Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Search results for: evapotranspiration

67 Temporal Variation of Reference Evapotranspiration in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey and Meteorological Drought Analysis via Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index Method

Authors: Alper Serdar Anli

Abstract:

Analysis of temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important in arid and semi-arid regions where water resources are limited. In this study, temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and meteorological drought analysis through SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) method have been carried out in provinces of Central Anatolia Region, Turkey. Reference evapotranspiration of concerning provinces in the region has been estimated using Penman-Monteith method and one calendar year has been split up four periods as r1, r2, r3 and r4. Temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration according to four periods has been analyzed through parametric Dickey-Fuller test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. As a result, significant increasing trends for reference evapotranspiration have been detected and according to SPEI method used for estimating meteorological drought in provinces, mild drought has been experienced in general, and however there have been also a significant amount of events where moderate and severely droughts occurred.

Keywords: central Anatolia region, drought index, Penman-Monteith, reference evapotranspiration, temporal variation

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66 Estimation of Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficient of Eggplant with Lysimeter in Al-Hasa Region

Authors: Mishari AlNaim

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A field experiment was conducted for two seasons of 2011 and 2012 in The Agricultural Experiment Research Station in King Faisal University at Al-Hasa region, Saudi Arabia to estimate evapotranspiration (ETC) of Eggplant crop using Drainage Lysimeter with surface area of 2 x 2 m and depth of 1.5 m. The irrigation was applied daily. The amount of drainage was measured before each irrigation event. The results showed that there was almost no difference in the seasonal evapotranspiration of eggplant crop in the two seasons. The average evapotranspiration values for eggplant crop for the summer and winter seasons were 823.4 mm and 479.7 mm respectively. The highest and the lowest weekly measured values of (ETC) of eggplant crop during the two summer seasons were 8.6 mm/day and 3.9 mm/day respectively, while the highest and lowest weekly measured values of (ETC) of eggplant crop during the two winter seasons were 3.9 mm/day and 2.0 mm/day respectively. The measured values of ETc, in conjunction with the results of Penmen-Monteith equation for reference Evapotranspiration (ETR), were used to determine the crop coefficient (KC ini, KC mid and KC end) for eggplant crop. The average values were 0.50, 84 and 0.60 for KC ini, KC mid and KC end in Al-Hasa region, respectively. These estimated values for KC were used to approximate (ETc) for eggplant crop. High positive correlation coefficient (0.959) was detected between the approximated and measured values of eggplant crop evapotranspiration.

Keywords: evapotranspiration, eggpant, ETC, Al-Hasa

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65 Deliberation of Daily Evapotranspiration and Evaporative Fraction Based on Remote Sensing Data

Authors: J. Bahrawi, M. Elhag

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Estimation of evapotranspiration is always a major component in water resources management. Traditional techniques of calculating daily evapotranspiration based on field measurements are valid only for local scales. Earth observation satellite sensors are thus used to overcome difficulties in obtaining daily evapotranspiration measurements on regional scale. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model was adopted to estimate daily evapotranspiration and relative evaporation along with other land surface energy fluxes. The model requires agro-climatic data that improve the model outputs. Advance Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and Medium Spectral Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imageries were used to estimate the daily evapotranspiration and relative evaporation over the entire Nile Delta region in Egypt supported by meteorological data collected from six different weather stations located within the study area. Daily evapotranspiration maps derived from SEBS model show a strong agreement with actual ground-truth data taken from 92 points uniformly distributed all over the study area. Moreover, daily evapotranspiration and relative evaporation are strongly correlated. The reliable estimation of daily evapotranspiration supports the decision makers to review the current land use practices in terms of water management, while enabling them to propose proper land use changes.

Keywords: daily evapotranspiration, relative evaporation, SEBS, AATSR, MERIS, Nile Delta

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64 Assessment of Hargreaves Equation for Estimating Monthly Reference Evapotranspiration in the South of Iran

Authors: Ali Dehgan Moroozeh, B. Farhadi Bansouleh

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Evapotranspiration is one of the most important components of the hydrological cycle. Evapotranspiration (ETo) is an important variable in water and energy balances on the earth’s surface, and knowledge of the distribution of ET is a key factor in hydrology, climatology, agronomy and ecology studies. Many researchers have a valid relationship, which is a function of climate factors, to estimate the potential evapotranspiration presented to the plant water stress or water loss, prevent. The FAO-Penman method (PM) had been recommended as a standard method. This method requires many data and these data are not available in every area of world. So, other methods should be evaluated for these conditions. When sufficient or reliable data to solve the PM equation are not available then Hargreaves equation can be used. The Hargreaves equation (HG) requires only daily mean, maximum and minimum air temperature extraterrestrial radiation .In this study, Hargreaves method (HG) were evaluated in 12 stations in the North West region of Iran. Results of HG and M.HG methods were compared with results of PM method. Statistical analysis of this comparison showed that calibration process has had significant effect on efficiency of Hargreaves method.

Keywords: evapotranspiration, hargreaves, equation, FAO-Penman method

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63 Study of Evapotranspiration for Pune District

Authors: Ranjeet Sable, Mahotsavi Patil, Aadesh Nimbalkar, Prajakta Palaskar, Ritu Sagar

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The exact amount of water used by various crops in different climatic conditions is necessary to step for design, planning, and management of irrigation schemes, water resources, scheduling of irrigation systems. Evaporation and transpiration are combinable called as evapotranspiration. Water loss from trees during photosynthesis is called as transpiration and when water gets converted into gaseous state is called evaporation. For calculation of correct evapotranspiration, we have to choose the method in such way that is should be suitable and require minimum climatic data also it should be applicable for wide range of climatic conditions. In hydrology, there are multiple correlations and regression is generally used to develop relationships between three or more hydrological variables by knowing the dependence between them. This research work includes the study of various methods for calculation of evapotranspiration and selects reasonable and suitable one Pune region (Maharashtra state). As field methods are very costly, time-consuming and not give appropriate results if the suitable climate is not maintained. Observation recorded at Pune metrological stations are used to calculate evapotranspiration with the help of Radiation Method (RAD), Modified Penman Method (MPM), Thornthwaite Method (THW), Blaney-Criddle (BCL), Christiansen Equation (CNM), Hargreaves Method (HGM), from which Hargreaves and Thornthwaite are temperature based methods. Performance of all these methods are compared with Modified Penman method and method which showing less variation with standard Modified Penman method (MPM) is selected as the suitable one. Evapotranspiration values are estimated on a monthly basis. Comparative analysis in this research used for selection for raw data-dependent methods in case of missing data.

Keywords: Blaney-Criddle, Christiansen equation evapotranspiration, Hargreaves method, precipitations, Penman method, water use efficiency

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62 Plants as Alternative Covers at Contaminated Sites

Authors: M. Grifoni, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa, F. Pedron

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Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are an alternative cover system that utilizes water balance approach to maximize the ET process to reduce the contaminants leaching through the soil profile. Microcosm tests allow to identify in a short time the most suitable plant species to be used as alternative covers, their survival capacity, and simultaneously the transpiration and evaporation rate of the cover in a specific contaminated soil. This work shows the soil characterization and ET results of microcosm tests carried out on two contaminated soils by using Triticum durum and Helianthus annuus species. The data indicated that transpiration was higher than evaporation, supporting the use of plants as alternative cover at this contaminated site.

Keywords: contaminated sites, evapotranspiration cover, evapotranspiration, microcosm experiments

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61 Usage the Point Analysis Algorithm (SANN) on Drought Analysis

Authors: Khosro Shafie Motlaghi, Amir Reza Salemian

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In arid and semi-arid regions like our country Evapotranspiration is the greatestportion of water resource. Therefor knowlege of its changing and other climate parameters plays an important role for planning, development, and management of water resource. In this search the Trend of long changing of Evapotranspiration (ET0), average temprature, monthly rainfall were tested. To dose, all synoptic station s in iran were divided according to the climate with Domarton climate. The present research was done in semi-arid climate of Iran, and in which 14 synoptic with 30 years period of statistics were investigated with 3 methods of minimum square error, Mann Kendoll, and Vald-Volfoytz Evapotranspiration was calculated by using the method of FAO-Penman. The results of investigation in periods of statistic has shown that the process Evapotranspiration parameter of 24 percent of stations is positive, and for 2 percent is negative, and for 47 percent. It was without any Trend. Similary for 22 percent of stations was positive the Trend of parameter of temperature for 19 percent , the trend was negative and for 64 percent, it was without any Trend. The results of rainfall trend has shown that the amount of rainfall in most stations was not considered as a meaningful trend. The result of Mann-kendoll method similar to minimum square error method. regarding the acquired result was can admit that in future years Some regions will face increase of temperature and Evapotranspiration.

Keywords: analysis, algorithm, SANN, ET0

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60 Satellite Derived Evapotranspiration and Turbulent Heat Fluxes Using Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)

Authors: Muhammad Tayyab Afzal, Muhammad Arslan, Mirza Muhammad Waqar

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One of the key components of the water cycle is evapotranspiration (ET), which represents water consumption by vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces. Conventional techniques for measurements of ET are point based and representative of the local scale only. Satellite remote sensing data with large area coverage and high temporal frequency provide representative measurements of several relevant biophysical parameters required for estimation of ET at regional scales. The objective is of this research is to exploit satellite data in order to estimate evapotranspiration. This study uses Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model to calculate daily actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in Larkana District, Sindh Pakistan using Landsat TM data for clouds-free days. As there is no flux tower in the study area for direct measurement of latent heat flux or evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux, therefore, the model estimated values of ET were compared with reference evapotranspiration (ETo) computed by FAO-56 Penman Monteith Method using meteorological data. For a country like Pakistan, agriculture by irrigation in the river basins is the largest user of fresh water. For the better assessment and management of irrigation water requirement, the estimation of consumptive use of water for agriculture is very important because it is the main consumer of water. ET is yet an essential issue of water imbalance due to major loss of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. As large amount of irrigated water is lost through ET, therefore its accurate estimation can be helpful for efficient management of irrigation water. Results of this study can be used to analyse surface conditions, i.e. temperature, energy budgets and relevant characteristics. Through this information we can monitor vegetation health and suitable agricultural conditions and can take controlling steps to increase agriculture production.

Keywords: SEBS, remote sensing, evapotranspiration, ETa

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59 Analyses of Reference Evapotranspiration in West of Iran under Climate Change

Authors: Saeed Jahanbakhsh Asl, Yaghob Dinpazhoh, Masoumeh Foroughi

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Reference evapotranspiration (ET₀) is an important element in the water cycle that integrates atmospheric demands and surface conditions, and analysis of changes in ET₀ is of great significance for understanding climate change and its impacts on hydrology. As ET₀ is an integrated effect of climate variables, increases in air temperature should lead to increases in ET₀. ET₀ estimated by using the globally accepted Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 PM) method in 18 meteorological stations located in the West of Iran. The trends of ET₀ detected by using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test. The slopes of the trend lines were computed by using the Sen’s slope estimator. The results showed significant increasing as well as decreasing trends in the annual and monthly ET₀. However, ET₀ trends were increasing. In the monthly scale, the number of the increasing trends was more than the number of decreasing trends, in the majority of warm months of the year.

Keywords: climate change, Mann–Kendall, Penman-Monteith method (FAO-56 PM), reference crop evapotranspiration

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58 Use of the Budyko Framework to Estimate the Virtual Water Content in Shijiazhuang Plain, North China

Authors: Enze Zhang

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One of the most challenging steps in implementing virtual water content (VWC) analysis of crops is to get properly the total volume of consumptive water use (CWU) and, therefore, the choice of a reliable crop CWU estimation method. In practice, lots of previous researches obtaining CWU of crops follow a classical procedure for calculating crop evapotranspiration which is determined by multiplying reference evapotranspiration by appropriate coefficient, such as crop coefficient and water stress coefficients. However, this manner of calculation requires lots of field experimental data at point scale and more seriously, when current growing conditions differ from the standard conditions, may easily produce deviation between the calculated CWU and the actual CWU. Since evapotranspiration caused by crop planting always plays a vital role in surface water-energy balance in an agricultural region, this study decided to alternatively estimates crop evapotranspiration by Budyko framework. After brief introduce the development process of Budyko framework. We choose a modified Budyko framework under unsteady-state to better evaluated the actual CWU and apply it in an agricultural irrigation area in North China Plain which rely on underground water for irrigation. With the agricultural statistic data, this calculated CWU was further converted into VWC and its subdivision of crops at the annual scale. Results show that all the average values of VWC, VWC_blue and VWC_green show a downward trend with increased agricultural production and improved acreage. By comparison with the previous research, VWC calculated by Budyko framework agree well with part of the previous research and for some other research the value is greater. Our research also suggests that this methodology and findings may be reliable and convenient for investigation of virtual water throughout various agriculture regions of the world.

Keywords: virtual water content, Budyko framework, consumptive water use, crop evapotranspiration

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57 Effects of Different Meteorological Variables on Reference Evapotranspiration Modeling: Application of Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Josiah Adeyemo

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The correct estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETₒ) is required for effective irrigation water resources planning and management. However, there are some variables that must be considered while estimating and modeling ETₒ. This study therefore determines the multivariate analysis of correlated variables involved in the estimation and modeling of ETₒ at Vaalharts irrigation scheme (VIS) in South Africa using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. Weather and meteorological data between 1994 and 2014 were obtained both from South African Weather Service (SAWS) and Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in South Africa for this study. Average monthly data of minimum and maximum temperature (°C), rainfall (mm), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m/s) were the inputs to the PCA-based model, while ETₒ is the output. PCA technique was adopted to extract the most important information from the dataset and also to analyze the relationship between the five variables and ETₒ. This is to determine the most significant variables affecting ETₒ estimation at VIS. From the model performances, two principal components with a variance of 82.7% were retained after the eigenvector extraction. The results of the two principal components were compared and the model output shows that minimum temperature, maximum temperature and windspeed are the most important variables in ETₒ estimation and modeling at VIS. In order words, ETₒ increases with temperature and windspeed. Other variables such as rainfall and relative humidity are less important and cannot be used to provide enough information about ETₒ estimation at VIS. The outcome of this study has helped to reduce input variable dimensionality from five to the three most significant variables in ETₒ modelling at VIS, South Africa.

Keywords: irrigation, principal component analysis, reference evapotranspiration, Vaalharts

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56 Water Balance Components under Climate Change in Croatia

Authors: Jelena Bašić, Višnjica Vučetić, Mislav Anić, Tomislav Bašić

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Lack of precipitation combined with high temperatures causes great damage to the agriculture and economy in Croatia. Therefore, it is important to understand water circulation and balance. We decided to gain a better insight into the spatial distribution of water balance components (WBC) and their long-term changes in Croatia. WBC are precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture content (S), runoff (RO), recharge (R), and soil moisture loss (L). Since measurements of the mentioned components in Croatia are very rare, the Palmer model has been applied to estimate them. We refined method by setting into the account the corrective factor to include influence effects of the wind as well as a maximum soil capacity for specific soil types. We will present one hundred years’ time series of PET and ET showing the trends at few meteorological stations and a comparison of components of two climatological periods. The meteorological data from 109 stations have been used for the spatial distribution map of the WBC of Croatia.

Keywords: croatia, long-term trends, the palmer method, water balance components

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55 Understanding Hydrodynamic in Lake Victoria Basin in a Catchment Scale: A Literature Review

Authors: Seema Paul, John Mango Magero, Prosun Bhattacharya, Zahra Kalantari, Steve W. Lyon

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The purpose of this review paper is to develop an understanding of lake hydrodynamics and the potential climate impact on the Lake Victoria (LV) catchment scale. This paper briefly discusses the main problems of lake hydrodynamics and its’ solutions that are related to quality assessment and climate effect. An empirical methodology in modeling and mapping have considered for understanding lake hydrodynamic and visualizing the long-term observational daily, monthly, and yearly mean dataset results by using geographical information system (GIS) and Comsol techniques. Data were obtained for the whole lake and five different meteorological stations, and several geoprocessing tools with spatial analysis are considered to produce results. The linear regression analyses were developed to build climate scenarios and a linear trend on lake rainfall data for a long period. A potential evapotranspiration rate has been described by the MODIS and the Thornthwaite method. The rainfall effect on lake water level observed by Partial Differential Equations (PDE), and water quality has manifested by a few nutrients parameters. The study revealed monthly and yearly rainfall varies with monthly and yearly maximum and minimum temperatures, and the rainfall is high during cool years and the temperature is high associated with below and average rainfall patterns. Rising temperatures are likely to accelerate evapotranspiration rates and more evapotranspiration is likely to lead to more rainfall, drought is more correlated with temperature and cloud is more correlated with rainfall. There is a trend in lake rainfall and long-time rainfall on the lake water surface has affected the lake level. The onshore and offshore have been concentrated by initial literature nutrients data. The study recommended that further studies should consider fully lake bathymetry development with flow analysis and its’ water balance, hydro-meteorological processes, solute transport, wind hydrodynamics, pollution and eutrophication these are crucial for lake water quality, climate impact assessment, and water sustainability.

Keywords: climograph, climate scenarios, evapotranspiration, linear trend flow, rainfall event on LV, concentration

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54 Estimating Evapotranspiration Irrigated Maize in Brazil Using a Hybrid Modelling Approach and Satellite Image Inputs

Authors: Ivo Zution Goncalves, Christopher M. U. Neale, Hiran Medeiros, Everardo Mantovani, Natalia Souza

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Multispectral and thermal infrared imagery from satellite sensors coupled with climate and soil datasets were used to estimate evapotranspiration and biomass in center pivots planted to maize in Brazil during the 2016 season. The hybrid remote sensing based model named Spatial EvapoTranspiration Modelling Interface (SETMI) was applied using multispectral and thermal infrared imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper instrument. Field data collected by the IRRIGER center pivot management company included daily weather information such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, relative humidity for estimating reference evapotranspiration. In addition, soil water content data were obtained every 0.20 m in the soil profile down to 0.60 m depth throughout the season. Early season soil samples were used to obtain water-holding capacity, wilting point, saturated hydraulic conductivity, initial volumetric soil water content, layer thickness, and saturated volumetric water content. Crop canopy development parameters and irrigation application depths were also inputs of the model. The modeling approach is based on the reflectance-based crop coefficient approach contained within the SETMI hybrid ET model using relationships developed in Nebraska. The model was applied to several fields located in Minas Gerais State in Brazil with approximate latitude: -16.630434 and longitude: -47.192876. The model provides estimates of real crop evapotranspiration (ET), crop irrigation requirements and all soil water balance outputs, including biomass estimation using multi-temporal satellite image inputs. An interpolation scheme based on the growing degree-day concept was used to model the periods between satellite inputs, filling the gaps between image dates and obtaining daily data. Actual and accumulated ET, accumulated cold temperature and water stress and crop water requirements estimated by the model were compared with data measured at the experimental fields. Results indicate that the SETMI modeling approach using data assimilation, showed reliable daily ET and crop water requirements for maize, interpolated between remote sensing observations, confirming the applicability of the SETMI model using new relationships developed in Nebraska for estimating mainly ET and water requirements in Brazil under tropical conditions.

Keywords: basal crop coefficient, irrigation, remote sensing, SETMI

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53 Determination of Optimum Water Consumptive Using Deficit Irrigation Model for Barely: A Case Study in Arak, Iran

Authors: Mohsen Najarchi

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This research was carried out in five fields (5-15 hectares) in Arak located in center of Iran, to determine optimum level of water consumed for Barely in four stages growth (vegetative, yield formation, flowering, and ripening). Actual evapotranspiration was calculated using measured water requirement in the fields. Five levels of water requirement equal to 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 percents formed the treatments. To determine the optimum level of water requirement linear programming was used. The study showed 60 percent water requirement (40 percent deficit irrigation) has been the optimum level of irrigation for winter wheat in four stages of growth. Comparison between all of the treatments indicated above with normal condition (100% water requirement) shows increasing in water use efficiency. Although 40% deficit irrigation treatment lead to decrease of 38% in yield, net benefit was increasing in 11.37%. Furthermore, in comparison with normal condition, 70% of water requirement increased water use efficiency as 30%.

Keywords: optimum, deficit irrigation, water use efficiency, evapotranspiration

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52 Influence of Plant Cover and Redistributing Rainfall on Green Roof Retention and Plant Drought Stress

Authors: Lubaina Soni, Claire Farrell, Christopher Szota, Tim D. Fletcher

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Green roofs are a promising engineered ecosystem for reducing stormwater runoff and restoring vegetation cover in cities. Plants can contribute to rainfall retention by rapidly depleting water in the substrate; however, this increases the risk of plant drought stress. Green roof configurations, therefore, need to provide plants the opportunity to efficiently deplete the substrate but also avoid severe drought stress. This study used green roof modules placed in a rainout shelter during a six-month rainfall regime simulated in Melbourne, Australia. Rainfall was applied equally with an overhead irrigation system on each module. Aside from rainfall, modules were under natural climatic conditions, including temperature, wind, and radiation. A single species, Ficinia nodosa, was planted with five different treatments and three replicates of each treatment. In this experiment, we tested the impact of three plant cover treatments (0%, 50% and 100%) on rainfall retention and plant drought stress. We also installed two runoff zone treatments covering 50% of the substrate surface for additional modules with 0% and 50% plant cover to determine whether directing rainfall resources towards plant roots would reduce drought stress without impacting rainfall retention. The retention performance for the simulated rainfall events was measured, quantifying all components for hydrological performance and survival on green roofs. We found that evapotranspiration and rainfall retention were similar for modules with 50% and 100% plant cover. However, modules with 100% plant cover showed significantly higher plant drought stress. Therefore, planting at a lower cover/density reduced plant drought stress without jeopardizing rainfall retention performance. Installing runoff zones marginally reduced evapotranspiration and rainfall retention, but by approximately the same amount for modules with 0% and 50% plant cover. This indicates that reduced evaporation due to the installation of the runoff zones likely contributed to reduced evapotranspiration and rainfall retention. Further, runoff occurred from modules with runoff zones faster than those without, indicating that we created a faster pathway for water to enter and leave the substrate, which also likely contributed to lower overall evapotranspiration and retention. However, despite some loss in retention performance, modules with 50% plant cover installed with runoff zones showed significantly lower drought stress in plants compared to those without runoff zones. Overall, we suggest that reducing plant cover represents a simple means of optimizing green roof performance but creating runoff zones may reduce plant drought stress at the cost of reduced rainfall retention.

Keywords: green roof, plant cover, plant drought stress, rainfall retention

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51 Spatially Downscaling Land Surface Temperature with a Non-Linear Model

Authors: Kai Liu

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Remote sensing-derived land surface temperature (LST) can provide an indication of the temporal and spatial patterns of surface evapotranspiration (ET). However, the spatial resolution achieved by existing commonly satellite products is ~1 km, which remains too coarse for ET estimations. This paper proposed a model that can disaggregate coarse resolution MODIS LST at 1 km scale to fine spatial resolutions at the scale of 250 m. Our approach attempted to weaken the impacts of soil moisture and growing statues on LST variations. The proposed model spatially disaggregates the coarse thermal data by using a non-linear model involving Bowen ratio, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI). This LST disaggregation model was tested on two heterogeneous landscapes in central Iowa, USA and Heihe River, China, during the growing seasons. Statistical results demonstrated that our model achieved better than the two classical methods (DisTrad and TsHARP). Furthermore, using the surface energy balance model, it was observed that the estimated ETs using the disaggregated LST from our model were more accurate than those using the disaggregated LST from DisTrad and TsHARP.

Keywords: Bowen ration, downscaling, evapotranspiration, land surface temperature

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50 Changes in Forest Cover Regulate Streamflow in Central Nigerian Gallery Forests

Authors: Rahila Yilangai, Sonali Saha, Amartya Saha, Augustine Ezealor

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Gallery forests in sub-Saharan Africa are drastically disappearing due to intensive anthropogenic activities thus reducing ecosystem services, one of which is water provisioning. The role played by forest cover in regulating streamflow and water yield is not well understood, especially in West Africa. This pioneering 2-year study investigated the interrelationships between plant cover and hydrology in protected and unprotected gallery forests. Rainfall, streamflow, and evapotranspiration (ET) measurements/estimates over 2015-2016 were obtained to form a water balance for both catchments. In addition, transpiration in the protected gallery forest with high vegetation cover was calculated from stomatal conductance readings of selected species chosen from plot level data of plant diversity and abundance. Results showed that annual streamflow was significantly higher in the unprotected site than the protected site, even when normalized by catchment area. However, streamflow commenced earlier and lasted longer in the protected site than the degraded unprotected site, suggesting regulation by the greater tree density in the protected site. Streamflow correlated strongly with rainfall with the highest peak in August. As expected, transpiration measurements were less than potential evapotranspiration estimates, while rainfall exceeded ET in the water cycle. The water balance partitioning suggests that the lower vegetation cover in the unprotected catchment leads to a larger runoff in the rainy season and less infiltration, thereby leading to streams drying up earlier, than in the protected catchment. This baseline information is important in understanding the contribution of plants in water cycle regulation, for modeling integrative water management in applied research and natural resource management in sustaining water resources with changing the land cover and climate uncertainties in this data-poor region.

Keywords: evapotranspiration, gallery forest, rainfall, streamflow, transpiration

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49 Effect on Yield and Yield Components of Different Irrigation Levels in Edible Seed Pumpkin Growing

Authors: Musa Seymen, Duran Yavuz, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen

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Edible seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important edibles preferred by consumer in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is almost very few study on water consumption and irrigation water requirement of confectionary edible seed pumpkin in Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013-2014) was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation levels on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary edible seed pumpkin under Turkey conditions. In the study, the experimental design was made in randomized blocks with three replications. Treatments consisted of five irrigation water levels that compensated for the 100% (I100, full irrigation), 75% (I75), 50% (I50), 25% (I25) and 0% (I0, no irrigation) of crop water requirements at 14-day irrigation intervals. Seasonal evapotranspiration of treatments varied from 194.2 to 625.2 mm in 2013 and from 208.6 to 556.6 mm in 2014. In both years, the highest seasonal evapotranspiration was obtained in I100 treatment. Average across years, the seed yields ranged between 1090 (I100) and 422 (I0) kg ha-1. The irrigation treatments were found to significantly affect the yield parameters such as the seed yield, oil seed yield number of seeds per fruit, seed size, seed width, fruit size, fruit width and fruit index.

Keywords: irrigation level, edible seed pumpkin, seed quality, seed yield

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48 Agricultural Water Consumption Estimation in the Helmand Basin

Authors: Mahdi Akbari, Ali Torabi Haghighi

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Hamun Lakes, located in the Helmand Basin, consisting of four water bodies, were the greatest (>8500 km2) freshwater bodies in Iran plateau but have almost entirely desiccated over the last 20 years. The desiccation of the lakes caused dust storm in the region which has huge economic and health consequences on the inhabitants. The flow of the Hirmand (or Helmand) River, the most important feeding river, has decreased from 4 to 1.9 km3 downstream due to anthropogenic activities. In this basin, water is mainly consumed for farming. Due to the lack of in-situ data in the basin, this research utilizes remote-sensing data to show how croplands and consequently consumed water in the agricultural sector have changed. Based on Landsat NDVI, we suggest using a threshold of around 0.35-0.4 to detect croplands in the basin. Croplands of this basin has doubled since 1990, especially in the downstream of the Kajaki Dam (the biggest dam of the basin). Using PML V2 Actual Evapotranspiration (AET) data and considering irrigation efficiency (≈0.3), we estimate that the consumed water (CW) for farming. We found that CW has increased from 2.5 to over 7.5 km3 from 2002 to 2017 in this basin. Also, the annual average Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) of the basin has had a negative trend in the recent years, although the AET over croplands has an increasing trend. In this research, using remote sensing data, we covered lack of data in the studied area and highlighted anthropogenic activities in the upstream which led to the lakes desiccation in the downstream.

Keywords: Afghanistan-Iran transboundary Basin, Iran-Afghanistan water treaty, water use, lake desiccation

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47 Climate Changes Impact on Artificial Wetlands

Authors: Carla Idely Palencia-Aguilar

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Artificial wetlands play an important role at Guasca Municipality in Colombia, not only because they are used for the agroindustry, but also because more than 45 species were found, some of which are endemic and migratory birds. Remote sensing was used to determine the changes in the area occupied by water of artificial wetlands by means of Aster and Modis images for different time periods. Evapotranspiration was also determined by three methods: Surface Energy Balance System-Su (SEBS) algorithm, Surface Energy Balance- Bastiaanssen (SEBAL) algorithm, and Potential Evapotranspiration- FAO. Empirical equations were also developed to determine the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) versus net radiation, ambient temperature and rain with an obtained R2 of 0.83. Groundwater level fluctuations on a daily basis were studied as well. Data from a piezometer placed next to the wetland were fitted with rain changes (with two weather stations located at the proximities of the wetlands) by means of multiple regression and time series analysis, the R2 from the calculated and measured values resulted was higher than 0.98. Information from nearby weather stations provided information for ordinary kriging as well as the results for the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) developed by using PCI software. Standard models (exponential, spherical, circular, gaussian, linear) to describe spatial variation were tested. Ordinary Cokriging between height and rain variables were also tested, to determine if the accuracy of the interpolation would increase. The results showed no significant differences giving the fact that the mean result of the spherical function for the rain samples after ordinary kriging was 58.06 and a standard deviation of 18.06. The cokriging using for the variable rain, a spherical function; for height variable, the power function and for the cross variable (rain and height), the spherical function had a mean of 57.58 and a standard deviation of 18.36. Threatens of eutrophication were also studied, given the unconsciousness of neighbours and government deficiency. Water quality was determined over the years; different parameters were studied to determine the chemical characteristics of water. In addition, 600 pesticides were studied by gas and liquid chromatography. Results showed that coliforms, nitrogen, phosphorous and prochloraz were the most significant contaminants.

Keywords: DEM, evapotranspiration, geostatistics, NDVI

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
46 Study of Storms on the Javits Center Green Roof

Authors: Alexander Cho, Harsho Sanyal, Joseph Cataldo

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A quantitative analysis of the different variables on both the South and North green roofs of the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was taken to find mathematical relationships between net radiation and evapotranspiration (ET), average outside temperature, and the lysimeter weight. Groups of datasets were analyzed, and the relationships were plotted on linear and semi-log graphs to find consistent relationships. Antecedent conditions for each rainstorm were also recorded and plotted against the volumetric water difference within the lysimeter. The first relation was the inverse parabolic relationship between the lysimeter weight and the net radiation and ET. The peaks and valleys of the lysimeter weight corresponded to valleys and peaks in the net radiation and ET respectively, with the 8/22/15 and 1/22/16 datasets showing this trend. The U-shaped and inverse U-shaped plots of the two variables coincided, indicating an inverse relationship between the two variables. Cross variable relationships were examined through graphs with lysimeter weight as the dependent variable on the y-axis. 10 out of 16 of the plots of lysimeter weight vs. outside temperature plots had R² values > 0.9. Antecedent conditions were also recorded for rainstorms, categorized by the amount of precipitation accumulating during the storm. Plotted against the change in the volumetric water weight difference within the lysimeter, a logarithmic regression was found with large R² values. The datasets were compared using the Mann Whitney U-test to see if the datasets were statistically different, using a significance level of 5%; all datasets compared showed a U test statistic value, proving the null hypothesis of the datasets being different from being true.

Keywords: green roof, green infrastructure, Javits Center, evapotranspiration, net radiation, lysimeter

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45 The Agroclimatic Atlas of Croatia for the Periods 1981–2010 and 1991–2020

Authors: Višnjica Vučetić, Mislav Anić, Jelena Bašić, Petra Sviličić, Ivana Tomašević

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The Agroclimatic Atlas of Croatia (Atlas) for the periods 1981–2010 and 1991–2020 is monograph of six chapters in digital form. Detailed descriptions of particular agroclimatological data are given in separate chapters as follows: agroclimatic indices based on air temperature (degree days, Huglinheliothermal index), soil temperature, water balance components (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture content, runoff, recharge, and soil moisture loss) and fire weather indices. The last chapter is a description of the digital methods for the spatial interpolations (R and GIS). The Atlas comprises textual description of the relevant climate characteristic, maps of the spatial distribution of climatological elements at 109 stations (26 stations for soil temperature), and tables of the 30-year mean monthly, seasonal and annual values of climatological parameters at 24 stations. The Atlas was published in 2021, on the seventieth anniversary of the agrometeorology development at the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia. It is intended to support the improvement of sustainable system of agricultural production and forest protection from fire and as a rich source of information for agronomic and forestry experts, but also for the decision-making bodies to use it for the development of strategic plans.

Keywords: agrometeorology, agroclimatic indices, soil temperature, water balance components, fire weather index, meteorological and hydrological service of croatia

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
44 Water Management of Erdenet Mining Company

Authors: K. H. Oyuntungalag, Scott Kenner, O. Erdenetuya

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The life cycle phases of mining projects are described in this guidance document, and includes initial phases (exploration, feasibility and planning), mine development (construction and operations), closure and reclamation. Initial phases relate to field programs and desktop studies intended to build the data and knowledge base, including the design of water management infrastructure and development during these initial phases. Such a model is essential to demonstrate that the water management plan (WMP) will provide adequate water for the mine operations and sufficient capacity for anticipated flows and volumes, and minimize environmental impacts on the receiving environment. The water and mass balance model must cover the whole mine life cycle, from the start of mine development to a date sufficiently far in the future where the reclaimed landscape is considered self- sustaining following complete closure of the mine (i.e., post- closure). The model simulates the movement of water within the components of the water management infrastructure and project operating areas, and calculates chemical loadings to each mine component. At Erdenet Mining company an initial water balance model reflecting the tailings dam, groundwater seepage and mine process water was developed in collaboration with Dr. Scott Kenner (visiting Fulbright scholar). From this preliminary study the following recommendations were made: 1. Develop a detailed groundwater model to simulate seepage from the tailings dam, 2. Establish an evaporation pan for improving evapotranspiration estimates, and 3. Measure changes in storage of water within the tailings dam and other water storage components within the mine processing.

Keywords: evapotranspiration , monitoring program, Erdenet mining, tailings dam

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
43 Quantifying the Effects of Canopy Cover and Cover Crop Species on Water Use Partitioning in Micro-Sprinkler Irrigated Orchards in South Africa

Authors: Zanele Ntshidi, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Dominic Mazvimavi

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South Africa is a dry country and yet it is ranked as the 8th largest exporter of fresh apples (Malus Domestica) globally. Prime apple producing regions are in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of the country where all the fruit is grown under irrigation. Climate change models predict increasingly drier future conditions in these regions and the frequency and severity of droughts is expected to increase. For the sustainability and growth of the fruit industry it is important to minimize non-beneficial water losses from the orchard floor. The aims of this study were firstly to compare the water use of cover crop species used in South African orchards for which there is currently no information. The second aim was to investigate how orchard water use (evapotranspiration) was partitioned into beneficial (tree transpiration) and non-beneficial (orchard floor evaporation) water uses for micro-sprinkler irrigated orchards with different canopy covers. This information is important in order to explore opportunities to minimize non-beneficial water losses. Six cover crop species (four exotic and two indigenous) were grown in 2 L pots in a greenhouse. Cover crop transpiration was measured using the gravimetric method on clear days. To establish how water use was partitioned in orchards, evapotranspiration (ET) was measured using an open path eddy covariance system, while tree transpiration was measured hourly throughout the season (October to June) on six trees per orchard using the heat ratio sap flow method. On selected clear days, soil evaporation was measured hourly from sunrise to sunset using six micro-lysimeters situated at different wet/dry and sun/shade positions on the orchard floor. Transpiration of cover crops was measured using miniature (2 mm Ø) stem heat balance sap flow gauges. The greenhouse study showed that exotic cover crops had significantly higher (p < 0.01) average transpiration rates (~3.7 L/m2/d) than the indigenous species (~ 2.2 L/m²/d). In young non-bearing orchards, orchard floor evaporative fluxes accounted for more than 60% of orchard ET while this ranged from 10 to 30% in mature orchards with a high canopy cover. While exotic cover crops are preferred by most farmers, this study shows that they use larger quantities of water than indigenous species. This in turn contributes to a larger orchard floor evaporation flux. In young orchards non-beneficial losses can be minimized by adopting drip or short range micro-sprinkler methods that reduce the wetted soil fraction thereby conserving water.

Keywords: evapotranspiration, sap flow, soil evaporation, transpiration

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
42 Comparative Evaluation of Root Uptake Models for Developing Moisture Uptake Based Irrigation Schedules for Crops

Authors: Vijay Shankar

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In the era of water scarcity, effective use of water via irrigation requires good methods for determining crop water needs. Implementation of irrigation scheduling programs requires an accurate estimate of water use by the crop. Moisture depletion from the root zone represents the consequent crop evapotranspiration (ET). A numerical model for simulating soil water depletion in the root zone has been developed by taking into consideration soil physical properties, crop and climatic parameters. The governing differential equation for unsaturated flow of water in the soil is solved numerically using the fully implicit finite difference technique. The water uptake by plants is simulated by using three different sink functions. The non-linear model predictions are in good agreement with field data and thus it is possible to schedule irrigations more effectively. The present paper describes irrigation scheduling based on moisture depletion from the different layers of the root zone, obtained using different sink functions for three cash, oil and forage crops: cotton, safflower and barley, respectively. The soil is considered at a moisture level equal to field capacity prior to planting. Two soil moisture regimes are then imposed for irrigated treatment, one wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 50% of available soil water; and other wherein irrigation is applied whenever soil moisture content is reduced to 75% of available soil water. For both the soil moisture regimes it has been found that the model incorporating a non-linear sink function which provides best agreement of computed root zone moisture depletion with field data, is most effective in scheduling irrigations. Simulation runs with this moisture uptake function result in saving 27.3 to 45.5% & 18.7 to 37.5%, 12.5 to 25% % &16.7 to 33.3% and 16.7 to 33.3% & 20 to 40% irrigation water for cotton, safflower and barley respectively, under 50 & 75% moisture depletion regimes over other moisture uptake functions considered in the study. Simulation developed can be used for an optimized irrigation planning for different crops, choosing a suitable soil moisture regime depending upon the irrigation water availability and crop requirements.

Keywords: irrigation water, evapotranspiration, root uptake models, water scarcity

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
41 Simulation of Corn Yield in Carmen, North Cotabato, Philippines Using Aquacrop Model

Authors: Marilyn S. Painagan

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This general objective of the study was to apply the AquaCrop model to the conditions in the municipality of Carmen, North Cotabato in terms of predicting corn yields in this area and determine the influence of rainfall and soil depth on simulated yield. The study revealed wide disparity in monthly yields as a consequence of similarly varying monthly rainfall magnitudes. It also found out that simulated yield varies with the depth of soil, which in this case was clay loam, the predominant soil in the study area. The model was found to be easy to use even with limited data and shows a vast potential for various farming and policy applications, such as formulation of a cropping calendar.

Keywords: aquacrop, evapotranspiration, crop modelling, crop simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
40 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Purposes Using Self-Organizing Maps

Authors: L. Belkhiri, L. Mouni, A. Tiri, T.S. Narany

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In the present study, the self-organizing map (SOM) clustering technique was applied to identify homogeneous clusters of hydrochemical parameters in El Milia plain, Algeria, to assess the quality of groundwater for potable and agricultural purposes. The visualization of SOM-analysis indicated that 35 groundwater samples collected in the study area were classified into three clusters, which showed progressive increase in electrical conductivity from cluster one to cluster three. Samples belonging to cluster one are mostly located in the recharge zone showing hard fresh water type, however, water type gradually changed to hard-brackish type in the discharge zone, including clusters two and three. Ionic ratio studies indicated the role of carbonate rock dissolution in increases on groundwater hardness, especially in cluster one. However, evaporation and evapotranspiration are the main processes increasing salinity in cluster two and three.

Keywords: groundwater quality, self-organizing maps, drinking water, irrigation water

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
39 Predicting the Potential Geographical Distribution of the Banana Aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa) as Vector of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Using Diva-GIS

Authors: Marilyn Painagan

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This study was conducted to predict the potential geographical distribution of the banana aphid (Pentalonia negronervosa) in North Cotabato through climate envelope approach of DIVA-GIS, a software for analyzing the distribution of organisms to elucidate geographic and ecological patterns. A WorldClim database that was based on weather conditions recorded last 1950 to 2000 with a spatial resolution of approximately 1x1 km. was used in the bioclimatic modelling, this database includes temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and bioclimatic variables which was measured at many different locations, a bioclimatic modelling was done in the study. The study revealed that the western part of Magpet and Arakan and the municipality of Antipas are at high potential risk of occurrence of banana aphid while it is not likely to occur in the municipalities of Aleosan, Midsayap, Pikit, M’lang and Tulunan. The result of this study can help developed strategies for monitoring and managing this serious pest of banana and to prepare a mitigation measures on those areas that are potential for future infestation.

Keywords: banana aphid, bioclimatic model, bunchy top, climatic envelope approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
38 Runoff Simulation by Using WetSpa Model in Garmabrood Watershed of Mazandaran Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Dahmardeh Ghaleno, Mohammad Nohtani, Saeedeh Khaledi

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Hydrological models are applied to simulation and prediction floods in watersheds. WetSpa is a distributed, continuous and physically model with daily or hourly time step that explains of precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration processes for both simple and complex contexts. This model uses a modified rational method for runoff calculation. In this model, runoff is routed along the flow path using Diffusion-Wave Equation which depend on the slope, velocity and flow route characteristics. Garmabrood watershed located in Mazandaran province in Iran and passing over coordinates 53° 10´ 55" to 53° 38´ 20" E and 36° 06´ 45" to 36° 25´ 30"N. The area of the catchment is about 1133 km2 and elevations in the catchment range from 213 to 3136 m at the outlet, with average slope of 25.77 %. Results of the simulations show a good agreement between calculated and measured hydrographs at the outlet of the basin. Drawing upon Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency Coefficient for calibration periodic model estimated daily hydrographs and maximum flow rate with an accuracy up to 61% and 83.17 % respectively.

Keywords: watershed simulation, WetSpa, runoff, flood prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 267