Search results for: microchannel
68 Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow in a Microchannel with Slippage at the Walls and Asymmetric Wall Zeta Potentials
Authors: Oscar Bautista, Jose Arcos
Abstract:In this work, we conduct a theoretical analysis of an oscillatory electroosmotic flow in a parallel-plate microchannel taking into account slippage at the microchannel walls. The governing equations given by the Poisson-Boltzmann (with the Debye-Huckel approximation) and momentum equations are nondimensionalized from which four dimensionless parameters appear; a Reynolds angular number, the ratio between the zeta potentials of the microchannel walls, the electrokinetic parameter and the dimensionless slip length which measures the competition between the Navier slip length and the half height microchannel. The principal results indicate that the slippage has a strong influence on the magnitude of the oscillatory electroosmotic flow increasing the velocity magnitude up to 50% for the numerical values used in this work.
Keywords: electroosmotic flows, oscillatory flow, slippage, microchannelProcedia PDF Downloads 149
67 Complex Cooling Approach in Microchannel Heat Exchangers Using Solid and Hollow Fins
Authors: Nahum Yustus Godi
Abstract:A three-dimensional numerical optimisation of combined microchannels with constructal solid, half hollow, and hollow circular fins is documented in this paper. The technique seeks to minimize peak temperature in the entire volume of the microchannel heat sink. The volume and axial length were all fixed, while the width of the microchannel could morph. High-density heat flux was applied at the bottom wall of the microchannel. The coolant employed to remove the heat deposited at the bottom surface of the microchannel was a single-phase fluid (water) in a forced convection laminar condition, and heat transfer was a conjugate problem. The unit cell symmetrical computation domain was discretised, and governing equations were solved using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The results reveal that the combined microchannel with hollow circular fins and solid fins performed better at different Reynolds numbers. The numerical study was validated for the single microchannel without fins and found to be in good agreement with previous studies.
Keywords: constructal fins, complex heat exchangers, cooling technique, numerical optimisationProcedia PDF Downloads 152
66 CFD Modeling of Boiling in a Microchannel Based On Phase-Field Method
Authors: Rahim Jafari, Tuba Okutucu-Özyurt
Abstract:The hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of a vaporized elongated bubble in a rectangular microchannel have been simulated based on Cahn-Hilliard phase-field method. In the simulations, the initially nucleated bubble starts growing as it comes in contact with superheated water. The growing shape of the bubble compared with the available experimental data in the literature.
Keywords: microchannel, boiling, Cahn-Hilliard method, simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 341
65 A Review of the Relation between Thermofludic Properties of the Fluid in Micro Channel Based Cooling Solutions and the Shape of Microchannel
Authors: Gurjit Singh, Gurmail Singh
Abstract:The shape of microchannels in microchannel heat sinks can have a significant impact on both heat transfer and fluid flow properties. Heat Transfer, pressure drop, and Some effects of microchannel shape on these properties. The shape of microchannels can affect the heat transfer performance of microchannel heat sinks. Channels with rectangular or square cross-sections typically have higher heat transfer coefficients compared to circular channels. This is because rectangular or square channels have a larger wetted perimeter per unit cross-sectional area, which enhances the heat transfer from the fluid to the channel walls. The shape of microchannels can also affect the pressure drop across the heat sink. Channels with a rectangular cross-section usually have higher pressure drop than circular channels. This is because the corners of rectangular channels create additional flow resistance, which leads to a higher pressure drop. Overall, the shape of microchannels in microchannel heat sinks can have a significant impact on the heat transfer and fluid flow properties of the heat sink. The optimal shape of microchannels depends on the specific application and the desired balance between heat transfer performance and pressure drop.
Keywords: heat transfer, microchannel heat sink, pressure drop, chape of microchannelProcedia PDF Downloads 13
64 Numerical Optimization of Trapezoidal Microchannel Heat Sinks
Authors: Yue-Tzu Yang, Shu-Ching Liao
Abstract:This study presents the numerical simulation of three-dimensional incompressible steady and laminar fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink using water as a cooling fluid in a silicon substrate. Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate energy equation are discretized by finite-volume method. We perform numerical computations for a range of 50 ≦ Re ≦ 600, 0.05W ≦ P ≦ 0.8W, 20W/cm2 ≦ ≦ 40W/cm2. The present study demonstrates the numerical optimization of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink design using the response surface methodology (RSM) and the genetic algorithm method (GA). The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in the Reynolds number or pumping power, and the thermal resistance decreases as the pumping power increases. The thermal resistance of a trapezoidal microchannel is minimized for a constant heat flux and constant pumping power.
Keywords: microchannel heat sinks, conjugate heat transfer, optimization, genetic algorithm methodProcedia PDF Downloads 244
63 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Aspect Ratio of a Rectangular Microchannel on the Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop
Authors: J. A. Louw Coetzee, Josua P. Meyer
Abstract:The thermodynamic properties of different refrigerants in combination with the variation in geometrical properties (hydraulic diameter, aspect ratio, and inclination angle) of a rectangular microchannel determine the two-phase frictional pressure gradient. The effect of aspect ratio on frictional pressure drop had not been investigated enough during adiabatic two-phase flow and condensation in rectangular microchannels. This experimental study was concerned with measurement of the frictional pressure gradient in a rectangular microchannel, with hydraulic diameter of 900 μm. The aspect ratio of this microchannel was varied over a range that stretched from 0.3 to 3 in order to capture the effect of aspect ratio variation. A commonly used refrigerant, R134a, was used in the tests that spanned over a mass flux range of 100 to 1000 kg m-2 s-1 as well as the whole vapour quality range. This study formed part of a refrigerant condensation experiment and was therefore conducted at a saturation temperature of 40 °C. The study found that there was little influence of the aspect ratio on the frictional pressure drop at the test conditions. The data was compared to some of the well known micro- and macro-channel two-phase pressure drop correlations. Most of the separated flow correlations predicted the pressure drop data well at mass fluxes larger than 400 kg m-2 s-1 and vapour qualities above 0.2.
Keywords: aspect ratio, microchannel, two-phase, pressure gradientProcedia PDF Downloads 296
62 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Microchannel with Thin Obstacles
Authors: Malorzata Kmiotek, Anna Kucaba-Pietal, Robert Smusz
Abstract:Due to the miniaturisation process, in many technical devices, microchannels are used in cooling systems. Because of the small size of microchannels, the flow inside is laminar, which caused a slow heat exchange. In order to intensify the heat exchange, the flow must be disturbed, for example, by introducing obstacles. We present results on the influence of a thin obstacle, placed on microchannel wall, on the fluid and heat flow in the aspect of their use by constructors of heat exchangers. The obstacle is called 'thin' when its geometrical parameter (o=w/h, w- width, h - height of the obstacle) satisfies inequality: o < 0.5. In this work, we report numerical results on heat and mass transfer in the microchannels of 400 micrometer height (H - height of the microchannel), where thin obstacles are immersed on the walls, to disturb the flow. The Reynolds number of the flow in microchannel varies between 20 and 200 and is typical for the flow in micro heat exchangers. The equations describing the fluid and heat flows in microchannels were solved numerically by using the finite element method with an application of CFD&FSI package of ADINA R&D, Inc. 9.4 solver. In the case of flows in the microchannels with sequences of thin rectangular obstacles placed on the bottom and the top wall of a microchannel, the influence of distances s (s is the distance between two thin obstacles) and heights of obstacles on the fluid and heat transfer was investigated. Thermal and flow conditions of the application area of microchannels in electronic cooling systems, i.e., wall temperature of 60 °C, the fluid temperature of 20°C were used to solve equations. Additionally, the distance s between the thin obstacles in microchannels as a multiple of the amount of the channel height was determined. Results show that placing thin obstacles on microchannel walls increase the length of recirculation zones of the flow and improves the heat transfer.
Keywords: Finite Element Method, heat transfer, mechanical engineering, microchannelProcedia PDF Downloads 68
61 Theoretical Analysis of Performance Parameters of a Microchannel Heat Exchanger
Authors: Shreyas Kotian, Nishant Jainm, Nachiket Methekar
Abstract:The increase in energy demands in various industrial sectors has called for devices small in size with high heat transfer rates. Microchannel heat exchangers (MCHX) have thus been studied and applied in various fields such as thermal engineering, aerospace engineering and nanoscale heat transfer. They have been a case of investigation due to their augmented thermal characteristics and low-pressure drop. The goal of the current investigation is to analyze the thermohydraulic performance of the heat exchanger analytically. Studies are done for various inlet conditions and flow conditions. At Thi of 90°C, the effectiveness increased by about 22% for an increase in Re from 1000 to 5000 of the cold fluid. It was also observed that at Re = 5000 for the hot fluid, the heat recovered by the hot fluid increases by about 69% for an increase in inlet temperature of the hot fluid from 50°C to 70°C.
Keywords: theoretical analysis, performance parameters, microchannel heat exchanger, Reynolds numberProcedia PDF Downloads 89
60 Optimization of Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sinks
Authors: Tu-Chieh Hung, Wei-Mon Yan, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yu-Xian Huang
Abstract:This work employs a combined optimization procedure including a simplified conjugate-gradient method and a three-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer model to study the optimal geometric parameter design of double-layered microchannel heat sinks. The overall thermal resistance RT is the objective function to be minimized with number of channels, N, the channel width ratio, β, the bottom channel aspect ratio, αb, and upper channel aspect ratio, αu, as the search variables. It is shown that, for the given bottom area (10 mm×10 mm) and heat flux (100 W cm-2), the optimal (minimum) thermal resistance of double-layered microchannel heat sinks is about RT=0.12 ℃/m2W with the corresponding optimal geometric parameters N=73, β=0.50, αb=3.52, and, αu= 7.21 under a constant pumping power of 0.05 W. The optimization process produces a maximum reduction by 52.8% in the overall thermal resistance compared with an initial guess (N=112, β=0.37, αb=10.32 and, αu=10.93). The results also show that the optimal thermal resistance decreases rapidly with the pumping power and tends to be a saturated value afterward. The corresponding optimal values of parameters N, αb, and αu increase while that of β decrease as the pumping power increases. However, further increasing pumping power is not always cost-effective for the application of heat sink designs.
Keywords: optimization, double-layered microchannel heat sink, simplified conjugate-gradient method, thermal resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 412
59 Single Phase Fluid Flow in Series of Microchannel Connected via Converging-Diverging Section with or without Throat
Authors: Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Kaushal Kishor, Wasim Khan, Dhananjay Singh, M. S. Alam
Abstract:Single phase fluid flow through series of uniform microchannels connected via transition section (converging-diverging section with or without throat) was analytically and numerically studied to characterize the flow within the channel and in the transition sections. Three sets of microchannels of diameters 100, 184, and 249 μm were considered for investigation. Each set contains 10 numbers of microchannels of length 20 mm, connected to each other in series via transition sections. Transition section consists of either converging-diverging section with throat or without throat. The effect of non-uniformity in microchannels on pressure drop was determined by passing water/air through the set of channels for Reynolds number 50 to 1000. Compressibility and rarefaction effects in transition sections were also tested analytically and numerically for air flow. The analytical and numerical results show that these configurations can be used in enhancement of transport processes. However, converging-diverging section without throat shows superior performance over with throat configuration.
Keywords: contraction-expansion flow, integrated microchannel, microchannel network, single phase flowProcedia PDF Downloads 208
58 AC Electro-Kinetics, Bipolar Current and Concentration-Polarization in a Microchannel-Nafion Membrane System
Authors: Sinwook Park, Gilad Yossifon
Abstract:The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration-polarization (CP) across a microchannel-membrane device, produces not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) vortex and but also a bipolar current resulting from faradaic reactions. It has been shown that there exists an optimal SiO2 layer thickness of ~50nm which is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents (at least up to 5V applied voltage) but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting its I-V response. This effect is pronounced beyond the limiting current where the existence of the depletion layer results in increased local electric field due to decreased solution conductivity. This comprehensive study of the interaction of embedded electrodes with the induced CP in microchannel-perm selective medium systems, allows one to choose the thickness of the thin dielectric coating to either enhance the mixing as a means to control the diffuse layer, or suppress it, for example, in the case where electrodes are intended for local measurements of the solution conductivity with minimal invasion. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the CP length. In addition, the use of embedded heaters within the depletion layer generates electro-thermal vortices that in turn also control the CP length.
Keywords: AC electrokinetics, microchannel, concentration-polarization, bipolar currentProcedia PDF Downloads 203
57 Fabrication of Glucose/O₂ Microfluidic Biofuel Cell with Double Layer of Electrodes
Authors: Haroon Khan, Chul Min Kim, Sung Yeol Kim, Sanket Goel, Prabhat K. Dwivedi, Ashutosh Sharma, Gyu Man Kim
Abstract:Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) have drawn the attention of researchers due to its demanding application in medical implants. In EBFCs, electricity is produced with the help of redox enzymes. In this study, we report the fabrication of membraneless EBFC with new design of electrodes to overcome microchannel related limitations. The device consists of double layer of electrodes on both sides of Y-shaped microchannel to reduce the effect of oxygen depletion layer and diffusion of fuel and oxidant at the end of microchannel. Moreover, the length of microchannel was reduced by half keeping the same area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) electrodes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils were used to pattern MWCNT electrodes on etched Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass. PDMS casting was used to fabricate microchannel of the device. Both anode and cathode were modified with glucose oxidase and laccase. Furthermore, these enzymes were covalently bound to carboxyl MWCNTs with the help of EDC/NHS. Glucose used as fuel was oxidized by glucose oxidase at anode while oxygen was reduced to water at the cathode side. The resulted devices were investigated with the help of polarization curves obtained from Chronopotentiometry technique by using potentiostat. From results, we conclude that the performance of double layer EBFC is improved 15 % as compared to single layer EBFC delivering maximum power density of 71.25 µW cm-2 at a cell potential of 0.3 V and current density of 250 µA cm-2 at micro channel height of 450-µm and flow rate of 25 ml hr-1. However, the new device was stable only for three days after which its power output was rapidly dropped by 75 %. This work demonstrates that the power output of membraneless EBFC is improved comparatively, but still efforts will be needed to make the device stable over long period of time.
Keywords: EBFC, glucose, MWCNT, microfluidicProcedia PDF Downloads 257
56 Thermal Performance of a Pair of Synthetic Jets Equipped in Microchannel
Authors: J. Mohammadpour, G. E. Lau, S. Cheng, A. Lee
Abstract:Numerical study was conducted using two synthetic jet actuators attached underneath a micro-channel. By fixing the oscillating frequency and diaphragm amplitude, the effects on the heat transfer within the micro-channel were investigated with two synthetic jets being in-phase and 180° out-of-phase at different orifice spacing. There was a significant benefit identified with two jets being 180° out-of-phase with each other at the orifice spacing of 2 mm. By having this configuration, there was a distinct pattern of vortex forming which disrupts the main channel flow as well as promoting thermal mixing at high velocity within the channel. Therefore, this configuration achieved higher cooling performance compared to the other cases studied in terms of the reduction in the maximum temperature and cooling uniformity in the silicon wafer.
Keywords: synthetic jets, microchannel, electronic cooling, computational fluid dynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 76
55 Mathematical Modeling of the Water Bridge Formation in Porous Media: PEMFC Microchannels
Authors: N. Ibrahim-Rassoul, A. Kessi, E. K. Si-Ahmed, N. Djilali, J. Legrand
Abstract:The static and dynamic formation of liquid water bridges is analyzed using a combination of visualization experiments in a microchannel with a mathematical model. This paper presents experimental and theoretical findings of water plug/capillary bridge formation in a 250 μm squared microchannel. The approach combines mathematical and numerical modeling with experimental visualization and measurements. The generality of the model is also illustrated for flow conditions encountered in manipulation of polymeric materials and formation of liquid bridges between patterned surfaces. The predictions of the model agree favorably the observations as well as with the experimental recordings.
Keywords: green energy, mathematical modeling, fuel cell, water plug, gas diffusion layer, surface of revolutionProcedia PDF Downloads 366
54 Enhancement of Mass Transport and Separations of Species in a Electroosmotic Flow by Distinct Oscillatory Signals
Authors: Carlos Teodoro, Oscar Bautista
Abstract:In this work, we analyze theoretically the mass transport in a time-periodic electroosmotic flow through a parallel flat plate microchannel under different periodic functions of the applied external electric field. The microchannel connects two reservoirs having different constant concentrations of an electro-neutral solute, and the zeta potential of the microchannel walls are assumed to be uniform. The governing equations that allow determining the mass transport in the microchannel are given by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the modified Navier-Stokes equations, where the Debye-Hückel approximation is considered (the zeta potential is less than 25 mV), and the species conservation. These equations are nondimensionalized and four dimensionless parameters appear which control the mass transport phenomenon. In this sense, these parameters are an angular Reynolds, the Schmidt and the Péclet numbers, and an electrokinetic parameter representing the ratio of the half-height of the microchannel to the Debye length. To solve the mathematical model, first, the electric potential is determined from the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, which allows determining the electric force for various periodic functions of the external electric field expressed as Fourier series. In particular, three different excitation wave forms of the external electric field are assumed, a) sawteeth, b) step, and c) a periodic irregular functions. The periodic electric forces are substituted in the modified Navier-Stokes equations, and the hydrodynamic field is derived for each case of the electric force. From the obtained velocity fields, the species conservation equation is solved and the concentration fields are found. Numerical calculations were done by considering several binary systems where two dilute species are transported in the presence of a carrier. It is observed that there are different angular frequencies of the imposed external electric signal where the total mass transport of each species is the same, independently of the molecular diffusion coefficient. These frequencies are called crossover frequencies and are obtained graphically at the intersection when the total mass transport is plotted against the imposed frequency. The crossover frequencies are different depending on the Schmidt number, the electrokinetic parameter, the angular Reynolds number, and on the type of signal of the external electric field. It is demonstrated that the mass transport through the microchannel is strongly dependent on the modulation frequency of the applied particular alternating electric field. Possible extensions of the analysis to more complicated pulsation profiles are also outlined.
Keywords: electroosmotic flow, mass transport, oscillatory flow, species separationProcedia PDF Downloads 149
53 Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow of Power-Law Fluids in a Microchannel
Authors: Rubén Bãnos, José Arcos, Oscar Bautista, Federico Méndez
Abstract:The Oscillatory electroosmotic flow (OEOF) in power law fluids through a microchannel is studied numerically. A time-dependent external electric field (AC) is suddenly imposed at the ends of the microchannel which induces the fluid motion. The continuity and momentum equations in the x and y direction for the flow field were simplified in the limit of the lubrication approximation theory (LAT), and then solved using a numerical scheme. The solution of the electric potential is based on the Debye-H¨uckel approximation which suggest that the surface potential is small,say, smaller than 0.025V and for a symmetric (z : z) electrolyte. Our results suggest that the velocity profiles across the channel-width are controlled by the following dimensionless parameters: the angular Reynolds number, Reω, the electrokinetic parameter, ¯κ, defined as the ratio of the characteristic length scale to the Debye length, the parameter λ which represents the ratio of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the characteristic length scale and the flow behavior index, n. Also, the results reveal that the velocity profiles become more and more non-uniform across the channel-width as the Reω and ¯κ are increased, so oscillatory OEOF can be really useful in micro-fluidic devices such as micro-mixers.
Keywords: low zeta potentials, non-newtonian, oscillatory electroosmotic flow, power-law modelProcedia PDF Downloads 96
52 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isothermal Microchannel
Authors: Huei Chu Weng, Chien-Hung Liu
Abstract:This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip and jump on forced convection through a long isothermally heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of thermal flow fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and Smoluchowski jump boundary conditions. Results reveal that the second-order term in the Karniadakis slip boundary condition is found to contribute a negative velocity slip and then to lead to a higher pressure drop as well as a higher fluid temperature for the heated-wall case or to a lower fluid temperature for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Deissler model. In addition, the role of second-order slip becomes more significant when the Knudsen number increases.
Keywords: microfluidics, forced convection, gas rarefaction, second-order boundary conditionsProcedia PDF Downloads 392
51 Simulation and Characterization of Stretching and Folding in Microchannel Electrokinetic Flows
Authors: Justo Rodriguez, Daming Chen, Amador M. Guzman
Abstract:The detection, treatment, and control of rapidly propagating, deadly viruses such as COVID-19, require the development of inexpensive, fast, and accurate devices to address the urgent needs of the population. Microfluidics-based sensors are amongst the different methods and techniques for detection that are easy to use. A micro analyzer is defined as a microfluidics-based sensor, composed of a network of microchannels with varying functions. Given their size, portability, and accuracy, they are proving to be more effective and convenient than other solutions. A micro analyzer based on the concept of “Lab on a Chip” presents advantages concerning other non-micro devices due to its smaller size, and it is having a better ratio between useful area and volume. The integration of multiple processes in a single microdevice reduces both the number of necessary samples and the analysis time, leading the next generation of analyzers for the health-sciences. In some applications, the flow of solution within the microchannels is originated by a pressure gradient, which can produce adverse effects on biological samples. A more eﬃcient and less dangerous way of controlling the flow in a microchannel-based analyzer is applying an electric field to induce the fluid motion and either enhance or suppress the mixing process. Electrokinetic flows are characterized by no less than two non-dimensional parameters: the electric Rayleigh number and its geometrical aspect ratio. In this research, stable and unstable flows have been studied numerically (and when possible, will be experimental) in a T-shaped microchannel. Additionally, unstable electrokinetic flows for Rayleigh numbers higher than critical have been characterized. The flow mixing enhancement was quantified in relation to the stretching and folding that fluid particles undergo when they are subjected to supercritical electrokinetic flows. Computational simulations were carried out using a finite element-based program while working with the flow mixing concepts developed by Gollub and collaborators. Hundreds of seeded massless particles were tracked along the microchannel from the entrance to exit for both stable and unstable flows. After post-processing, their trajectories, the folding and stretching values for the different flows were found. Numerical results show that for supercritical electrokinetic flows, the enhancement effects of the folding and stretching processes become more apparent. Consequently, there is an improvement in the mixing process, ultimately leading to a more homogenous mixture.
Keywords: microchannel, stretching and folding, electro kinetic flow mixing, micro-analyzerProcedia PDF Downloads 59
50 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel
Authors: Huei Chu Weng
Abstract:This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Karniadakis slip model.
Keywords: microfluidics, forced convection, thermal creep, second-order boundary conditionsProcedia PDF Downloads 237
49 Liquid-Liquid Plug Flow Characteristics in Microchannel with T-Junction
Authors: Anna Yagodnitsyna, Alexander Kovalev, Artur Bilsky
Abstract:The efficiency of certain technological processes in two-phase microfluidics such as emulsion production, nanomaterial synthesis, nitration, extraction processes etc. depends on two-phase flow regimes in microchannels. For practical application in chemistry and biochemistry it is very important to predict the expected flow pattern for a large variety of fluids and channel geometries. In the case of immiscible liquids, the plug flow is a typical and optimal regime for chemical reactions and needs to be predicted by empirical data or correlations. In this work flow patterns of immiscible liquid-liquid flow in a rectangular microchannel with T-junction are investigated. Three liquid-liquid flow systems are considered, viz. kerosene – water, paraffin oil – water and castor oil – paraffin oil. Different flow patterns such as parallel flow, slug flow, plug flow, dispersed (droplet) flow, and rivulet flow are observed for different velocity ratios. New flow pattern of the parallel flow with steady wavy interface (serpentine flow) has been found. It is shown that flow pattern maps based on Weber numbers for different liquid-liquid systems do not match well. Weber number multiplied by Ohnesorge number is proposed as a parameter to generalize flow maps. Flow maps based on this parameter are superposed well for all liquid-liquid systems of this work and other experiments. Plug length and velocity are measured for the plug flow regime. When dispersed liquid wets channel walls plug length cannot be predicted by known empirical correlations. By means of particle tracking velocimetry technique instantaneous velocity fields in a plug flow regime were measured. Flow circulation inside plug was calculated using velocity data that can be useful for mass flux prediction in chemical reactions.
Keywords: flow patterns, hydrodynamics, liquid-liquid flow, microchannelProcedia PDF Downloads 313
48 Viscoelastic Cell Concentration in a High Aspect Ratio Microchannel Using a Non-Powered Air Compressor
Authors: Jeonghun Nam, Seonggil Kim, Hyunjoo Choi, Chae Seung Lim
Abstract:Quantification and analysis of rare cells are challenging in clinical applications and cell biology due to its extremely small number in blood. In this work, we propose a viscoelastic microfluidic device for continuous cell concentration without sheath flows. Due to the viscoelastic effect on suspending cells, cells with the blockage ratio higher than 0.1 could be tightly focused at the center of the microchannel. The blockage ratio was defined as the particle diameter divided by the channel width. Finally, cells were concentrated through the center outlet and the additional suspending medium was removed to the side outlets. Since viscoelastic focusing is insensitive to the flow rate higher than 10 μl/min, the non-powered hand pump sprayer could be used with no accurate control of the flow rate, which is suitable for clinical settings in resource-limited developing countries. Using multiple concentration processes, high-throughput concentration of white blood cells in lysed blood sample was achieved by ~ 300-fold.
Keywords: cell concentration, high-throughput, non-powered, viscoelastic fluidProcedia PDF Downloads 198
47 Multi-Size Continuous Particle Separation on a Dielectrophoresis-Based Microfluidics Chip
Authors: Arash Dalili, Hamed Tahmouressi, Mina Hoorfar
Abstract:Advances in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices have led to significant advances in the manipulation, separation, and isolation of particles and cells. Among the different active and passive particle manipulation methods, dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been proven to be a versatile mechanism as it is label-free, cost-effective, simple to operate, and has high manipulation efficiency. DEP has been applied for a wide range of biological and environmental applications. A popular form of DEP devices is the continuous manipulation of particles by using co-planar slanted electrodes, which utilizes a sheath flow to focus the particles into one side of the microchannel. When particles enter the DEP manipulation zone, the negative DEP (nDEP) force generated by the slanted electrodes deflects the particles laterally towards the opposite side of the microchannel. The lateral displacement of the particles is dependent on multiple parameters including the geometry of the electrodes, the width, length and height of the microchannel, the size of the particles and the throughput. In this study, COMSOL Multiphysics® modeling along with experimental studies are used to investigate the effect of the aforementioned parameters. The electric field between the electrodes and the induced DEP force on the particles are modelled by COMSOL Multiphysics®. The simulation model is used to show the effect of the DEP force on the particles, and how the geometry of the electrodes (width of the electrodes and the gap between them) plays a role in the manipulation of polystyrene microparticles. The simulation results show that increasing the electrode width to a certain limit, which depends on the height of the channel, increases the induced DEP force. Also, decreasing the gap between the electrodes leads to a stronger DEP force. Based on these results, criteria for the fabrication of the electrodes were found, and soft lithography was used to fabricate interdigitated slanted electrodes and microchannels. Experimental studies were run to find the effect of the flow rate, geometrical parameters of the microchannel such as length, width, and height as well as the electrodes’ angle on the displacement of 5 um, 10 um and 15 um polystyrene particles. An empirical equation is developed to predict the displacement of the particles under different conditions. It is shown that the displacement of the particles is more for longer and lower height channels, lower flow rates, and bigger particles. On the other hand, the effect of the angle of the electrodes on the displacement of the particles was negligible. Based on the results, we have developed an optimum design (in terms of efficiency and throughput) for three size separation of particles.
Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics, Dielectrophoresis, Microfluidics, Particle separationProcedia PDF Downloads 86
46 The Droplet Generation and Flow in the T-Shape Microchannel with the Side Wall Fluctuation
Authors: Yan Pang, Xiang Wang, Zhaomiao Liu
Abstract:Droplet microfluidics, in which nanoliter to picoliter droplets acted as individual compartments, are common to a diverse array of applications such as analytical chemistry, tissue engineering, microbiology and drug discovery. The droplet generation in a simplified two dimension T-shape microchannel with the main channel width of 50 μm and the side channel width of 25 μm, is simulated to investigate effects of the forced fluctuation of the side wall on the droplet generation and flow. The periodic fluctuations are applied on a length of the side wall in the main channel of the T-junction with the deformation shape of the double-clamped beam acted by the uniform force, which varies with the flow time and fluctuation periods, forms and positions. The fluctuations under most of the conditions expand the distribution range of the droplet size but have a little effect on the average size, while the shape of the fixed side wall changes the average droplet size chiefly. Droplet sizes show a periodic pattern along the relative time when the fluctuation is forced on the side wall near the T-junction. The droplet emerging frequency is not varied by the fluctuation of the side wall under the same flow rate and geometry conditions. When the fluctuation period is similar with the droplet emerging period, the droplet size shows a nice stability as the no fluctuation case.
Keywords: droplet generation, droplet size, flow flied, forced fluctuationProcedia PDF Downloads 212
45 Consumption and Diffusion Based Model of Tissue Organoid Development
Authors: Elena Petersen, Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Sergey Simakov
Abstract:In vitro organoid cultivation requires the simultaneous provision of necessary vascularization and nutrients perfusion of cells during organoid development. However, many aspects of this problem are still unsolved. The functionality of vascular network intergrowth is limited during early stages of organoid development since a function of the vascular network initiated on final stages of in vitro organoid cultivation. Therefore, a microchannel network should be created in early stages of organoid cultivation in hydrogel matrix aimed to conduct and maintain minimally required the level of nutrients perfusion for all cells in the expanding organoid. The network configuration should be designed properly in order to exclude hypoxic and necrotic zones in expanding organoid at all stages of its cultivation. In vitro vascularization is currently the main issue within the field of tissue engineering. As perfusion and oxygen transport have direct effects on cell viability and differentiation, researchers are currently limited only to tissues of few millimeters in thickness. These limitations are imposed by mass transfer and are defined by the balance between the metabolic demand of the cellular components in the system and the size of the scaffold. Current approaches include growth factor delivery, channeled scaffolds, perfusion bioreactors, microfluidics, cell co-cultures, cell functionalization, modular assembly, and in vivo systems. These approaches may improve cell viability or generate capillary-like structures within a tissue construct. Thus, there is a fundamental disconnect between defining the metabolic needs of tissue through quantitative measurements of oxygen and nutrient diffusion and the potential ease of integration into host vasculature for future in vivo implantation. A model is proposed for growth prognosis of the organoid perfusion based on joint simulations of general nutrient diffusion, nutrient diffusion to the hydrogel matrix through the contact surfaces and microchannels walls, nutrient consumption by the cells of expanding organoid, including biomatrix contraction during tissue development, which is associated with changed consumption rate of growing organoid cells. The model allows computing effective microchannel network design giving minimally required the level of nutrients concentration in all parts of growing organoid. It can be used for preliminary planning of microchannel network design and simulations of nutrients supply rate depending on the stage of organoid development.
Keywords: 3D model, consumption model, diffusion, spheroid, tissue organoidProcedia PDF Downloads 255
44 Integration of Icf Walls as Diurnal Solar Thermal Storage with Microchannel Solar Assisted Heat Pump for Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Production
Authors: Mohammad Emamjome Kashan, Alan S. Fung
Abstract:In Canada, more than 32% of the total energy demand is related to the building sector. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction by integrating solar collectors to provide building heating load and domestic hot water (DHW). Despite the cold winter weather, Canada has a good number of sunny and clear days that can be considered for diurnal solar thermal energy storage. Due to the energy mismatch between building heating load and solar irradiation availability, relatively big storage tanks are usually needed to store solar thermal energy during the daytime and then use it at night. On the other hand, water tanks occupy huge space, especially in big cities, space is relatively expensive. This project investigates the possibility of using a specific building construction material (ICF – Insulated Concrete Form) as diurnal solar thermal energy storage that is integrated with a heat pump and microchannel solar thermal collector (MCST). Not much literature has studied the application of building pre-existing walls as active solar thermal energy storage as a feasible and industrialized solution for the solar thermal mismatch. By using ICF walls that are integrated into the building envelope, instead of big storage tanks, excess solar energy can be stored in the concrete of the ICF wall that consists of EPS insulation layers on both sides to store the thermal energy. In this study, two solar-based systems are designed and simulated inTransient Systems Simulation Program(TRNSYS)to compare ICF wall thermal storage benefits over the system without ICF walls. In this study, the heating load and DHW of a Canadian single-family house located in London, Ontario, are provided by solar-based systems. The proposed system integrates the MCST collector, a water-to-water HP, a preheat tank, the main tank, fan coils (to deliver the building heating load), and ICF walls. During the day, excess solar energy is stored in the ICF walls (charging cycle). Thermal energy can be restored from the ICF walls when the preheat tank temperature drops below the ICF wall (discharging process) to increase the COP of the heat pump. The evaporator of the heat pump is taking is coupled with the preheat tank. The provided warm water by the heat pump is stored in the second tank. Fan coil units are in contact with the tank to provide a building heating load. DHW is also delivered is provided from the main tank. It is investigated that the system with ICF walls with an average solar fraction of 82%- 88% can cover the whole heating demand+DHW of nine months and has a 10-15% higher average solar fraction than the system without ICF walls. Sensitivity analysis for different parameters influencing the solar fraction is discussed in detail.
Keywords: net-zero building, renewable energy, solar thermal storage, microchannel solar thermal collectorProcedia PDF Downloads 38
43 Size Optimization of Microfluidic Polymerase Chain Reaction Devices Using COMSOL
Authors: Foteini Zagklavara, Peter Jimack, Nikil Kapur, Ozz Querin, Harvey Thompson
Abstract:The invention and development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology have revolutionised molecular biology and molecular diagnostics. There is an urgent need to optimise their performance of those devices while reducing the total construction and operation costs. The present study proposes a CFD-enabled optimisation methodology for continuous flow (CF) PCR devices with serpentine-channel structure, which enables the trade-offs between competing objectives of DNA amplification efficiency and pressure drop to be explored. This is achieved by using a surrogate-enabled optimisation approach accounting for the geometrical features of a CF μPCR device by performing a series of simulations at a relatively small number of Design of Experiments (DoE) points, with the use of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.4. The values of the objectives are extracted from the CFD solutions, and response surfaces created using the polyharmonic splines and neural networks. After creating the respective response surfaces, genetic algorithm, and a multi-level coordinate search optimisation function are used to locate the optimum design parameters. Both optimisation methods produced similar results for both the neural network and the polyharmonic spline response surfaces. The results indicate that there is the possibility of improving the DNA efficiency by ∼2% in one PCR cycle when doubling the width of the microchannel to 400 μm while maintaining the height at the value of the original design (50μm). Moreover, the increase in the width of the serpentine microchannel is combined with a decrease in its total length in order to obtain the same residence times in all the simulations, resulting in a smaller total substrate volume (32.94% decrease). A multi-objective optimisation is also performed with the use of a Pareto Front plot. Such knowledge will enable designers to maximise the amount of DNA amplified or to minimise the time taken throughout thermal cycling in such devices.
Keywords: PCR, optimisation, microfluidics, COMSOLProcedia PDF Downloads 57
42 Micro-Droplet Formation in a Microchannel under the Effect of an Electric Field: Experiment
Authors: Sercan Altundemir, Pinar Eribol, A. Kerem Uguz
Abstract:Microfluidics systems allow many-large scale laboratory applications to be miniaturized on a single device in order to reduce cost and advance fluid control. Moreover, such systems enable to generate and control droplets which have a significant role on improved analysis for many chemical and biological applications. For example, they can be employed as the model for cells in microfluidic systems. In this work, the interfacial instability of two immiscible Newtonian liquids flowing in a microchannel is investigated. When two immiscible liquids are in laminar regime, a flat interface is formed between them. If a direct current electric field is applied, the interface may deform, i.e. may become unstable and it may be ruptured and form micro-droplets. First, the effect of thickness ratio, total flow rate, viscosity ratio of the silicone oil and ethylene glycol liquid couple on the critical voltage at which the interface starts to destabilize is investigated. Then the droplet sizes are measured under the effect of these parameters at various voltages. Moreover, the effect of total flow rate on the time elapsed for the interface to be ruptured to form droplets by hitting the wall of the channel is analyzed. It is observed that an increase in the viscosity or the thickness ratio of the silicone oil to the ethylene glycol has a stabilizing effect, i.e. a higher voltage is needed while the total flow rate has no effect on it. However, it is observed that an increase in the total flow rate results in shortening of the elapsed time for the interface to hit the wall. Moreover, the droplet size decreases down to 0.1 μL with an increase in the applied voltage, the viscosity ratio or the total flow rate or a decrease in the thickness ratio. In addition to these observations, two empirical models for determining the critical electric number, i.e., the dimensionless voltage and the droplet size and another model which is a combination of both models, for determining the droplet size at the critical voltage are established.
Keywords: droplet formation, electrohydrodynamics, microfluidics, two-phase flowProcedia PDF Downloads 108
41 Simulation of Focusing of Diamagnetic Particles in Ferrofluid Microflows with a Single Set of Overhead Permanent Magnets
Authors: Shuang Chen, Zongqian Shi, Jiajia Sun, Mingjia Li
Abstract:Microfluidics is a technology that small amounts of fluids are manipulated using channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers. At present, this significant technology is required for several applications in some fields, including disease diagnostics, genetic engineering, and environmental monitoring, etc. Among these fields, manipulation of microparticles and cells in microfluidic device, especially separation, have aroused general concern. In magnetic field, the separation methods include positive and negative magnetophoresis. By comparison, negative magnetophoresis is a label-free technology. It has many advantages, e.g., easy operation, low cost, and simple design. Before the separation of particles or cells, focusing them into a single tight stream is usually a necessary upstream operation. In this work, the focusing of diamagnetic particles in ferrofluid microflows with a single set of overhead permanent magnets is investigated numerically. The geometric model of the simulation is based on the configuration of previous experiments. The straight microchannel is 24mm long and has a rectangular cross-section of 100μm in width and 50μm in depth. The spherical diamagnetic particles of 10μm in diameter are suspended into ferrofluid. The initial concentration of the ferrofluid c₀ is 0.096%, and the flow rate of the ferrofluid is 1.8mL/h. The magnetic field is induced by five identical rectangular neodymium−iron− boron permanent magnets (1/8 × 1/8 × 1/8 in.), and it is calculated by equivalent charge source (ECS) method. The flow of the ferrofluid is governed by the Navier–Stokes equations. The trajectories of particles are solved by the discrete phase model (DPM) in the ANSYS FLUENT program. The positions of diamagnetic particles are recorded by transient simulation. Compared with the results of the mentioned experiments, our simulation shows consistent results that diamagnetic particles are gradually focused in ferrofluid under magnetic field. Besides, the diamagnetic particle focusing is studied by varying the flow rate of the ferrofluid. It is in agreement with the experiment that the diamagnetic particle focusing is better with the increase of the flow rate. Furthermore, it is investigated that the diamagnetic particle focusing is affected by other factors, e.g., the width and depth of the microchannel, the concentration of the ferrofluid and the diameter of diamagnetic particles.
Keywords: diamagnetic particle, focusing, microfluidics, permanent magnetProcedia PDF Downloads 64
40 Particle Deflection in a PDMS Microchannel Caused by a Plane Travelling Surface Acoustic Wave
Authors: Florian Keipert, Hagen Schmitd
Abstract:The size selective separation of different species in a microfluidic system is an actual task in biological or medical research. Former works dealt with the utilisation of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) caused by a plane travelling Surface Acoustic Wave (tSAW). In literature the ARF is described by a dimensionless parameter κ, depending on the wavelength and the particle diameter. To our knowledge research was done for values 0.2 < κ < 5.8 showing that the ARF is dominating the acoustic streaming force (ASF) for κ > 1.2. As a consequence the particle separation is limited by κ. In addition the dependence on the electrical power level was examined but only for κ > 1 pointing out an increased particle deflection for higher electrical power levels. Nevertheless a detailed study on the ASF and ARF especially for κ < 1 is still missing. In our setup we used a tSAW with a wavelength λ = 90 µm and 3 µm PS particles corresponding to κ = 0.3. Herewith the influence of the applied electrical power level on the particle deflection in a polydimethylsiloxan micro channel was investigated. Our results show an increased particle deflection for an increased electrical power level, which coincides with the reported results for κ > 1. Therefore particle separation is in contrast to literature also possible for lower κ values. Thereby the experimental setup can be generally simplified by a coordinated electrical power level for the specific particle size. Furthermore this raises the question of whether this particle deflection is caused only by the ARF as adopted so far or by the ASF or the sum of both forces. To investigate this fact a 0% - 24% saline solution was used and thus the mismatch between the compressibility of the PS particle and the working fluid could be changed. Therefore it is possible to change the relative strength between ARF and ASF and consequently the particle deflection. We observed a decreasing in the particle deflection for an increased NaCl content up to a 12% saline solution and subsequently an increasing of the particle deflection. Our observation could be explained by the acoustic contrast factor Φ, which depends on the compressibility mismatch. The compressibility of water is increased by the NaCl and the range of a 0% - 24% saline solution covers the PS particle compressibility. Hence the particle deflection reaches a minimum value for the accordance between compressibility of PS particle and saline solution. This minimum value can be estimated as the particle deflection only caused by the ASF. Knowing the particle deflection due to the ASF the particle deflection caused by the ARF can be calculated and thus finally the relation between both forces. Concluding, the particle deflection and therefore the size selective particle separation generated by a tSAW can be achieved for values κ < 1, simplifying actual setups by adjusting the electrical power level. Beyond we studied for the first time the relative strength between ARF and ASF to characterise the particle deflection in a microchannel.
Keywords: ARF, ASF, particle separation, saline solution, tSAWProcedia PDF Downloads 192
39 Analysis of Lift Force in Hydrodynamic Transport of a Finite Sized Particle in Inertial Microfluidics with a Rectangular Microchannel
Authors: Xinghui Wu, Chun Yang
Abstract:Inertial microfluidics is a competitive fluidic method with applications in separation of particles, cells and bacteria. In contrast to traditional microfluidic devices with low Reynolds number, inertial microfluidics works in the intermediate Re number range which brings about several intriguing inertial effects on particle separation/focusing to meet the throughput requirement in the real-world. Geometric modifications to make channels become irregular shapes can leverage fluid inertia to create complex secondary flow for adjusting the particle equilibrium positions and thus enhance the separation resolution and throughput. Although inertial microfluidics has been extensively studied by experiments, our current understanding of its mechanisms is poor, making it extremely difficult to build rational-design guidelines for the particle focusing locations, especially for irregularly shaped microfluidic channels. Inertial particle microfluidics in irregularly shaped channels were investigated in our group. There are several fundamental issues that require us to address. One of them is about the balance between the inertial lift forces and the secondary drag forces. Also, it is critical to quantitatively describe the dependence of the life forces on particle-particle interactions in irregularly shaped channels, such as a rectangular one. To provide physical insights into the inertial microfluidics in channels of irregular shapes, in this work the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) was introduced and validated to explore the transport characteristics and the underlying mechanisms of an inertial focusing single particle in a rectangular microchannel. The transport dynamics of a finitesized particle were investigated over wide ranges of Reynolds number (20 < Re < 500) and particle size. The results show that the inner equilibrium positions are more difficult to occur in the rectangular channel, which can be explained by the secondary flow caused by the presence of a finite-sized particle. Furthermore, force decoupling analysis was utilized to study the effect of each type of lift force on the inertia migration, and a theoretical model for the lateral lift force of a finite-sized particle in the rectangular channel was established. Such theoretical model can be used to provide theoretical guidance for the design and operation of inertial microfluidics.
Keywords: inertial microfluidics, particle focuse, life force, IB-LBMProcedia PDF Downloads 8