Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: eugenol

18 Eugenol Effects on Metabolic Syndrome Induced Liver Damages

Authors: Fatemeh Kourkinejad Gharaei, Tahereh Safari, Zahra Saebinasab

Abstract:

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a set of risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most important liver disorder in metabolic syndrome. High fructose consumption increases the risk of NAFLD. Eugenol shows anti-thrombotic, insulin-sensitive, fat-reducing effects. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of eugenol in NAFLD caused by metabolic syndrome. Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups; group 1, drinking water intake animals; group 2, fructose, group 3, fructose+eugenol solvent; group 4, fructose+ eugenol 50mg/kg and group 5, fructose+ eugenol 100mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, after 12 hours of fasting and under anesthesia, blood samples were taken for measurement of fast blood glucose (FBS), SGOT, AGPT, LDL, HDL, cholesterol, triglyceride. Results: FBG significantly increased in group 2 compared to group 1 (p < 0.001); however, it significantly decreased in groups 4 and 5 compared to group 2 (p < 0.05). SGOT and SGPT levels significantly increased in group 2 compared to drinking water alone (p < 0.001). However, SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased in groups 4 and 5. MDA and LTDS significantly increased in group 2 compared with drinking water alone (p < 0.01), while MDA and LTDS decreased in 4 and 5 groups compared to group 2 (p < 0.05), which confirms the pathology results related to the liver damage. Conclusion: Eugenol has protective effects on the liver and fat accumulation in liver cells.

Keywords: eugenol, fructose, metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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17 SFE as a Superior Technique for Extraction of Eugenol-Rich Fraction from Cinnamomum tamala Nees (Bay Leaf) - Process Analysis and Phytochemical Characterization

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Dipanwita Roy, Dipan Chatterjee, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Satadal Das

Abstract:

Highest yield of eugenol-rich fractions from Cinnamomum tamala (bay leaf) leaves were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), compared to hydro-distillation, organic solvents, liquid CO2 and subcritical CO2 extractions. Optimization of SC-CO2 extraction parameters was carried out to obtain an extract with maximum eugenol content. This was achieved using a sample size of 10 g at 55°C, 512 bar after 60 min at a flow rate of 25.0 cm3/sof gaseous CO2. This extract has the best combination of phytochemical properties such as phenolic content (1.77 mg gallic acid/g dry bay leaf), reducing power (0.80 mg BHT/g dry bay leaf), antioxidant activity (IC50 of 0.20 mg/ml) and anti-inflammatory potency (IC50 of 1.89 mg/ml). Identification of compounds in this extract was performed by GC-MS analysis and its antimicrobial potency was also evaluated. The MIC values against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were 0.5, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: antimicrobial potency, Cinnamomum tamala, eugenol, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

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16 Amelioration of Arsenic and Mercury Induced Vasoconstriction by Eugenol, Linalool and Carvone

Authors: Swati Kundu, Seemi Farhat Basir, Luqman A. Khan

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Acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and mercury is known to produce vasoconstriction. Pathways involved in this hypercontraction and their relative contribution are not understood. In this study, we measure agonist-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta exposed to arsenic and mercury aorta and delineate pathways mediating this effect. PE-induced hypercontraction of 37% and 32% was obtained with 25 µM As(III) and 6 nM Hg(II), respectively. Isometric contraction measurements in the presence of apocynin, verapamil and sodium nitroprusside indicates that the major cause of increased contraction is reactive oxygen species and depletion of nitric oxide. Calcium influx plays a minor role in both arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction. In the unexposed aorta, eugenol causes relaxation by inhibiting ROS and elevating NO, linalool by blocking voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) and elevating NO, and carvone by blocking calcium influx through VDDC. Since arsenic and mercury caused hypercontraction is mediated by increased ROS and depletion of nitric oxide, we hypothesize that molecules which neutralize ROS or elevate NO will be better ameliorators. In line with this argument, we find eugenol to be the best ameliorator of arsenic and mercury hypercontraction followed by linalool and carvone.

Keywords: carvone, eugenol, linalool, mercury

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15 Efficacy of Methyl Eugenol and Food-Based Lures in Trapping Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Mango Homestead Trees

Authors: Juliana Amaka Ugwu

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Trapping efficiency of methyl eugenol and three locally made food-based lures were evaluated in three locations for trapping of B. dorsalis on mango homestead trees in Ibadan South west Nigeria. The treatments were methyl eugenol, brewery waste, pineapple juice, orange juice, and control (water). The experiment was laid in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) and replicated three times in each location. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated by Turkey’s test. The results showed that B. dorsalis was recorded in all locations of study. Methyl eugenol significantly (P < 0.05) trapped higher population of B. dorsalis in all the study area. The population density of B. dorsalis was highest during the ripening period of mango in all locations. The percentage trapped flies after 7 weeks were 77.85%-82.38% (methyl eugenol), 7.29%-8.64% (pineapple juice), 5.62-7.62% (brewery waste), 4.41%-5.95% (orange juice), and 0.24-0.47% (control). There were no significance differences (p > 0.05) on the population of B. dorsalis trapped in all locations. Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) on the population of flies trapped among the food attractants. However, the three food attractants significantly (p < 0.05) trapped higher flies than control. Methyl eugenol trapped only male flies while brewery waste and other food based attractants trapped both male and female flies. The food baits tested were promising attractants for trapping B. dorsalis on mango homestead tress, hence increased dosage could be considered for monitoring and mass trapping as management strategies against fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: attractants, trapping, mango, Bactrocera dorsalis

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14 Synergistic Effect of Eugenol Acetate with Betalactam Antibiotic on Betalactamase and Its Bioinformatics Analysis

Authors: Vinod Nair, C. Sadasivan

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Beta-lactam antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine. The antibiotic resistance by the production of enzyme beta-lactamase is an important mechanism seen in microorganisms. Resistance to beta-lactams mediated by beta-lactamases can be overcome successfully with the use of beta-lactamase inhibitors. New generations of the antibiotics contain mostly synthetic compounds, and many side effects have been reported for them. Combinations of beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitors have become one of the most successful antimicrobial strategies in the current scenario of bacterial infections. Plant-based drugs are very cheap and having lesser adverse effect than synthetic compounds. The synergistic effect of eugenol acetate with beta-lactams restores the activity of beta-lactams, allowing their continued clinical use. It is reported here the enhanced inhibitory effect of phytochemical, eugenol acetate, isolated from the plant Syzygium aromaticum with beta-lactams on beta-lactamase. The compound was found to have synergistic effect with the antibiotic amoxicillin against antibiotic-resistant strain of S.aureus. The enzyme was purified from the organism and incubated with the compound. The assay showed that the compound could inhibit the enzymatic activity of beta-lactamase. Modeling and molecular docking studies indicated that the compound can fit into the active site of beta-lactamase and can mask the important residue for hydrolysis of beta-lactams. The synergistic effects of eugenol acetate with beta-lactam antibiotics may justify, the use of these plant compounds for the preparation of β-lactamase inhibitors against β-lactam resistant S.aureus.

Keywords: betalactamase, eugenol acetate, synergistic effect, molecular modeling

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13 Abundance and Diversity of Fruit Flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) In Citrus Orchards in Sindhuli, Nepal

Authors: Debraj Adhikari, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Samudra Lal Joshi, Jason Jinping Du, Sundar Tiwari

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The purpose of this study was to keep a record of fruit fly species (Tephritidae: Diptera) in the sweet orange orchards of Sindhuli district, Nepal. Male fruit fly species were trapped and collected fortnightly using para-pheromone lures (methyl eugenol and cue lure) in Steiner traps at 25 orchards starting in March 2019 and continuing until February 2021. During the monitoring period, there was a significant variation in the occurrence of the fruit fly species. Fruit flies were captured in greater numbers during warm and rainy months (June, July, August, September) than during dry and winter months (December, January, February). Higher numbers of fruit flies were trapped in methyl eugenol than cue lure traps. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata were major fruit fly species trapped in the methyl eugenol trap. Whereas, Zeugodacus tau, Z. cucurbitae, Z. scutellaris, and Dacus longicornis were major fruit fly species trapped in the cue lure trap. The findings of this study could be used to develop a long-term pest management strategy for the agro-ecological system.

Keywords: bactrocera, cue lure, methyl eugenol, monitoring, zeugodacus

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12 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

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The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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11 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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10 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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9 Assessing the Potential of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore Leaf Extract as an Attractant for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) in Selected Mango Plantations in Southern Ghana

Authors: Osei Yaw Atakora

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A brief study involving the use of natural plant product in trapping of Bactrocera dorsalis was conducted in selected mango orchards in two agro ecological zone of Ghana for the major mango season. The main objective of the study was to compare the attractiveness of different concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Pimenta racemosa with a commercial methyl eugenol (Stop Mating Block). A total number of 174,388 organisms were captured with 171,412 identified as B. dorsalis and 2,976 identified as non-target (other insects and spiders). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the performance of the different treatments across the selected experimental farms. Stop Mating Block performed better than the different concentrations with a significant margin. The result suggests that Stop Mating Block performed better than the extract but it is economically preferable since most farmers in Ghana are small-holder farmers.

Keywords: bactrocera dorsalis, methyl eugenol, Pimenta racemosa, stop mating block

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8 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: Kamran Reza-Yazdi, Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Khodaparast, Farshad Kateb, Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

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The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: dairy cow, feed additive, plant extract, eugenol

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7 Synergistic Studies of Liposomes of Clove and Cinnamon Oil in Oral Health Care

Authors: Sandhya Parameswaran, Prajakta Dhuri

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Despite great improvements in health care, the world oral health report states that dental problems still persist, particularly among underprivileged groups in both developing and developed countries. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are identified as the most important oral health problems globally. Acidic foods and beverages can affect natural teeth, and chronic exposure often leads to the development of dental erosion, abrasion, and decay. In recent years, there has been an increased interest toward essential oils. These are secondary metabolites and possess antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Essential oils are volatile and chemically unstable in the presence of air, light, moisture and high temperature. Hence many novel methods like a liposomal encapsulation of oils have been introduced to enhance the stability and bioavailability. This research paper focuses on two essential oils, clove and cinnamon oil. Clove oil was obtained from Syzygium aromaticum Linn using clavengers apparatus. It contains eugenol and β caryophyllene. Cinnamon oil, from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, contains cinnamaldehyde, The objective of the current research was to develop a liposomal carrier system containing clove and cinnamon oil and study their synergistic activity against dental pathogens when formulated as a gel. Methodology: The essential oil were first tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens, Lactobacillus acidophillus (MTCC No. 10307, MRS broth) and Streptococcus Mutans (MTCC No .890, Brain Heart Infusion agar). The oils were analysed by UV spectroscopy for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde content. Standard eugenol was linear between 5ppm to 25ppm at 282nm and standard cinnamaldehde from 1ppm to 5pmm at 284nm. The concentration of eugenol in clove oil was found to be 62.65 % w/w, and that of cinnamaldehyde was found to be 5.15%s w/w. The oils were then formulated into liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using Phospholipid, Cholesterol, and other oils dissolved in a chloroform methanol (3:1) mixture. The organic solvent was evaporated in a rotary evaporator above lipid transition temperature. The film was hydrated with phosphate buffer (pH 5.5).The various batches of liposomes were characterized and compared for their size, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The prepared liposomes when evaluated for entrapment efficiency showed 65% entrapment for clove and 85% for cinnamon oil. They were also tested for their antimicrobial activity against dental pathogens and their synergistic activity studied. Based on the activity and the entrapment efficiency the amount of liposomes required to prepare 1gm of the gel was calculated. The gel was prepared using a simple ointment base and contained 0.56% of cinnamon and clove liposomes. A simultaneous method of analysis for eugenol and cinnamaldehyde.was then developed using HPLC. The prepared gels were then studied for their stability as per ICH guidelines. Conclusion: It was found that liposomes exhibited spherical shaped vesicles and protected the essential oil from degradation. Liposomes, therefore, constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile, unstable essential oil constituents.

Keywords: cinnamon oil, clove oil, dental caries, liposomes

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6 In vitro And in vivo Anticholinesterase Activity of the Volatile Oil of the Aerial Parts of Ocimum Basilicum L. and O. africanum Lour. Growing in Egypt

Authors: Mariane G. Tadros, Shahira M. Ezzat, Maha M. Salama, Mohamed A. Farag

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In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the volatile oils of both O. basilicum and O. africanum was investigated and both samples showed significant activity. As a result, the major constituents of the two oils were isolated using several column chromatography. Linalool, 1,8-cineol and eugenol were isolated from the volatile oil of O. basilicum and camphor was isolated from the volatile oil of O. africanum. The anticholinesterase activity of the isolated compounds were also evaluated where 1,8-cineol showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by camphor. To confirm these activities, learning and memory enhancing effects were tested in mice. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anti-amnesic effects of both volatile oils and their terpenoids were investigated by the passive avoidance task in mice. We also examined their effects on brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Results showed that scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction was significantly attenuated by administration of the volatile oils and their terpenoids, eugenol and camphor, in the passive avoidance task and inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. These results suggest that O. basilicum and O. africanum volatile oils can be good candidates for further studies on Alzheimer’s disease via their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions.

Keywords: Ocimum baselicum, Ocimum africanum, GC/MS analysis, anticholinesterase

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5 Use of Amaranthus Roxburghianus Root Extract in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, J. M. Ingale, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, Subhash C. Mandal

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively. Similarly, this combination significantly reduced MPO and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, ulcerative colitis, anti-inflammatory, ulcerative colitis

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4 Fluoride as Obturating Material in Primary Teeth

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri

Abstract:

The primary goal of a root canal treatment in deciduous teeth is to eliminate infection and to retain the tooth in a functional state until it gets physiologically exfoliated and replaced by permanent successor. Important requisite of a root canal filling material for primary teeth is that, it should resorb at a similar rate as the roots of primary tooth, be harmless to the periapical tissue and to the permanent tooth germ, resorb readily if pushed beyond the apex, be antiseptic, radio-opaque, should not shrink, adhere to the walls, not discolor the tooth and easy to fill & remove, if required at any stage. Presently available, commonly used obturating materials for primary teeth are zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide and iodoform based pastes. None of these materials so far meet the ideal requirement of root canal filling material. So in search of ideal obturating material, this study was planed, in which mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide & sodium fluoride and mixture of calcium hydroxide & sodium fluoride was compared clinically and radiographically with calcium hydroxide for the obturation of root canals of 75 carious exposed primary mandibular second molars of 59 children aged 4-9 years. All the three material shows good results, but after a follow-up of 9 months mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide powder closely follow the resorption of root, mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride follow resorption of root in the beginning but later on majority of cases shows faster resorption whereas calcium hydroxide starts depleting from the canal from the beginning even as early as 3 months. Thus mixture of calcium hydroxide, two percent sodium fluoride & zinc oxide found to be best obturaring material for primary tooth.

Keywords: obturating material, primary teeth, root canal treatment, success rate

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3 Identification of the Most Effective Dosage of Clove Oil Solution as an Alternative for Synthetic Anaesthetics on Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: D. P. N. De Silva, N. P. P. Liyanage

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Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the family Cyprinidae, is a tropical freshwater fish widely used as a model organism in scientific research. Use of effective and economical anaesthetic is very important when handling fish. Clove oil (active ingredient: eugenol) was identified as a natural product which is safer and economical compared to synthetic chemicals like methanesulfonate (MS-222). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the most effective dosage of clove oil solution as an anaesthetic on mature Zebrafish. Clove oil solution was prepared by mixing pure clove oil with 94% ethanol at a ratio of 1:9 respectively. From that solution, different volumes were selected as (0.4 ml, 0.6 ml and 0.8 ml) and dissolved in one liter of conditioned water (dosages : 0.4 ml/L, 0.6 ml/L and 0.8 ml/L). Water quality parameters (pH, temperature and conductivity) were measured before and after adding clove oil solution. Mature Zebrafish with similar standard length (2.76 ± 0.1 cm) and weight (0.524 ± 0.1 g) were selected for this experiment. Time taken for loss of equilibrium (initiation phase) and complete loss of movements including opercular movement (anaesthetic phase) were measured. To detect the efficacy on anaesthetic recovery, time taken to begin opercular movements (initiation of recovery phase) until swimming (post anaesthetic phase) were observed. The results obtained were analyzed according to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukeys’ method using SPSS version 17.0 at 95% confidence interval (p<0.5). According to the results, there was no significant difference at the initiation phase of anaesthesia in all three doses though the time taken was varied from 0.14 to 0.41 minutes. Mean value of the time taken to complete the anaesthetic phase at 0.4 ml/L dosage was significantly different with 0.6 ml/L and 0.8 ml/L dosages independently (p=0.01). There was no significant difference among recovery times at all dosages but 0.8 ml/L dosage took longer time compared to 0.6 ml/L dosage. The water quality parameters (pH and temperature) were stable throughout the experiment except conductivity, which increased with the higher dosage. In conclusion, the best dosage need to anaesthetize Zebrafish using clove oil solution was 0.6 ml/L due to its fast initiation of anaesthesia and quick recovery compared to the other two dosages. Therefore clove oil can be used as a good substitute for synthetic anaesthetics because of its efficacy at a lower dosage with higher safety at a low cost.

Keywords: anaesthetics, clove oil, zebrafish, Cyprinidae

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2 Component Composition of Biologically Active Substances in Extracts of Some Species from the Family Lamiaceae Lindl.

Authors: Galina N. Parshina, Olga N. Shemshura, Ulzhan S. Mukiyanova, Gulnur M. Beisetbayeva

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From a medical point of view some species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. attract the attention of scientists. Many plant species from this family are used in science and medicine. Some researchers believe that the medicinal properties of these plants are caused by the action on the organism of the individual components (camphor, menthol, thymol, eugenol, phenols, flavonoids, alcohols, and their derivatives) or the entire complex of essential oils. Biologically active substances (BAS), isolated from these medicinal plants can be an effective supplement in the complex treatment of infectious diseases. The substances of the phenolic group such as flavonoids and phenolic acids; and also alkaloids included in the component composition of the plants from the family Lamiaceae Lindl. present the scientific and practical interest for future investigations of their biological activity and development of medicinal products. The research objects are the species from the family Lamiaceae Lindl., cultivated in the North-Kazakhstan region. In this abstract, we present the results of the investigation of polyphenolic complex (flavonoids and phenolic acids) and alkaloids in aqueous and ethanol extracts. Investigation of the qualitative composition of flavonoids in the aqueous extracts showed that the species Monarda Diana contains flavone, Dracocephalum moldavica contains rutin, Ocimum basilicum (purple form) contains both ruin and quercetin. Biochemical analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of Monarda Diana has phenolic acids, similar to protocatechuic and benzoic acids by their chromatographic characteristics. But the aqueous extract contains four phenolic acids, one of which is an analogue of gentisic acid; and the other three are not identified yet. The phenolic acids such as benzoic and gentisic acids identified in ethanol extracts of species Ocimum basilicum (purple form) and Satureja hortensis, correspondingly. But the same phenolic acids did not appear in aqueous extracts. The phenolic acids were not determined neither in the ethanol or aqueous extracts of species Dracocephalum moldavica. The biochemical analysis did not reveal the content of alkaloids in aqueous extracts of investigated plants. However, the alkaloids in the amount of 5-13 components were identified in the ethanolic extracts of plants by the qualitative reactions. The results of analysis with reagent of Dragendorff showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (6-7), Satureja hortensis (6), Ocimum basilicum (7-9) and Dracocephalum moldavica (5-6). The reactions with reagent of Van-Urca showed that next amounts of alkaloids were identified in extracts of Monarda Diana (9-12), Satureja hortensis (9-10), two alkaloids of them with Rf6=0,39 and Rf6=0,31 similar to roquefortine), Ocimum basilicum (11) and Dracocephalum moldavica (13, two of them with Rf5=0,34 and Rf5=0,33 by their chromatographic characteristics similar to epikostaklavin).

Keywords: biologically active substances, Lamiaceae, component composition, medicinal plant

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1 Anti-Infective Potential of Selected Philippine Medicinal Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Demetrio L. Valle Jr., Juliana Janet M. Puzon, Windell L. Rivera

Abstract:

From the various medicinal plants available in the Philippines, crude ethanol extracts of twelve (12) Philippine medicinal plants, namely: Senna alata L. Roxb. (akapulko), Psidium guajava L. (bayabas), Piper betle L. (ikmo), Vitex negundo L. (lagundi), Mitrephora lanotan (Blanco) Merr. (Lanotan), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (luya), Curcuma longa L. (Luyang dilaw), Tinospora rumphii Boerl (Makabuhay), Moringga oleifera Lam. (malunggay), Phyllanthus niruri L. (sampa-sampalukan), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (takip kuhol), and Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam (tsaang gubat) were studied. In vitro methods of evaluation against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR), bacteria were performed on the plant extracts. Although five of the plants showed varying antagonistic activities against the test organisms, only Piper betle L. exhibited significant activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria, exhibiting wide zones of growth inhibition in the disk diffusion assay, and with the lowest concentrations of the extract required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, as supported by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Further antibacterial studies of the Piper betle L. leaf, obtained by three extraction methods (ethanol, methanol, supercritical CO2), revealed similar inhibitory activities against a multitude of Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay of the leaf extract revealed a maximum of eight compounds with Rf values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV-366 nm. TLC- agar overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds showed the compounds with Rf values of 0.86 and 0.13 having inhibitory activities against Gram-positive MDR bacteria (MRSA and VRE). The compound with an Rf value of 0.86 also possesses inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria (CRE Klebsiella pneumoniae and MBL Acinetobacter baumannii). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was able to identify six volatile compounds, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include 4-(2-propenyl)phenol and eugenol; and the new four compounds were ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, and 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite. Phytochemical screening and investigation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, possible hemolytic activities, and mechanisms of antibacterial activity were also done. The results showed that the local variant of Piper betle leaf extract possesses significant antioxidant, anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties, attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds, particularly of flavonoids (condensed tannin, leucoanthocyanin, gamma benzopyrone), anthraquinones, steroids/triterpenes and 2-deoxysugars. Piper betle L. is also traditionally known to enhance wound healing, which could be primarily due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. In vivo studies on mice using 2.5% and 5% of the ethanol leaf extract cream formulations in the excised wound models significantly increased the process of wound healing in the mice subjects, the results and values of which are at par with the current antibacterial cream (Mupirocin). From the results of the series of studies, we have definitely proven the value of Piper betle L. as a source of bioactive compounds that could be developed into therapeutic agents against MDR bacteria.

Keywords: Philippine herbal medicine, multidrug-resistant bacteria, Piper betle, TLC-bioautography

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