Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: alkalinity

66 Effect of Alkalinity of Water on the Aggregation of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Fedda Y. Alzoubi, Ihsan A. Aljarrah


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in different applications, especially in biomedical applications. Samples of different alkaline water were prepared in order to study the effect of alkalinity of water on the optical properties, size, and morphology of colloidal AgNPs prepared according to the chemical reduction method using the prepared water samples. Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer, Zeta-sizer, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been utilized to carry out this study. Absorption spectra AgNPs in different alkaline water show a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at the wavelength of 420 nm. The position of this peak is sensitive to the shape of the particles, and in our case, it indicates that the particles are spherical. As the alkalinity increases, the intensity of the SPR peak decreases, indicating the aggregation of particles. Zeta-sizer measurements show that the average diameter for AgNPs in pure water is found to be 53.51 nm, and this value increases as the alkalinity increases. Zeta potential values of samples show that the negatively coated particles are stable in the solution. SEM images insure the spherical shape of the prepared nanoparticles and show that as the alkalinity increases the particles aggregate into larger particles.

Keywords: aggregation, alkalinity, colloid, nanoparticle

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65 Effects of Alkalinity on the Treatment of Landfill Leachate through Algae Growth

Authors: Tahir Imran Qureshi


This study was aimed at finding out effects of potential influence of alkalinity on the treatment of landfill leachate through the growth of algae at varying dilution rates and toxicity potential. pH control proved to be an effective factor influencing on algal growth. With the use of algae Scenedesmus sp. for the treatment of leachate, a sharp increase in the growth of algae was recorded until pH 9. However, at pH 9.3 and 25 °C temperature, the growing trend of algae population showed a weakening tendency with the increase of total alkalinity in the leachate solution. Highest growth of algae was recorded in the leachate samples with alkalinity ranged at 1500-2500 mg CaCO3/L under neutral condition at pH 7 after 48 hours of cultivation time. Under the similar conditions, total nitrogen and total phosphorous in the leachate also reduced to 80% and 85%, respectively, however, no significant removal of COD was observed during the course of experiment.

Keywords: leachate treatment, microalgae, nutrient removal, ammonia toxicity

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64 Co-Smoldered Digestate Ash as Additive for Anaerobic Digestion of Berry Fruit Waste: Stability and Enhanced Production Rate

Authors: Arinze Ezieke, Antonio Serrano, William Clarke, Denys Villa-Gomez


Berry cultivation results in discharge of high organic strength putrescible solid waste which potentially contributes to environmental degradation, making it imperative to assess options for its complete management. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be an ideal option when the target is energy generation; however, due to berry fruit characteristics high carbohydrate composition, the technology could be limited by its high alkalinity requirement which suggests dosing of additives such as buffers and trace elements supplement. Overcoming this limitation in an economically viable way could entail replacement of synthetic additives with recycled by-product waste. Consequently, ash from co-smouldering of high COD characteristic AD digestate and coco-coir could be a promising material to be used to enhance the AD of berry fruit waste, given its characteristic high pH, alkalinity and metal concentrations which is typical of synthetic additives. Therefore, the aim of the research was to evaluate the stability and process performance from the AD of BFW when ash from co-smoldered digestate and coir are supplemented as alkalinity and trace elements (TEs) source. Series of batch experiments were performed to ascertain the necessity for alkalinity addition and to see whether the alkalinity and metals in the co-smouldered digestate ash can provide the necessary buffer and TEs for AD of berry fruit waste. Triplicate assays were performed in batch systems following I/S of 2 (in VS), using serum bottles (160 mL) sealed and placed in a heated room (35±0.5 °C), after creating anaerobic conditions. Control experiment contained inoculum and substrates only, and inoculum, substrate and NaHCO3 for optimal total alkalinity concentration and TEs assays, respectively. Total alkalinity concentration refers to alkalinity of inoculum and the additives. The alkalinity and TE potential of the ash were evaluated by supplementing ash (22.574 g/kg) of equivalent total alkalinity concentration to that of the pre-determined optimal from NaHCO3, and by dosing ash (0.012 – 7.574 g/kg) of varying concentrations of specific essential TEs (Co, Fe, Ni, Se), respectively. The result showed a stable process at all examined conditions. Supplementation of 745 mg/L CaCO3 NaHCO3 resulted to an optimum TAC of 2000 mg/L CaCO3. Equivalent ash supplementation of 22.574 g/kg allowed the achievement of this pre-determined optimum total alkalinity concentration, resulting to a stable process with a 92% increase in the methane production rate (323 versus 168 mL CH4/ (gVS.d)), but a 36% reduction in the cumulative methane production (103 versus 161 mL CH4/gVS). Addition of ashes at incremental dosage as TEs source resulted to a reduction in the Cumulative methane production, with the highest dosage of 7.574 g/kg having the highest effect of -23.5%; however, the seemingly immediate bioavailability of TE at this high dosage allowed for a +15% increase in the methane production rate. With an increased methane production rate, the results demonstrated that the ash at high dosages could be an effective supplementary material for either a buffered or none buffered berry fruit waste AD system.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, alkalinity, co-smoldered digestate ash, trace elements

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63 Typical Characteristics and Compositions of Solvent System in Application of Maceration Technology to Isolate Antioxidative Activated Extract of Natural Products

Authors: Yohanes Buang, Suwari


Increasing interest of society in use and creation of herbal medicines has encouraged scientists/researchers to establish an ideal method to produce the best quality and quantity of pharmaceutical extracts. To have highest the antioxidative extracts, the method used must be at optimum conditions. Hence, the best method is not only able to provide highest quantity and quality of the isolated pharmaceutical extracts but also it has to be easy to do, simple, fast, and cheap. The characterization of solvents in maceration technique, in present study, involved various variables influencing quantity and quality of the pharmaceutical extracts, such as solvent’s optimum acidity-alkalinity (pH), temperature, concentration, and contact time. The shifting polarity of the solvent by combinations of water with ethanol (70:30) and (50:50) were also performed to completely record the best solvent system in application of maceration technology. Among those three solvents threated within Myrmecodia pendens, as a model of natural product, the results showed that water solvent system with conditions of alkalinity pH, optimum temperature, concentration, and contact time, is the best system to perform the maceration in order to have the highest isolated antioxidative activated extracts. The optimum conditions of the water solvent are at the alkalinity pH 9 up, 30 mg/mL of concentration, 40 min of contact time, 100 °C of temperature, and no ethanol used to replace parts of the water solvent. The present study strongly recommended the best conditions of solvent system to isolate the pharmaceutical extracts of natural products in application of the maceration technology.

Keywords: extracts, herbal medicine, natural product, maceration technique

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62 Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in Suspended Activated Sludge Process Augmented with Immobilized Biomass: A Pilot Study

Authors: Haon-Yao Chen, Cheng-Fang Lin, Pui-Kwan Andy Hong, Ping-Yi Yang, Kok Kwang Ng, Sheng-Fu Yang


Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) are a natural phenomenon in the soil environment that can be applied in wastewater treatment. At a domestic wastewater treatment plant, we performed a pilot test of installing bioplates with entrapped biomass into a conventional aeration basin for SND, and investigated the effects of bioplate packing ratio, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen level, on/off aeration mode, and supplemental carbon and alkalinity on nitrogen removal. With the pilot aeration basin of 1.3 m3 loaded with mixed liquor suspended solids of 1500-2500 mg/L and bioplates at PR of 3.2% (3.2% basin volume) operated at HRT of 6 h and DO of 4-6 mg/L without supplemental carbon or alkalinity, nitrogen in the wastewater was removed to an effluent total nitrogen (TN) of 7.3 mg/L from an influent TN of 28 mg/L. The bioplate robust cellulose triacetate structure carrying the biomass shows promise in retrofitting conventional aeration basins for enhanced nutrient removal.

Keywords: immobilization, nitrification/denitrification, nutrient removal, total nitrogen

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61 Investigation of the Inhibition Effect of 2,3-Diaminopyridine on Mild Steel Corrosion in Solution Simulating Water of Pores Concrete in Absence and Presence of Chloride Ions

Authors: Fatiha Benghanem, Mokhtar Berarma, Saida Keraghel, Ali Ourari


Corrosion is the result of the reaction between a material and its environment. Steel in concrete is protected from corrosion by a passive film promoted by concrete alkalinity. For the initiation of corrosion, this protective film must be destroyed and this can be mainly done in two ways: by the attack of chlorides on the steel or by carbonation of the cover concrete due the reaction with carbon dioxide, which causes reduction in the alkalinity of concrete. The literature reports several ways to decrease or to prevent reinforcement corrosion. Among them, the use of corrosion inhibitors has been an envisaged solution. Two approaches are generally used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors for concrete application; one uses simulated pore solution testing , and the other uses actual concrete or mortar specimens. Both methods are some times used in conjunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 2,3-diaminopyridine as a corrosion inhibitors of steel in alkaline media which simulate the electrolyte in the concrete pores. The effectiveness of this compound as corrosion inhibitor was investigated by measuring the corrosion potentials, the polarization curves and the corrosion current densities of steel with and without chlorides. The study of corrosion inhibition by this compound led to the conclusion that he has low rates of inhibition in the absence of aggressive ions and high rates in their presence. This type of organic compounds are promoting for the protection of armatures in concrete.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitors, mild steel, conjunction

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60 Correlation between the Larvae Density (Diptera: Culicidae) and Physicochemical Characteristics of Habitats in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Ahmad-Ali Enayati


Background: Mosquitoes look for all kinds of aquatic habitats for laying eggs. Characteristics of water habitats are important factors in determining whether a mosquito can survive and successfully completed their developmental stages. Physicochemical factors can display an important role in vector control programs. This investigate determined whether physicochemical factors differ between habitats can be effective in the larvae density in Mazandaran province. Methods: Larvae were collected by the standard dipper up to 350 ml for 15-20 minutes from fixed habitats in 16 villages of 30 townships, the specimens identified by morphological key. Water samples were collected during larval collection and were evaluated for temperature (°C), acidity (pH), turbidity (NTU), electrical conductivity (μS/cm), alkalinity (mg/l), total hardness (mg/l), nitrate (mg/l), chloride (mg/l), phosphate (mg/l), sulfate (mg/l) in selected habitats using standard methods. Spearman Correlation coefficient was used for analyze data. Results: Totally 7566 mosquito larvae of three genera and 15 species were collected of fixed habitats. Cx. pipiens was the dominant species except in villages of Tileno, Zavat, Asad Abad, Shah Mansur Mahale which An. maculipennis, Cx. torrentium were as the predominant species. Turbidity in Karat Koti, Chloride in Al Tappeh, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate in Chalmardi, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, total hardness in Komishan villages were significantly higher than other villages (P < 0.05). There were a significant positive correlation between Cx. pipiens and Electrical conductivity, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Chloride, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Chloride, whereas a significant negative correlation observed between Sulfate and Cx. perexiguss. Conclusion: The correlations observed between physicochemical factor and larval density, possibly can confirm the effect of these parameters on the breeding activities of mosquitoes, and could probability facilitate larval control programs by the handwork of such factors.

Keywords: anopheles, culex, culiseta, physicochemical, habitats, larvae density, correlation

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59 Quality Parameters of Offset Printing Wastewater

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Aksentijević M. Snežana


Samples of tap and wastewater were collected in three offset printing facilities in Novi Sad, Serbia. Ten physicochemical parameters were analyzed within all collected samples: pH, conductivity, m - alkalinity, p - alkalinity, acidity, carbonate concentration, hydrogen carbonate concentration, active oxygen content, chloride concentration and total alkali content. All measurements were conducted using the standard analytical and instrumental methods. Comparing the obtained results for tap water and wastewater, a clear quality difference was noticeable, since all physicochemical parameters were significantly higher within wastewater samples. The study also involves the application of simple linear regression analysis on the obtained dataset. By using software package ORIGIN 5 the pH value was mutually correlated with other physicochemical parameters. Based on the obtained values of Pearson coefficient of determination a strong positive correlation between chloride concentration and pH (r = -0.943), as well as between acidity and pH (r = -0.855) was determined. In addition, statistically significant difference was obtained only between acidity and chloride concentration with pH values, since the values of parameter F (247.634 and 182.536) were higher than Fcritical (5.59). In this way, results of statistical analysis highlighted the most influential parameter of water contamination in offset printing, in the form of acidity and chloride concentration. The results showed that variable dependence could be represented by the general regression model: y = a0 + a1x+ k, which further resulted with matching graphic regressions.

Keywords: pollution, printing industry, simple linear regression analysis, wastewater

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58 Drinking Water Quality of Lahore Pakistan: A Comparison of Quality of Drinking Water from Source and Distribution System

Authors: Zainab Abbas Soharwardi, Chunli Su, Fazeelat Tahira, Syed Zahid Aziz


The study monitors the quality of drinking water consumed by urban population of Lahore. A total of 50 drinking water samples (16 from source and 34 from distribution system) were examined for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. The parameters including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity, carbonate, sulphate, chloride, nitrite, fluoride, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Sixteen out of fifty samples showed high values of alkalinity compared to EPA standards and WHO guidelines. Twenty-eight samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chromium, iron, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead. Trace amounts of heavy metals were detected in some samples, however for most of the samples values were within the permissible limits although high concentration of zinc was detected in one sample collected from Mughal Pura area. Fifteen samples were analyzed for arsenic. The results were unsatisfactory; around 73% samples showed exceeding values of As. WHO has suggested permissible limits of arsenic < 0.01 ppm, whereas 27 % of samples have shown 0.05 ppm arsenic, which is five times greater than WHO highest permissible limits. All the samples were examined for E. coli bacteria. On the basis of bacteriological analysis, 42 % samples did not meet WHO guidelines and were unsafe for drinking.

Keywords: arsenic, heavy metals, ground water, Lahore

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57 Green Revolution and Reckless Use of Water and Its Implication on Climate Change Leading to Desertification: Situation of Karnataka, India

Authors: Arun Das


One of the basic objectives of Independent India five decades ago was to meet the increasing demand for food to its growing population. Self-sufficiency was accomplished towards food production and it was attained through launching green revolution program. The green revolution repercussions were not realized at that moment. Many projects were undertaken. Especially, major and minor irrigation projects were executed to harness the river water in the dry land regions of Karnataka. In the elevated topographical lands, extraction of underground water was a solace given by the government to protect the interest of the dry land farmers whose land did not come under the command area. Free borewell digging, pump sets, and electricity were provided. Thus, the self-sufficiency was achieved. Contrary to this, the Continuous long-term extraction of water for agriculture from bore well and in the irrigated tracks has lead to two-way effect such as soil leeching (Alkalinity and Salinity), secondly, depleted underground water to incredible deeps has pushed the natural process to an un-reparable damage which in turn the nature lost to support even a tiny plants like grass to grow, discouraging human and animal habitation, Both the process is silently turning southwestern, central, northeastern and north western regions of Karnataka into desert. The grave situation of Karnataka green revolution is addressed in this paper to alert reckless use of water and also some of the suggestions are recommended based on the ground information.

Keywords: alkalinity, desertification, green revolution, salinity, water

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56 A Novel Approach for the Analysis of Ground Water Quality by Using Classification Rules and Water Quality Index

Authors: Kamakshaiah Kolli, R. Seshadri


Water is a key resource in all economic activities ranging from agriculture to industry. Only a tiny fraction of the planet's abundant water is available to us as fresh water. Assessment of water quality has always been paramount in the field of environmental quality management. It is the foundation for health, hygiene, progress and prosperity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. Therefore efficient water management is essential to civil society for betterment of quality of life. The present study emphasizes on the groundwater quality, sources of ground water contamination, variation of groundwater quality and its spatial distribution. The bases for groundwater quality assessment are groundwater bodies and representative monitoring network enabling determination of chemical status of groundwater body. For this study, water samples were collected from various areas of the entire corporation area of Guntur. Water is required for all living organisms of which 1.7% is available as ground water. Water has no calories or any nutrients, but essential for various metabolic activities in our body. Chemical and physical parameters can be tested for identifying the portability of ground water. Electrical conductivity, pH, alkalinity, Total Alkalinity, TDS, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and Sulphate of the ground water from Guntur district: Different areas of the District were analyzed. Our aim is to check, if the ground water from the above areas are potable or not. As multivariate are present, Data mining technique using JRIP rules was employed for classifying the ground water.

Keywords: groundwater, water quality standards, potability, data mining, JRIP, PCA, classification

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55 The Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion at 45⁰C

Authors: Nuruol S. Mohd, Safia Ahmed, Rumana Riffat, Baoqiang Li


Anaerobic digestion at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures have been widely studied and evaluated by numerous researchers. Limited extensive research has been conducted on anaerobic digestion in the intermediate zone of 45°C, mainly due to the notion that limited microbial activity occurs within this zone. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the performance and the capability of anaerobic digestion at 45°C in producing class A biosolids, in comparison to a mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion system operated at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. In addition to that, the investigation on the possible inhibition factors affecting the performance of the digestion system at this temperature will be conducted as well. The 45°C anaerobic digestion systems were not able to achieve comparable methane yield and high-quality effluent compared to the mesophilic system, even though the systems produced biogas with about 62-67% methane. The 45°C digesters suffered from high acetate accumulation, but sufficient buffering capacity was observed as the pH, alkalinity and volatile fatty acids (VFA)-to-alkalinity ratio were within recommended values. The accumulation of acetate observed in 45°C systems were presumably due to the high temperature which contributed to high hydrolysis rate. Consequently, it produced a large amount of toxic salts that combined with the substrate making them not readily available to be consumed by methanogens. Acetate accumulation, even though contributed to 52 to 71% reduction in acetate degradation process, could not be considered as completely inhibitory. Additionally, at 45°C, no ammonia inhibition was observed and the digesters were able to achieve volatile solids (VS) reduction of 47.94±4.17%. The pathogen counts were less than 1,000 MPN/g total solids, thus, producing Class A biosolids.

Keywords: 45°C anaerobic digestion, acetate accumulation, class A biosolids, salt toxicity

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54 The Assessment Groundwater Geochemistry of Some Wells in Rafsanjan Plain, Southeast of Iran

Authors: Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan, Abdolreza Akhgar, Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan


Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Pistachio is a main crop that accounts for a considerable portion of Iranian agricultural exports. Give that pistachio tree is a tolerant type of tree to saline and alkaline soil and water conditions, but groundwater and irrigation water quality play important roles in main production this crop. For this purpose, 94 well water samples were taken from 25 wells and samples were analyzed. The results showed give that region’s geological, climatic characteristics, statistical analysis, and based on dominant cations and anions in well water samples (piper diagram); four main types of water were found: Na-Cl, K-Cl, Na-SO4, and K-SO4. It seems that most wells in terms of water quality (salinity and alkalinity) and based on Wilcox diagram have critical status. The analysis suggested that more than eighty-seven percentage of the well water samples have high values of EC that these values are higher than into critical limit EC value for irrigation water, which may be due to the sandy soils in this area. Most groundwater were relatively unsuitable for irrigation but it could be used by application of correct management such as removing and reducing the ion concentrations of Cl‾, SO42‾, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater and also the concentrated deep groundwater was required treatment to reduce the salinity and sodium hazard. Given that irrigation water quality in this area was relatively unsuitable for most agriculture production but pistachio tree was adapted to this area conditions. The integrated management of groundwater for irrigation is the way to solve water quality issues not only in Rafsanjan area, but also in other arid and semi-arid areas.

Keywords: groundwater quality, irrigation water quality, salinity, alkalinity, Rafsanjan plain, pistachio

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53 Variability of Physico-Chemical and Carbonate Chemistry of Seawater in Selected Portions of the Central Atlantic Coastline of Ghana

Authors: Robert Kwame Kpaliba, Dennis Kpakpor Adotey, Yaw Serfor-Armah


Increase in the oceanic carbon dioxide absorbance from the atmosphere due to climate change has led to appreciable change in the chemistry of the oceans. The change in oceanic pH referred to as ocean acidification poses multiple threats and stresses on marine species, biodiversity, goods and services, and livelihoods. Marine ecosystems are continuously threatened by plethora of natural and anthropogenic stressors including carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions causing a lot of changes which has not been experienced for approximately 60 years. Little has been done in Africa as a whole and Ghana in particular to improve the understanding of the variations of the carbonate chemistry of seawater and the biophysical impacts of ocean acidification on security of seafood, nutrition, climate and environmental change. There is, therefore, the need for regular monitoring of carbonate chemistry of seawater along Ghana’s coastline to generate reliable data to aid marine policy formulation. Samples of seawater were collected thrice every month for a one-year period from five study sites for the various parameters to be analyzed. Analysis of the measured physico-chemical and the carbonate chemistry parameters was done using simple statistics. Correlation test and ANOVA were run on both of the physico-chemical and carbonate chemistry parameters. The carbonate chemistry parameters were measured using computer software programme (CO₂cal v4.0.9) except total alkalinity and pH. The study assessed the variability of seawater carbonate chemistry in selected portions of the Central Atlantic Coastline of Ghana (Tsokomey/Bortianor, Kokrobitey, Gomoa Nyanyanor, Gomoa Fetteh, and Senya Breku landing beaches) over a 1-year period (June 2016–May 2017). For physico-chemical parameters, there was insignificant variation in nitrate (NO₃⁻) (1.62 - 2.3 mg/L), ammonia (NH₃) (1.52 - 2.05 mg/L), and salinity (sal) (34.50 - 34.74 ppt). Carbonate chemistry parameters for all the five study sites showed significant variation: partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO₂) (414.08-715.5 µmol/kg), carbonate ion (CO₃²⁻) (115-157.92 µmol/kg), pH (7.9-8.12), total alkalinity (TA) (1711.8-1986 µmol/kg), total carbon dioxide (TCO₂) (1512.1 - 1792 µmol/kg), dissolved carbon dioxide (CO₂aq) (10.97-18.92 µmol/kg), Revelle Factor (RF) (9.62-11.84), aragonite (ΩAr) (0.75-1.48) and calcite (ΩCa) (1.08-2.14). The study revealed that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and temperature did not have a significant effect on each other (r² = 0.31) (p-value = 0.0717). There was an appreciable effect of pH on dissolved carbon dioxide (r² = 0.921) (p-value = 0.0000). The variation between total alkalinity and dissolved carbon dioxide was appreciable (r² = 0.731) (p-value = 0.0008). There was a significant correlation between total carbon dioxide and dissolved carbon dioxide (r² = 0.852) (p-value = 0.0000). Revelle factor correlated strongly with dissolved carbon dioxide (r² = 0.982) (p-value = 0.0000). Partial pressure of carbon dioxide corresponds strongly with atmospheric carbon dioxide (r² = 0.9999) (p-value = 0.00000).

Keywords: carbonate chemistry, seawater, central atlantic coastline, Ghana, ocean acidification

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52 Evaluation of the Quality Water Irrigation in Region of Lioua (Biskra), Algeria

Authors: F. Hiouani, M. Henouda, A. Masmoudi, M. Rechachi


The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of irrigation water of some underground water resources in the region of Lioua (Biskra, Algéria). Analysis of cations (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+), anions (Cl-, SO4--, CO3--, HCO3-, NO3-), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of ten water samples taken during March 2015. The resulted showed that water samples are designated salty and very salty. On the other hand, average SAR values show that there is no alkalinity risk of soil. According to Riverside diagram water samples are grouped into five classes (C3-S1, C4-S1, C4-S3, C5-S2 and C5-S3).

Keywords: groundwater, irrigation, quality, lioua biskra

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51 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi


Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, solvent extraction, t-BAMBP

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50 Improvement of Ground Water Quality Index Using Citrus limetta

Authors: Rupas Kumar M., Saravana Kumar M., Amarendra Kumar S., Likhita Komal V., Sree Deepthi M.


The demand for water is increasing at an alarming rate due to rapid urbanization and increase in population. Due to freshwater scarcity, Groundwater became the necessary source of potable water to major parts of the world. This problem of freshwater scarcity and groundwater dependency is very severe particularly in developing countries and overpopulated regions like India. The present study aimed at evaluating the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI), which represents overall quality of water at certain location and time based on water quality parameters. To evaluate the GWQI, sixteen water quality parameters have been considered viz. colour, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, iron, manganese and fluorides. The groundwater samples are collected from Kadapa City in Andhra Pradesh, India and subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. The high value of GWQI has been found to be mainly from higher values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, and fluorides. in the present study, citrus limetta (sweet lemon) peel powder has used as a coagulant and GWQI values are recorded in different concentrations to improve GWQI. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to determine the effect of coagulant dosage, mixing speed and stirring time on GWQI. The research found the maximum percentage improvement in GWQI values are obtained when the coagulant dosage is 100ppm, mixing speed is 100 rpm and stirring time is 10 mins. Alum is also used as a coagulant aid and the optimal ratio of citrus limetta and alum is identified as 3:2 which resulted in best GWQI value. The present study proposes Citrus limetta peel powder as a potential natural coagulant to treat Groundwater and to improve GWQI.

Keywords: alum, Citrus limetta, ground water quality index, physicochemical analysis

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49 High Temperature in Caustic Pretreatment of Gold Locked in the Residue after Filtration from Gold Cyanidation Leaching

Authors: K. L. Kabemba, R. F. Sandenberg


The usual way to desorb gold is by elution with a hot concentrated alkaline solution of sodium cyanide. The high temperature is necessary because the dielectric constant of water decreases with increasing temperature hence the electrostatic forces between charcoal and the gold cyanide complex decreases. High alkalinity and a high concentration of cyanide are necessary for gold desorption because both OH- and CN- ions are preferentially adsorbed. The rate of elution increases with increasing anion concentration but decreases with increasing cation concentration that means the rate of elution passes through a maximum as the concentration of the eluting salt (NaCN, for example) is increased. The anion that gives the best results, the cyanide ion, decomposes fairly rapidly at elevated temperatures (40% in 6 hours, 90% in 24 hours at 95°C).

Keywords: caustic, cyanide, gold, temperature

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48 Passive Neutralization of Acid Mine Drainage Using Locally Produced Limestone

Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, Malwandla Hanabe, Haleden Chiririwa, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Neutralisation of acid-mine drainage (AMD) using limestone is cost effective, and good results can be obtained. However, this process has its limitations; it cannot be used for highly acidic water which consists of Fe(III). When Fe(III) reacts with CaCO3, it results in armoring. Armoring slows the reaction, and additional alkalinity can no longer be generated. Limestone is easily accessible, so this problem can be easily dealt with. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of PVC pipe length on ferric and ferrous ions. It was found that the shorter the pipe length the more these dissolved metals precipitate. The effect of the pipe length on the hydrogen ions was also studied, and it was found that these two have an inverse relationship. Experimental data were further compared with the model prediction data to see if they behave in a similar fashion. The model was able to predict the behaviour of 1.5m and 2 m pipes in ferric and ferrous ion precipitation.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, neutralisation, limestone, mathematical modelling

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47 Production of Cement-Free Construction Materials via Fly Ash Carbonation

Authors: Zhenhua Wei, Gabriel Falzone, Bu Wang, Laurent Pilon, Gaurav Sant


The production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a CO₂ intensive process. Specifically, cement clinkering reactions require not only substantial energy in the form of heat, but also result in the release of CO₂, from limestone decarbonation and the combustion of fuel. To overcome this CO₂ intensive process, clinkering-free cementation is demonstrated by the carbonation of fly ash; i.e., a by-product of coal combustion. It is shown that in moist environments and at sub-boiling temperatures, calcium-rich fly ashes readily react with gas-phase CO₂ to provide cementation. After seven days of CO₂ exposure at 75°C, such formulations achieve a compressive strength on the order of 35 MPa and take-up 9% CO₂ (by mass of the solid). On the other hand, calcium-deficient fly ashes, due to their lack of alkalinity (i.e., abundance of mobile Ca or Mg), show little if any potential for CO₂ uptake and strength gain. The role of the CO₂ concentration and processing temperature are discussed and linked to the progress of reactions, and the development of microstructure. The outcomes demonstrate a means for enabling clinkering-free cementation while enabling beneficial utilization of CO₂ and fly ash; i.e., two abundant but underutilized industrial by-products.

Keywords: fly ash, carbonation, concrete, strength

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46 Evaluation of Pollution in Underground Water from ODO-NLA and OGIJO Metropolis Industrial Areas in Ikorodu

Authors: Zaccheaus Olasupo Apotiola


This study evaluates the level of pollution in underground water from Ogijo and Odo-nla areas in lkorodu, Lagos State. Water sample were collected around various industries and transported in ice packs to the laboratory. Temperature and pH was determined on site, physicochemical parameters and total plate were determined using standard methods, while heavy metal concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry method. The temperature was observed at a range of 20-28 oC, the pH was observed at a range of 5.64 to 6.91 mol/l and were significantly different (P < 0.05) from one another. The chloride content was observed at a range 70.92 to 163.10 mg/l there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sample 40 GAJ and ISUP, but there was significant difference (P < 0.05) between other samples. The acidity value varied from 11.0 – 34.5 (mg/l), the samples had no alkalinity. The Total plate count was found at 20-125 cfu/ml. Asernic, Lead, Cadmium, and Mercury concentration ranged between 0.03 - 0.09, 0.04 - 0.11, 0.00 -0.00, and 0.00 – 0.00(mg/l) respectively. However there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between all samples except for sample 4OGA, 5OGAJ, and 3SUTN that were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The results revealed all samples are not safe for human consumption as the levels of Asernic and Lead are above the maximum value of (0.01 mg/l) recommended by NIS 554 and WHO.

Keywords: arsenic, cadmium, lead mercury, WHO

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45 Soil Degradation Resulting from Migration of Ion Leachate in Gosa Dumpsite, Abuja

Authors: S. Ebisintei, M. A. Olutoye, A. S. Kovo, U. G. Akpan


The effect of soil degradation due to ion leachate migration using dumpsite located at Idu industrial area of Abuja was investigated. It was done to assess the health and environmental pollution consequences caused by heavy metals’ concentration in the soil on inhabitants around the settlement. Soil samples collected from four cardinal points and at the center during the dry and wet season were pretreated, digested and heavy metal concentrations present were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Cr, were determined and also for control sample obtained 300 m away from the dumpsite. Water samples were collected from three wells to test for physiochemical properties of pH, COD, BOD, DO, hardness, conductivity, and alkalinity. The result showed a significant difference in concentration of toxic heavy metals in the dumpsite as compared to the control sample. A mathematical model was developed to predict the heavy metal concentrations beyond the sampling point. The results indicate that metal concentrations in both dry and wet season were above the WHO, and SON set standards. The trend, if unrestrained, portends danger to human life, reduces agricultural productivity and sustainability.

Keywords: soil degradation, ion leachate, productivity, environment, sustainability

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44 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Tomato Fruits

Authors: Narjes Dashti, Nida Ali, Magdy Montasser, Vineetha Cherian


The influence of two PGPR strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia, on fruit yields, pomological traits and chemical contents of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were studied. The study was conducted separately on two different cultivar varieties of tomato, namely Supermarmande and UC82B. The results indicated that the presence of the PGPR almost doubled the average yield per plant. There was a significant improvement in the pomological qualities of the PGPR treated tomato fruits compared to the corresponding healthy treatments especially in traits such as the average fruit weight, height, and fruit volume. The chemical analysis of tomato fruits revealed that the presence of the PGPRs increased the total protein, lycopene, alkalinity and phenol content of the tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls. They had no influence on the reduced sugar, total soluble solids or the titerable acid content of fruits. However their presence reduced the amount of ascorbic acid in tomato fruits compared to the healthy controls.

Keywords: PGPR, tomato, fruit quality

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43 An Approach for Coagulant Dosage Optimization Using Soft Jar Test: A Case Study of Bangkhen Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Ninlawat Phuangchoke, Waraporn Viyanon, Setta Sasananan


The most important process of the water treatment plant process is the coagulation using alum and poly aluminum chloride (PACL), and the value of usage per day is a hundred thousand baht. Therefore, determining the dosage of alum and PACL are the most important factors to be prescribed. Water production is economical and valuable. This research applies an artificial neural network (ANN), which uses the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm to create a mathematical model (Soft Jar Test) for prediction chemical dose used to coagulation such as alum and PACL, which input data consists of turbidity, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, and, oxygen consumption (OC) of Bangkhen water treatment plant (BKWTP) Metropolitan Waterworks Authority. The data collected from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019 cover changing seasons of Thailand. The input data of ANN is divided into three groups training set, test set, and validation set, which the best model performance with a coefficient of determination and mean absolute error of alum are 0.73, 3.18, and PACL is 0.59, 3.21 respectively.

Keywords: soft jar test, jar test, water treatment plant process, artificial neural network

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42 Dietary Ergosan as a Supplemental Nutrient on Growth Performance, and Stress in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

Authors: Ehsan Ahmadifar, Mohammad Ali Yousefi, Zahra Roohi


In this study, the effects of different levels of Ergosan (control group (0), 2, 4 and 6 gr Ergosan per Kg diet) as a nutritional supplement were investigated on growth indices and stress in Zebrafish for 3 months. Larvae (4-day-old after hatching) were fed with experimental diet from the beginning of feeding until adult (adolescence) (average weight: 69.3 g, length: 5.1 cm). Different levels of Ergosan had no significant effect on rate survival (P < 0.05). The results showed that diet containing 6 gr Ergosan significantly caused the best FCR in Zebrafish (P < 0.05). By increasing the Ergosan diet, specific growth rate increased. Body weight gain and condition factor had significant differences (P < 0.05) as the highest and the lowest were observed in treatment 3 gr of Ergosan and control, respectively. The results showed that fish fed with experimental diet, had the highest resistance to environmental stresses compared to control, and the test temperature, oxygen, salinity and alkalinity samples containing 6 gr/kg, was significantly more resistance compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, to achieve high resistance to environmental stress and increase final biomass using 6 gr/kg Ergosan in diet fish Zebrafish.

Keywords: Ergosan, stress, growth performance, Danio rerio

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41 The Utilisation of Two Types of Fly Ashes Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock, E. Loffill


This study represents the results of an experimental work using two types of fly ashes as a cement replacement in soft soil stabilisation. The fly ashes (FA1 and FA2) used in this study are by-products resulting from an incineration processes between 800 and 1200 ˚C. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were initially conducted on soil treated with different percentages of FA1 (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) to identify the optimum FA1 content. Then FA1 was chemically activated by FA2 which has high alkalinity by blending the optimum content of FA1 with different portions of FA2. The improvement levels were evaluated dependent on the results obtained from consistency limits and compaction tests along with the results of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests which were conducted on specimens of soil treated with FA1 and FA2 and exposed to different periods of curing (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). The results indicated that the FA1 and FA2 used in this study effectively improved the physical and geotechnical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.17 with 12% of FA1; however, there was a slight increase in IP with the use of FA2. Meanwhile, 12% of FA1 was identified as the optimum percentage improving the UCS of stabilised soil significantly. Furthermore, FA2 was found effective as a chemical activator to FA1 where the UCS was improved significantly after using FA2.

Keywords: fly ashes, soft soil stabilisation, waste materials, unconfined compressive strength

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40 Long Term Monitoring and Assessment of Atmospheric Aerosols in Indo-Gangetic Region of India

Authors: Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Amrendra Kumar


The long term sampling at one of the most populated city in Indo-Gangetic region shows higher mass concentration of atmospheric aerosol (PM₂.₅) during spring season (144.70µg/m³), summer season (91.96 µg/m³), the autumn season (266.48µg/m³) and winter season (367.09 µg/m³) respectively. The concentration of PM₂.₅ in Patna across the year shows much higher than the limit fixed by the national ambient air quality level fixed by central pollution control board India (CPCB, India) and World Health Organization (WHO). Different water-soluble cation (Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, NH₄⁺ , and Mg²⁺) and anion (Cl⁻, NO₃⁻ , and SO₄²⁻) species were detected in PM₂.₅. Results show the significantly higher loaded of water-soluble ions during winter and spring seasons. The acidity of the atmosphere was revealed and calculated using selected major cations (K⁺, Ca²⁺ , and NH₄⁺) and anions (SO₄²⁻, and NO₃⁻). A regression correlation was analyzed to check the significant linkage between the acidity and alkalinity ions. During the winter season (r² = 0.79) and spring season (r² = 0.64) shows good significant correlation between the cations and anions. The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ indicates the sources of secondary pollutants were mainly influenced by industrial and vehicular emission however SO₄²⁻ mostly emitted from industries during the winter season.

Keywords: aerosols, inorganic species, source apportionment, Indo-Gangetic region

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39 A Milky-White Stream Water Suitability for Drinking Purpose

Authors: Kassahun Tadesse, Megersa O. Dinka


Drinking water suitability study was conducted for a milky-white stream in remote areas of Ethiopia in order to understand its effect on human health. Water samples were taken from the water source and physicochemical properties were analyzed based on standard methods. The mean values of pH, total dissolved solids, sodium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, chloride, boron, and fluoride were within maximum permissible limits set for health. Whereas turbidity, calcium, irons, hardness, alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate contents were above the limits. The water is very hard water due to high calcium content. High sulfate content can cause noticeable taste and a laxative (gastrointestinal) effect. The nitrate content was very high and can cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) which is a temporary blood disorder in the bottle fed infants. Hence, parents should be advised not to give this water to infants. In conclusion, all physicochemical parameters except for nitrate are safe for health but may affect the appearance and taste, and wear water infrastructures. A high value of turbidity due to suspended minerals is the cause for milky-white colour. However, a mineralogical analysis of suspended sediments is required to identify the exact cause for white colour, and a study on sediment source was recommended.

Keywords: hard water, laxative effect, methemoglobinemia, nitrate, physicochemical, water quality

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38 The Hydro-Geology and Drinking Water Quality of Ikogosi Warm Spring in South West Nigeria

Authors: Ikudayisi Akinola, Adeyemo Folasade, Adeyemo Josiah


This study focuses on the hydro-geology and chemistry of Ikogosi Warm Spring in South West Nigeria. Ikogosi warm spring is a global tourist attraction because it has both warm and cold spring sources. Water samples from the cold spring, warm spring and the meeting point were collected, analyzed and the result shows close similarity in temperature, hydrogen iron concentration (pH), alkalinity, hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, total dissolved solid and heavy metals. The measured parameters in the water samples are within World Health Organisation standards for fresh water. The study of the geology of the warm spring reveals that the study area is underlain by a group of slightly migmatised to non-migmatised paraschists and meta-igneous rocks. The concentration levels of selected heavy metals, (Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Arsenic and Cromium) were determined in the water (ppm) samples. Chromium had the highest concentration value of 1.52ppm (an average of 49.67%) and Cadmium had the lowest concentration with value of 0.15ppm (an average of 4.89%). Comparison of these results showed that, their mean levels are within the standard values obtained in Nigeria. It can be concluded that both warm and spring water are safe for drinking.

Keywords: cold spring, Ikogosi, melting point, warm spring, water samples

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37 Long Term Changes of Aerosols and Their Radiative Forcing over the Tropical Urban Station Pune, India

Authors: M. P. Raju, P. D. Safai, P. S. P. Rao, P. C. S. Devara, C. V. Naidu


In order to study the Physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols, samples of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) were collected using a high volume sampler at Pune, a semi-urban location in SW India during March 2009 to February 2010. TSP samples were analyzed for water soluble components like F, Cl, NO3, SO4, NH4, Na, K, Ca, and Mg and acid soluble components like Al, Zn, Fe and Cu using Ion-Chromatograph and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Analysis of the data revealed that the monthly mean TSP concentrations varied between 471.3 µg/m3 and 30.5 µg/m3 with an annual mean value of 159.8 µg/m3. TSP concentrations were found to be less during post-monsoon and winter (October through February), compared to those in summer and monsoon (March through September). Anthropogenic activities like vehicular emissions and dust particles originated from urban activities were the major sources for TSP. TSP showed good correlation with all the major ionic components, especially with SO4 (R= 0.62) and NO3 (R= 0.67) indicating the impact of anthropogenic sources over the aerosols at Pune. However, the overall aerosol nature was alkaline (Ave pH = 6.17) mainly due to the neutralizing effects of Ca and NH4. SO4 contributed more (58.8%) to the total acidity as compared to NO3 (41.1%) where as, Ca contributed more (66.5%) to the total alkalinity than NH4 (33.5%). Seasonality of acid soluble component Al, Fe and Cu showed remarkable increase, indicating the dominance of soil source over the man-made activities. Overall study on TSP indicated that aerosols at Pune were mainly affected by the local sources.

Keywords: chemical composition, acidic and neutralization potential, radiative forcing, urban station

Procedia PDF Downloads 168