Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Suna Cinar

11 Optimizing Groundwater Pumping for a Complex Groundwater/Surface Water System

Authors: Emery A. Coppola Jr., Suna Cinar, Ferenc Szidarovszky


Over-pumping of groundwater resources is a serious problem world-wide. In addition to depleting this valuable resource, hydraulically connected sensitive ecological resources like wetlands and surface water bodies are often impacted and even destroyed by over-pumping. Effectively managing groundwater in a way that satisfy human demand while preserving natural resources is a daunting challenge that will only worsen with growing human populations and climate change. As presented in this paper, a numerical flow model developed for a hypothetical but realistic groundwater/surface water system was combined with formal optimization. Response coefficients were used in an optimization management model to maximize groundwater pumping in a complex, multi-layered aquifer system while protecting against groundwater over-draft, streamflow depletion, and wetland impacts. Pumping optimization was performed for different constraint sets that reflect different resource protection preferences, yielding significantly different optimal pumping solutions. A sensitivity analysis on the optimal solutions was performed on select response coefficients to identify differences between wet and dry periods. Stochastic optimization was also performed, where uncertainty associated with changing irrigation demand due to changing weather conditions are accounted for. One of the strengths of this optimization approach is that it can efficiently and accurately identify superior management strategies that minimize risk and adverse environmental impacts associated with groundwater pumping under different hydrologic conditions.

Keywords: numerical groundwater flow modeling, water management optimization, groundwater overdraft, streamflow depletion

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10 Comparison of Different Extraction Methods for the Determination of Polyphenols

Authors: Senem Suna


Extraction of bioactive compounds from several food/food products comes as an important topic and new trend related with health promoting effects. As a result of the increasing interest in natural foods, different methods are used for the acquisition of these components especially polyphenols. However, special attention has to be paid to the selection of proper techniques or several processing technologies (supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, powdered extracts production) for each kind of food to get maximum benefit as well as the obtainment of phenolic compounds. In order to meet consumer’s demand for healthy food and the management of quality and safety requirements, advanced research and development are needed. In this review, advantages, and disadvantages of different extraction methods, their opportunities to be used in food industry and the effects of polyphenols are mentioned in details. Consequently, with the evaluation of the results of several studies, the selection of the most suitable food specific method was aimed.

Keywords: bioactives, extraction, powdered extracts, supercritical fluid extraction

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9 A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Delay Constrained Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hanefi Cinar, Musa Cibuk, Ismail Erturk, Fikri Aggun, Munip Geylani


Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) carry heterogeneous data traffic with different urgency and quality of service (QoS) requirements. There are a lot of studies made on energy efficiency, bandwidth, and communication methods in literature. But delay, high throughput, utility parameters are not well considered. Increasing demand for real-time data transfer makes these parameters more important. In this paper we design new MAC protocol which is delay constrained and targets for improving delay, utility, and throughput performance of the network and finding solutions on collision and interference problems. Protocol improving QoS requirements by using TDMA, FDM, and OFDMA hybrid communication methods with multi-channel communication.

Keywords: MWSN, delay, hybrid MAC, TDMA, FDM, OFDMA

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8 The Cadmium Adsorption Study by Using Seyitomer Fly Ash, Diatomite and Molasses in Wastewater

Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Moroydor Derun, E. Cinar, A. S. Kipcak, N. Baran Acarali, S. Piskin


Fly ash is an important waste, produced in thermal power plants which causes very important environmental pollutions. For this reason the usage and evaluation the fly ash in various areas are very important. Nearly, 15 million tons/year of fly ash is produced in Turkey. In this study, usage of fly ash with diatomite and molasses for heavy metal (Cd) adsorption from wastewater is investigated. The samples of Seyitomer region fly ash were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) then diatomite (0 and 1% in terms of fly ash, w/w) and molasses (0-0.75 mL) were pelletized under 30 MPa of pressure for the usage of cadmium (Cd) adsorption in wastewater. After the adsorption process, samples of Seyitomer were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). As a result, it is seen that the usage of Seyitomer fly ash is proper for cadmium (Cd) adsorption and an optimum adsorption yield with 52% is found at a compound with Seyitomer fly ash (10 g), diatomite (0.5 g) and molasses (0.75 mL) at 2.5 h of reaction time, pH:4, 20ºC of reaction temperature and 300 rpm of stirring rate.

Keywords: heavy metal, fly ash, molasses, diatomite, adsorption, wastewater

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7 Weighted Risk Scores Method Proposal for Occupational Safety Risk Assessment

Authors: Ulas Cinar, Omer Faruk Ugurlu, Selcuk Cebi


Occupational safety risk management is the most important element of a safe working environment. Effective risk management can only be possible with accurate analysis and evaluations. Scoring-based risk assessment methods offer considerable ease of application as they convert linguistic expressions into numerical results. It can also be easily adapted to any field. Contrary to all these advantages, important problems in scoring-based methods are frequently discussed. Effective measurability is one of the most critical problems. Existing methods allow experts to choose a score equivalent to each parameter. Therefore, experts prefer the score of the most likely outcome for risk. However, all other possible consequences are neglected. Assessments of the existing methods express the most probable level of risk, not the real risk of the enterprises. In this study, it is aimed to develop a method that will present a more comprehensive evaluation compared to the existing methods by evaluating the probability and severity scores, all sub-parameters, and potential results, and a new scoring-based method is proposed in the literature.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, risk assessment, scoring based risk assessment method, underground mining, weighted risk scores

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6 Determination of Physicochemical Properties, Bioaccessibility of Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mineral Enriched Linden Herbal Tea Beverage

Authors: Senem Suna, Canan Ece Tamer, Ömer Utku Çopur


In this research, dried linden (Tilia argentea) leaves and blossoms were used as a raw material for mineral enriched herbal tea beverage production. For this aim, %1 dried linden was infused with boiling water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. After cooling, sucrose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, natural lemon flavor and natural mineral water were added. Beverage samples were plate filtered, filled into 200-mL glass bottles, capped then pasteurized at 98 °C for 15 minutes. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH, minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na), color (L*, a*, b*), turbidity, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, and ascorbic were determined as 7.66±0.28 g/100 g, 0.13±0.00 g/100 mL, and 19.42±0.62 mg/100 mL, respectively. pH was measured as 3.69. Fe, Ca, Mg, K and Na contents of the beverage were determined as 0.12±0.00, 115.48±0.05, 34.72±0.14, 48.67±0.43 and 85.72±1.01 mg/L, respectively. Color was measured as 13.63±0.05, -4.33±0.05, and 3.06±0.05 for L*, a*, and b* values. Turbidity was determined as 0.69±0.07 NTU. Bioaccessible phenolics were determined as 312.82±5.91 mg GAE/100 mL. Antioxidant capacities of chemical (MetOH:H2O:HCl) and physiological extracts (in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction) with DPPH (27.59±0.53 and 0.17±0.02 μmol trolox/mL), FRAP (21.01±0.97 and 13.27±0.19 μmol trolox/mL) and CUPRAC (44.71±9.42 and 2.80±0.64 μmol trolox/mL) methods were also evaluated. As a result, enrichment with natural mineral water was proposed for the development of functional and nutritional values together with a good potential for commercialization.

Keywords: linden, herbal tea beverage, bioaccessibility, antioxidant capacity

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5 A Pilot Study on Integration of Simulation in the Nursing Educational Program: Hybrid Simulation

Authors: Vesile Unver, Tulay Basak, Hatice Ayhan, Ilknur Cinar, Emine Iyigun, Nuran Tosun


The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the hybrid simulation. In this simulation, types standardized patients and task trainers are employed simultaneously. For instance, in order to teach the IV activities standardized patients and IV arm models are used. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental research. Before the implementation an ethical permission was taken from the local ethical commission and administrative permission was granted from the nursing school. The universe of the study included second-grade nursing students (n=77). The participants were selected through simple random sample technique and total of 39 nursing students were included. The views of the participants were collected through a feedback form with 12 items. The form was developed by the authors and “Patient intervention self-confidence/competence scale”. Participants reported advantages of the hybrid simulation practice. Such advantages include the following: developing connections between the simulated scenario and real life situations in clinical conditions; recognition of the need for learning more about clinical practice. They all stated that the implementation was very useful for them. They also added three major gains; improvement of critical thinking skills (94.7%) and the skill of making decisions (97.3%); and feeling as if a nurse (92.1%). In regard to the mean scores of the participants in the patient intervention self-confidence/competence scale, it was found that the total mean score for the scale was 75.23±7.76. The findings obtained in the study suggest that the hybrid simulation has positive effects on the integration of theoretical and practical activities before clinical activities for the nursing students.

Keywords: hybrid simulation, clinical practice, nursing education, nursing students

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4 An Assessment of Airport Collaborative Decision-Making System Using Predictive Maintenance

Authors: Faruk Aras, Melih Inal, Tansel Cinar


The coordination of airport staff especially in the operations and maintenance departments is important for the airport operation. As a result, this coordination will increase the efficiency in all operation. Therefore, a Collaborative Decision-Making (CDM) system targets on improving the overall productivity of all operations by optimizing the use of resources and improving the predictability of actions. Enlarged productivity can be of major benefit for all airport operations. It also increases cost-efficiency. This study explains how predictive maintenance using IoT (Internet of Things), predictive operations and the statistical data such as Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) improves airport terminal operations and utilize airport terminal equipment in collaboration with collaborative decision making system/Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC). Data generated by the predictive maintenance methods is retrieved and analyzed by maintenance managers to predict when a problem is about to occur. With that information, maintenance can be scheduled when needed. As an example, AOCC operator would have chance to assign a new gate that towards to this gate all the equipment such as travellator, elevator, escalator etc. are operational if the maintenance team is in collaboration with AOCC since maintenance team is aware of the health of the equipment because of predictive maintenance methods. Applying predictive maintenance methods based on analyzing the health of airport terminal equipment dramatically reduces the risk of downtime by on time repairs. We can classify the categories as high priority calls for urgent repair action, as medium priority requires repair at the earliest opportunity, and low priority allows maintenance to be scheduled when convenient. In all cases, identifying potential problems early resulted in better allocation airport terminal resources by AOCC.

Keywords: airport, predictive maintenance, collaborative decision-making system, Airport Operation Control Center (AOCC)

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3 Boundary Crossings: Brahmanical Patriarchy, Power, and Sexual Violence in COVID-19 in Odisha, India

Authors: Saraswati Suna


The outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic and the subsequent lockdown have significantly impacted India's political, structural, and economic systems and a rising gap between the rich and the disadvantaged, upper and lower caste. For Dalit women, such forms of subjugation were followed by socioeconomic uncertainty due to the pandemic's economic shutdown and labour oppressions. Dalit women have been the victims of the most oppression among the nation's underprivileged groups. Dalit women undergo systemic oppression at the hands of the state, caste, class, gender, and religious hegemons historically. Dalit women hold a subordinate position within the gender to their male counterparts and caste to their upper-caste counterparts. This paper examines how Brahminical patriarchy and state power severely affected Dalit/Adivasi women during COVID-19 in Odisha, India. In order to understand caste-based sexual violence, a total of five cases have been analysed from newspapers. Findings revealed that Covid-19 appears to have a significant physical, psychological, and economic impact on Dalit women. The intention of sexual harassment and rape perpetrated by upper caste men is to maintain power and patriarchal culture in society. Dalit women are economically, socially, and culturally marginalised, which effectively exacerbates the sense of impunity by perpetrators of violence against Dalit women. This issue requires special attention to end atrocities against Dalit women. Dalit women become the target of rape, sexual assault, and murder. Sexual violence against Dalit women cannot be fully explained without linkage to caste, gender, and power. Dominant caste comes through caste privilege-socio-economic and politically; these factors contribute to sexual violence against Dalit women. The findings revealed that state police manipulate sexual violence, and in so doing, they create and deny access to both services to get justice. This article has argued that understanding Brahminical culture and the legal impacts of state police on Dalit women's identity requires a nuanced analysis.

Keywords: COVID-19, dalit women, sexual violence, brahminical patriarchy, power

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2 Acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint in L2 Turkish by Adult Korean Speakers

Authors: Oktay Cinar


The aim of this study is to investigate the acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint (OPC) by adult Korean L2 Turkish speakers in order to find out how constraints regulating the syntax of null and overt subjects are acquired. OPC is claimed to be a universal feature of all null subject languages restricting the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun and quantified or wh-question antecedents. However, there is no such restriction when the embedded subject is null or the antecedent is a referential subject. Considered as a principle of Universal Grammar (UG), OPC knowledge of L2 speakers has been widely tested with different language pairs. In the light of previous studies on OPC, it can be argued that L2 learners display early sensitivity to OPC constraints during their interlanguage grammar development. Concerning this, the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun o (third person pronoun) and referential matrix subject is claimed to be controversial in Turkish, which poses problems with the universality of OPC. However, the current study argues against this claim by providing evidence from advanced Korean speakers that OPC is universal to all null subject languages and OPC knowledge can be accessed with direct access to UG. In other words, the performances of adult Korean speakers on the syntax of null and overt subjects are tested to support this claim. In order to test this, OPC task is used. 15 advanced speakers and a control group of adult native Turkish participants are instructed to determine the co-reference relationship between the subject of embedded clause, either overt pronominal o or null, and the subject of the matrix clause, either quantified pronoun and wh-question or referential antecedent. They are asked to select the interpretation of the embedded subject, either as the same person as in the matrix subject or another person who is not the same person in the matrix subject. These relations are represented with four conditions, and each condition has four questions (16 questions in total). The results claim that both control group and Korean L2 Turkish speakers display sensitivity to all constraints that OPC has, which suggests that OPC works in Turkish as well.

Keywords: adult Korean speakers, binding theory, generative second language acquisition, overt pronoun constraint

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1 Performance Improvement of a Single-Flash Geothermal Power Plant Design in Iran: Combining with Gas Turbines and CHP Systems

Authors: Morteza Sharifhasan, Davoud Hosseini, Mohammad. R. Salimpour


The geothermal energy is considered as a worldwide important renewable energy in recent years due to rising environmental pollution concerns. Low- and medium-grade geothermal heat (< 200 ºC) is commonly employed for space heating and in domestic hot water supply. However, there is also much interest in converting the abundant low- and medium-grade geothermal heat into electrical power. The Iranian Ministry of Power - through the Iran Renewable Energy Organization (SUNA) – is going to build the first Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) in Iran in the Sabalan area in the Northwest of Iran. This project is a 5.5 MWe single flash steam condensing power plant. The efficiency of GPPs is low due to the relatively low pressure and temperature of the saturated steam. In addition to GPPs, Gas Turbines (GTs) are also known by their relatively low efficiency. The Iran ministry of Power is trying to increase the efficiency of these GTs by adding bottoming steam cycles to the GT to form what is known as combined gas/steam cycle. One of the most effective methods for increasing the efficiency is combined heat and power (CHP). This paper investigates the feasibility of superheating the saturated steam that enters the steam turbine of the Sabalan GPP (SGPP-1) to improve the energy efficiency and power output of the GPP. This purpose is achieved by combining the GPP with two 3.5 MWe GTs. In this method, the hot gases leaving GTs are utilized through a superheater similar to that used in the heat recovery steam generator of combined gas/steam cycle. Moreover, brine separated in the separator, hot gases leaving GTs and superheater are used for the supply of domestic hot water (in this paper, the cycle combined of GTs and CHP systems is named the modified SGPP-1) . In this research, based on the Heat Balance presented in the basic design documents of the SGPP-1, mathematical/numerical model of the power plant are developed together with the mentioned GTs and CHP systems. Based on the required hot water, the amount of hot gasses needed to pass through CHP section directly can be adjusted. For example, during summer when hot water is less required, the hot gases leaving both GTs pass through the superheater and CHP systems respectively. On the contrary, in order to supply the required hot water during the winter, the hot gases of one of the GTs enter the CHP section directly, without passing through the super heater section. The results show that there is an increase in thermal efficiency up to 40% through using the modified SGPP-1. Since the gross efficiency of SGPP-1 is 9.6%, the achieved increase in thermal efficiency is significant. The power output of SGPP-1 is increased up to 40% in summer (from 5.5MW to 7.7 MW) while the GTs power output remains almost unchanged. Meanwhile, the combined-cycle power output increases from the power output of the two separate plants of 12.5 MW [5.5+ (2×3.5)] to the combined-cycle power output of 14.7 [7.7+(2×3.5)]. This output is more than 17% above the output of the two separate plants. The modified SGPP-1 is capable of producing 215 T/Hr hot water ( 90 ºC ) for domestic use in the winter months.

Keywords: combined cycle, chp, efficiency, gas turbine, geothermal power plant, gas turbine, power output

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