin for Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Related Sleep Disturbances in Child and Adolescent Population

Authors: Davit Khachatryan, Shuo Xiang

Abstract:

Numerous published studies on the use of prazosin in the treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbances in adult population have resulted in updates to the recommendation for prazosin for nightmares that showed its strength of evidence elevated from C to B in the US Department of Veterans Affairs clinical practice guideline. In addition, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline gave prazosin a level-A recommendation for the treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature for prazosin use for nightmares and other sleep disturbances in children and adolescents with PTSD. Method: A comprehensive search for studies on prazosin use for sleep disturbances in child and adolescent population with PTSD has been performed. We looked at MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Results: Compared to adult population with similar psychopathology, the available literature in child and adolescent population is scarce. Despite increased interest in prazosin in the management of PTSD, only six studies investigating this medication in children and adolescents have been published. Conclusion: A large randomized control trial on this topic is needed for more definite evidence on the efficacy and safety of prazosin in the treatment of nightmares in children and adolescents with PTSD.

Keywords: guidelines, prazosin, PTSD, sleep disturbance

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3 Symbolic Partial Differential Equations Analysis Using Mathematica

Authors: Davit Shahnazaryan, Diogo Gomes, Mher Safaryan

Abstract:

Many symbolic computations and manipulations required in the analysis of partial differential equations (PDE) or systems of PDEs are tedious and error-prone. These computations arise when determining conservation laws, entropies or integral identities, which are essential tools for the study of PDEs. Here, we discuss a new Mathematica package for the symbolic analysis of PDEs that automate multiple tasks, saving time and effort. Methodologies: During the research, we have used concepts of linear algebra and partial differential equations. We have been working on creating algorithms based on theoretical mathematics to find results mentioned below. Major Findings: Our package provides the following functionalities; finding symmetry group of different PDE systems, generation of polynomials invariant with respect to different symmetry groups; simplification of integral quantities by integration by parts and null Lagrangian cleaning, computing general forms of expressions by integration by parts; finding equivalent forms of an integral expression that are simpler or more symmetric form; determining necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficients for the positivity of a given symbolic expression. Conclusion: Using this package, we can simplify integral identities, find conserved and dissipated quantities of time-dependent PDE or system of PDEs. Some examples in the theory of mean-field games and semiconductor equations are discussed.

Keywords: partial differential equations, symbolic computation, conserved and dissipated quantities, mathematica

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2 On the Lithology of Paleocene-Lower Eocene Deposits of the Achara-Trialeti Fold Zone: The Lesser Caucasus

Authors: Nino Kobakhidze, Endi Varsimashvili, Davit Makadze

Abstract:

The Caucasus is a link of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belt and involves the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus fold systems and the Intermountain area. The study object is located within the northernmost part of the Lesser Caucasus orogen, in the eastern part of Achara-Trialeti fold -thrust belt. This area was rather well surveyed in 70th of the twentieth century in terms of oil-and-gas potential, but to our best knowledge, detailed sedimentological studies have not been conducted so far. In order to fill this gap, the authors of the present thesis started research in this direction. One of the objects selected for the research was the deposits of the Kavtura river valley situated on the northern slope of the Trialeti ridge. Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits known in scientific literature as ‘Borjomi Flysch’ (Turbidites) are exposed in the mentioned area. During the research, the following methodologies were applied: selection of key cross sections, a collection of rock samples, microscopic description of thin sections, mineralogical and petrological analysis of material and identification of trace fossils. The study of Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits starts with Kavtura river valley in the east, where they are well characterized by microfauna. The cross-section of the deposits starts with Danian variegated marlstone conformably overlain by the alternation of thick and thin-bedded sandstones (thickness 40-50 cm). They are continued with interbedded of thin-bedded sandstones and shales(thickness 4-5 m). On the sole surface of sandstones ichnogenera ‘Helmintopsis’ and ‘Scolicia’ are recorded and within the bed –‘Chondrites’ is found. Towards the Riverhead, there is a 1-2 m gap in sedimentation; then again the Paleocene-Lower Eocene sediments crop out. They starting with alternation of grey-green medium-grained sandstones and shales enclosing dark color plant detritus. They are overlain by the interbedded of calcareous sandstones and marls, where the thickness of sandstones is variable (20-70 cm). Ichnogenus – ‘Scolicia’ is found here. Upwards the above-mentioned deposits pass into Middle Eocenian volcanogenic-sedimentary suits. In the Kavtura river valley, the thickness of the Paleocene-Lower Eocene deposits is 300-400 m. In the process of research, the following activities are conducted: the facial analysis of host rocks, correlation of the study section with other cross sections and interpretation of depositional environment of the area. In the area the authors have found and described ichnogenera; their preliminary determination have shown that they belong to pre-depositional (‘Helmintopsis’) and post-depositional (‘Chondrites’) forms. As known, during the Cretaceous-Paleogene time, the Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt extensional basin was the accumulation area with great thicknesses (from shallow to deep marine sediments). It is confirmed once more by the authors investigations preliminary results of paleoichnological studies inclusive.

Keywords: flysh deposits, lithology, The Lesser Caucasus, trace fossils

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1 Dietary Exposure Assessment of Potentially Toxic Trace Elements in Fruits and Vegetables Grown in Akhtala, Armenia

Authors: Davit Pipoyan, Meline Beglaryan, Nicolò Merendino

Abstract:

Mining industry is one of the priority sectors of Armenian economy. Along with the solution of some socio-economic development, it brings about numerous environmental problems, especially toxic element pollution, which largely influences the safety of agricultural products. In addition, accumulation of toxic elements in agricultural products, mainly in edible parts of plants represents a direct pathway for their penetration into the human food chain. In Armenia, the share of plant origin food in overall diet is significantly high, so estimation of dietary intakes of toxic trace elements via consumption of selected fruits and vegetables are of great importance for observing the underlying health risks. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess dietary exposure of potentially toxic trace elements through the intake of locally grown fruits and vegetables in Akhtala community (Armenia), where not only mining industry is developed, but also cultivation of fruits and vegetables. Moreover, this investigation represents one of the very first attempts to estimate human dietary exposure of potentially toxic trace elements in the study area. Samples of some commonly grown fruits and vegetables (fig, cornel, raspberry, grape, apple, plum, maize, bean, potato, cucumber, onion, greens) were randomly collected from several home gardens located near mining areas in Akhtala community. The concentration of Cu, Mo, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, As and Cd in samples were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Precision and accuracy of analyses were guaranteed by repeated analysis of samples against NIST Standard Reference Materials. For a diet study, individual-based approach was used, so the consumption of selected fruits and vegetables was investigated through food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Combining concentration data with contamination data, the estimated daily intakes (EDI) and cumulative daily intakes were assessed and compared with health-based guidance values (HBGVs). According to the determined concentrations of the studied trace elements in fruits and vegetables, it can be stressed that some trace elements (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) among the majority of samples exceeded maximum allowable limits set by international organizations. Meanwhile, others (Cr, Hg, As, Cd, Mo) either did not exceed these limits or still do not have established allowable limits. The obtained results indicated that only for Cu the EDI values exceeded dietary reference intake (0.01 mg/kg/Bw/day) for some investigated fruits and vegetables in decreasing order of potato > grape > bean > raspberry > fig > greens. In contrast to this, for combined consumption of selected fruits and vegetables estimated cumulative daily intakes exceeded reference doses in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Ni > Mo > Pb. It may be concluded that habitual and combined consumption of the above mentioned fruits and vegetables can pose a health risk to the local population. Hence, further detailed studies are needed for the overall assessment of potential health implications taking into consideration adverse health effects posed by more than one toxic trace element.

Keywords: daily intake, dietary exposure, fruits, trace elements, vegetables

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