Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: cyanide

27 Evaluating Cyanide Biodegradation by Bacteria Isolated from Gold Mine Effluents in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Authors: Ngonidzashe Mangoma, Caroline Marigold Sebata

Abstract:

The release of cyanide-rich effluents from gold mines, and other industries, into the environment, is a global concern considering the well-known metabolic effects of cyanide in all forms of life. Such effluents need to be treated to remove cyanide, among other pollutants, before their disposal. This study aimed at investigating the possible use of bacteria in the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich effluents. Firstly, cyanide-degrading bacteria were isolated from gold mine effluents and characterised. The isolates were then tested for their ability to grow in the presence of cyanide and their tolerance to increasing levels of the compound. To evaluate each isolate’s cyanide-degrading activities, isolates were grown in the simulated and actual effluent, and a titrimetric method was used to quantify residual cyanide over a number of days. Cyanide degradation efficiency (DE) was then calculated for each isolate. Identification of positive isolates involved 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence analysis through BLAST. Six cyanide-utilising bacterial strains were isolated. Two of the isolates were identified as Klebsiella spp. while the other two were shown to be different strains of Clostridium bifermentans. All isolates showed normal growth in the presence of cyanide, with growth being inhibited at 700 mg/L cyanide and beyond. Cyanide degradation efficiency for all isolates in the simulated effluent ranged from 79% to 97%. All isolates were able to remove cyanide from actual gold mine effluent with very high DE values (90 – 94%) being recorded. Isolates obtained in this study were able to efficiently remove cyanide from both simulated and actual effluent. This observation clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich gold mine effluents and should, therefore, motivate research towards the possible large-scale application of this technology.

Keywords: cyanide effluent, bioremediation, Clostridium bifermentans, Klebsiella spp, environment

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26 High Temperature in Caustic Pretreatment of Gold Locked in the Residue after Filtration from Gold Cyanidation Leaching

Authors: K. L. Kabemba, R. F. Sandenberg

Abstract:

The usual way to desorb gold is by elution with a hot concentrated alkaline solution of sodium cyanide. The high temperature is necessary because the dielectric constant of water decreases with increasing temperature hence the electrostatic forces between charcoal and the gold cyanide complex decreases. High alkalinity and a high concentration of cyanide are necessary for gold desorption because both OH- and CN- ions are preferentially adsorbed. The rate of elution increases with increasing anion concentration but decreases with increasing cation concentration that means the rate of elution passes through a maximum as the concentration of the eluting salt (NaCN, for example) is increased. The anion that gives the best results, the cyanide ion, decomposes fairly rapidly at elevated temperatures (40% in 6 hours, 90% in 24 hours at 95°C).

Keywords: caustic, cyanide, gold, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
25 Treatment of Cyanide Effluents with Platinum Impregned on Mg-Al Layered Hydroxides

Authors: María R. Contreras, Diana Endara

Abstract:

Cyanide leaching is the most used technology for gold mining industry, which produces large amounts of effluents requiring treatment. In Ecuador the development of gold mining industry has increased, causing significant environmental impacts due to the highly use of cyanide, it is estimated that 10 gr of extracted gold generates 7000 liters of water contaminated with 300mg/L of free cyanide. The most common methods used nowadays are the treatment with peroxodisulfuric acid, ozonation, H₂O₂ and other reactants which are expensive and present disadvantages. Several methods have been developed to treat this contaminant such as heterogeneous catalysts. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have received much attention due to their wide applications like a catalysis support. Therefore, in this study, Mg-Al/ LDH was synthetized by coprecipitation method and then platinum was impregned on it, in order to enhance its catalytic activity. Two methods of impregnation were used, the first one, called incipient wet impregnation and the second one was developed by continuous agitation of LDH in contact with chloroplatinic acid solution for 24 h. The support impregnated was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, FTIR and SEM. Finally, the oxidation of cyanide ion was performed by preparing synthetic solutions of sodium cyanide (NaCN) with an initial concentration of 500 mg/L at pH 10,5 and air flow of 180 NL/h. After 8 hours of treatment, an 80% of oxidation of ion cyanide was achieved.

Keywords: catalysis, cyanide, LDHs, mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
24 ZnO / TiO2 Nanoparticles for Degradation of Cyanide Ion

Authors: Masoumeh Tabatabaee, Zahra Shahryarzadeh, Masoud R. Shishebor

Abstract:

Advanced oxidation process (AOPs) is alternative method for the complete degradation many organic pollutants. When a photocatalyst absorbs radiation whose energy hν > Eg an ē from its filled valance band (VB) is promoted to its conduction band (CB) and valance band holes h+ are formed. Electron would reduce any available species, including O2, water and hydroxide ion to form hydroxyl radicals. ZnO and TiO2 are important photocatalysts with high catalytic activity that have attracted much research attention. TiO2 can only absorb a small portion of solar spectrum in the UV region and many methods such as dye sensitization, doping of other metals and using TiO2 with another semiconductor have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under solar irradiation. Studies have shown that the use of metal oxides or sulfide such as WO3, MoO3, SiO2, MgO, ZnO, and CdS with TiO2 can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Due to similarity of photodegradation mechanism of ZnO with TiO2, it is a suitable semiconductor using with TiO2 and recently nanosized bicomponent TiO2-ZnO photocatalysts were prepared and used for degradation of some pollutants. In this study, Nano-sized ZnO/TiO2 composite was synthesized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of it. The effect of photocatalytic activity of prepared ZnO/TiO2 on the degradation of cyanide ion under UV was investigated. The effect of various parameters such as ZnO/TiO2 concentration, amount of photocatalyst, amount of H2O2, initial dye or cyanide ion concentration, pH and irradiation time on were investigated. Results show that more than 95% of 4 mgL-1 cyanide ion degraded after 60-min reaction time and under UV irradiation.

Keywords: photodegradation, ZnO/TiO2, nanoparticle, cyanide ion

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23 Optimization of Gold Mining Parameters by Cyanidation

Authors: Della Saddam Housseyn

Abstract:

Gold, the quintessential noble metal, is one of the most popular metals today, given its ever-increasing cost in the international market. The Amesmessa gold deposit is one of the gold-producing deposits. The first step in our job is to analyze the ore (considered rich ore). Mineralogical and chemical analysis has shown that the general constitution of the ore is quartz in addition to other phases such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, dolomite. The second step consists of all the leaching tests carried out in rolling bottles. These tests were carried out on 14 samples to determine the maximum recovery rate and the optimum consumption of reagent (NaCN and CaO). Tests carried out on a pulp density at 50% solid, 500 ppm cyanide concentration and particle size less than 0.6 mm at alkaline pH gave a recovery rate of 94.37%.

Keywords: cyanide, DRX, FX, gold, leaching, rate of recovery, SAA

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
22 Effect of Local Processing Techniques on the Nutrients and Anti-Nutrients Content of Bitter Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz)

Authors: J. S. Alakali, A. R. Ismaila, T. G. Atume

Abstract:

The effects of local processing techniques on the nutrients and anti-nutrients content of bitter cassava were investigated. Raw bitter cassava tubers were boiled, sundried, roasted, fried to produce Kuese, partially fermented and sun dried to produce Alubo, fermented by submersion to produce Akpu and fermented by solid state to produce yellow and white gari. These locally processed cassava products were subjected to proximate, mineral analysis and anti-nutrient analysis using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis showed that, raw bitter cassava is composed of 1.85% ash, 20.38% moisture, 4.11% crude fibre, 1.03% crude protein, 0.66% lipids and 71.88% total carbohydrate. For the mineral analysis, the raw bitter cassava tuber contained 32.00% Calcium, 12.55% Magnesium, 1.38% Iron and 80.17% Phosphorous. Even though all processing techniques significantly increased the mineral content, fermentation had higher mineral increment effect. The anti-nutrients analysis showed that the raw tuber contained 98.16mg/100g cyanide, 44.00mg/100g oxalate 304.20mg/100g phytate and 73.00mg/100g saponin. In general all the processing techniques showed a significant reduction of the phytate, oxalate and saponin content of the cassava. However, only fermentation, sun drying and gasification were able to reduce the cyanide content of bitter cassava below the safe level (10mg/100g) recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria. Yellow gari(with the addition of palm oil) showed low cyanide content (1.10 mg/100g) than white gari (3.51 mg/100g). Processing methods involving fermentation reduce cyanide and other anti-nutrients in the cassava to levels that are safe for consumption and should be widely practiced.

Keywords: bitter cassava, local processing, fermentation, anti-nutrient.

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21 Improved Food Security and Alleviation of Cyanide Intoxication through Commercialization and Utilization of Cassava Starch by Tanzania Industries

Authors: Mariam Mtunguja, Henry Laswai, Yasinta Muzanilla, Joseph Ndunguru

Abstract:

Starchy tuberous roots of cassava provide food for people but also find application in various industries. Recently there has been the focus of concentrated research efforts to fully exploit its potential as a sustainable multipurpose crop. High starch yield is the important trait for commercial cassava production for the starch industries. Furthermore, cyanide present in cassava root poses a health challenge in the use of cassava for food. Farming communities where cassava is a staple food, prefer bitter (high cyanogenic) varieties as protection from predators and thieves. As a result, food insecure farmers prefer growing bitter cassava. This has led to cyanide intoxication to this farming communities. Cassava farmers can benefit from marketing cassava to starch producers thereby improving their income and food security. This will decrease dependency on cassava as staple food as a result of increased income and be able to afford other food sources. To achieve this, adequate information is required on the right cassava cultivars and appropriate harvesting period so as to maximize cassava production and profitability. This study aimed at identifying suitable cassava cultivars and optimum time of harvest to maximize starch production. Six commonly grown cultivars were identified and planted in a complete random block design and further analysis was done to assess variation in physicochemical characteristics, starch yield and cyanogenic potentials across three environments. The analysis showed that there is a difference in physicochemical characteristics between landraces (p ≤ 0.05), and can be targeted to different industrial applications. Among landraces, dry matter (30-39%), amylose (11-19%), starch (74-80%) and reducing sugars content (1-3%) varied when expressed on a dry weight basis (p ≤ 0.05); however, only one of the six genotypes differed in crystallinity and mean starch granule particle size, while glucan chain distribution and granule morphology were the same. In contrast, the starch functionality features measured: swelling power, solubility, syneresis, and digestibility differed (p ≤ 0.05). This was supported by Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), which highlighted the divergence among the cassavas based on starch functionality, permitting suggestions for the targeted uses of these starches in diverse industries. The study also illustrated genotypic difference in starch yield and cyanogenic potential. Among landraces, Kiroba showed potential for maximum starch yield (12.8 t ha-1) followed by Msenene (12.3 t ha-1) and third was Kilusungu (10.2 t ha-1). The cyanide content of cassava landraces was between 15 and 800 ppm across all trial sites. GGE biplot analysis further confirmed that Kiroba was a superior cultivar in terms of starch yield. Kilusungu had the highest cyanide content and average starch yield, therefore it can also be suitable for use in starch production.

Keywords: cyanogen, cassava starch, food security, starch yield

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20 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. For instance, the DO oxidises Fe (II) to Fe (III), As (III) to As (V), and cyanide to cyanate and then to ammonia. As well as, removal of nitrogenous compounds accomplishes by the presence of DO. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors especially when the water being treated has low DO (such as leachate and highly polluted waters with organic matter); or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Where, the presence of air bubbles increases the electrical resistance of the EC cell that increase the energy consumption in consequence. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container having a controllable working volume of 0.5 to 1 L. It supplied with a flow column that consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L which equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, flow column, electrocoagulation, aluminium electrodes

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19 Contribution to the Production of Phenazine Antibiotics Effect Type Compounds by Some Strains of Pseudomonas spp.fluorescent

Authors: Nacéra Benoussaid, Lehalali Meriem, Benchabane Messaoud

Abstract:

Our work focuses on the production of compound antibiotic effect of volatile nature namely hydrogen cyanide and the production and identification of molecules phénazinique by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp isolated from the rhizosphere of some trees for a possible use as bio pesticides antifungal effect and/or antibiotic. We tested the production of hydrogen cyanide of 21 strains of Pseudomonas spp. fluorescent among them 19 strains (90, 47%) showed a positive cyanogenesis.The antagonism test executed in vitro showed that Pseudomonas strains have a higher anti fungal effect relative to their antibacterial effect with diameters of inhibition zones up to 3, 9 cm recorded by the strain F48 against Coleosporiumsp compared with recorded results against bacteria with a maximum inhibition of 1, 26 cm among this antagonistic strain.Three strains were selected by testing for producing phénazines namely PI9, BB9 and F20. The effect of the antimicrobial activity was performed on different culture media (GN, King B, ISP2 and PDA). The results of our study allowed us to retain the King B medium as ideal medium for the production of secondary metabolite. The produced phenazinique compounds was extracted from various organic solvents, and after the results of antibiographie against germs - targets, the extracts of ethyl acetate gave the best results compared to dichloromethane and hexane.The Analysis of these compounds of antibiotic phenazinique effect within layer chromatography (CCM) and high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) indicate that both strains PI9 and F20 are productive of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The BB9 strain is suspected to be productive of another phenazinique compound.

Keywords: Pseudomonas ssp. fluorescents, antagonism in vitro, secondary metabolite, phenazines, biopesticide.

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18 Passive Attenuation of Nitrogen Species at Northern Mine Sites

Authors: Patrick Mueller, Alan Martin, Justin Stockwell, Robert Goldblatt

Abstract:

Elevated concentrations of inorganic nitrogen (N) compounds (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia) are a ubiquitous feature to mine-influenced drainages due to the leaching of blasting residues and use of cyanide in the milling of gold ores. For many mines, the management of N is a focus for environmental protection, therefore understanding the factors controlling the speciation and behavior of N is central to effective decision making. In this paper, the passive attenuation of ammonia and nitrite is described for three northern water bodies (two lakes and a tailings pond) influenced by mining activities. In two of the water bodies, inorganic N compounds originate from explosives residues in mine water and waste rock. The third water body is a decommissioned tailings impoundment, with N compounds largely originating from the breakdown of cyanide compounds used in the processing of gold ores. Empirical observations from water quality monitoring indicate nitrification (the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate) occurs in all three waterbodies, where enrichment of nitrate occurs commensurately with ammonia depletion. The N species conversions in these systems occurred more rapidly than chemical oxidation kinetics permit, indicating that microbial mediated conversion was occurring, despite the cool water temperatures. While nitrification of ammonia and nitrite to nitrate was the primary process, in all three waterbodies nitrite was consistently present at approximately 0.5 to 2.0 % of total N, even following ammonia depletion. The persistence of trace amounts of nitrite under these conditions suggests the co-occurrence denitrification processes in the water column and/or underlying substrates. The implications for N management in mine waters are discussed.

Keywords: explosives, mining, nitrification, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
17 The Influence of Amygdalin on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines

Authors: Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Justyna Moskwa, Patryk Nowakowski, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska

Abstract:

Amygdalin is found in many fruit seeds, including apricot, peach, quince, apples, and almonds. Amygdalin (also named vitamin B17), as well as its sources, are commonly used as an alternative therapy or prevention of cancer. The potential activity of amygdalin is related to its enzymatic degradation to the hydrogen cyanide. Hydrogen cyanide is a toxic substance that causes liver and nerves damage, fever, coma or even death. Amygdalin is much better tolerated after intravenous than oral administration. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of amygdalin on glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Three glioblastoma multiforme cell lines – U87MG, T98, LN18 were incubated (48 h) with amygdalin in concentrations 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/mL. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test and DNA binding test by [3H]-thymidine incorporation were used to determine the anti-proliferative activity of amygdalin. The secretion of metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP-9) from U87MG cells was estimated by gelatin zymography. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. The data was presented as a % of control. Amygdalin did not show significant inhibition of viability of all the glioblastoma cells in concentrations 100, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL. In 2000 µg/mL there were significant differences compared to the control, but inhibition of viability was less than 20% (more than 80% of control). The average viability of U87MG cells was 92,0±4%, T98G: 85,8±3% and LN18: 94,7±2% of the control. There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. DNA binding in U87MG cells was not inhibited (109,0±3 % of control). After treatment with amygdalin, we observed significantly increased secretion of MMP2 and MMP9 in U87MG cells (130,3±14% and 112,0±5% of control, respectively). Our results suggest that amygdalin has no anticancer activity in glioblastoma cell lines.

Keywords: amygdalin, anticancer, cell line, glioblastoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
16 Investigative Study of Consumer Perceptions to the Quality and Safety Attributes of 'Fresh' versus 'Frozen' Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): A Case for Agro-Processing in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

Authors: Nadia Miranda Lorick, Neela Badrie, Marsha Singh

Abstract:

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) which is also known as ‘yucca’ or ‘manioc’ has been acknowledged as a millennium crop which has been utilized for food security purposes. The crop provides considerable amount of energy. The aim of the study was to assess consumer groups of both ‘fresh’ and ‘frozen’ in terms of their perceptions toward the quality and safety attributes of frozen cassava. The questionnaire included four sections: consumer demographics, consumer perceptions on quality attributes of ‘frozen’ cassava, consumer knowledge, awareness and attitudes toward food safety of ‘frozen’ cassava and consumer suggestions toward the improvement of frozen cassava. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 200 consumers of cassava between April and May 2016. The criteria for inclusion in the survey were that they must be 15 years and over and consumer of cassava. The sections of the questionnaire included demographics of respondents, consumer perception on quality and safety attributes of cassava and suggestions for the improvement of the value-added product. The data was analysed by descriptive and chi-square using SPSS as well as qualitative information was captured. Only 17% of respondents purchased frozen cassava and this was significantly (P<0.05) associated to income. Some (15%) of fresh cassava purchasers had never heard of frozen cassava products and 7.5% o perceived that these products were unhealthy for consumption. More than half (51.3%) of the consumers (all from the ‘fresh’ cassava group) believed that there were ‘no toxins’ within cassava. The ‘frozen’ cassava products were valued for convenience but purchasers were least satisfied with ‘value for money’ (50%), ‘product safety’ (50%) and ‘colour’ (52.9%). Cassava purchasers demonstrated highest dissatisfaction levels with the quality attribute: value for money (6.6%, 11.8%) respectively. The most predominant area outlined by respondents for frozen cassava improvement was promotion /advertising/education (23%). The ‘frozen’ cassava purchasers were ‘least satisfied’ thus most concern that clean knives and clean surface would not be used agro- processing. Fresh cassava purchasers were comparatively more knowledgeable on the potential existence of naturally occurring toxins in cassava, however with 1% respondents being able to specifically identify the toxin as ‘cyanide’. Dangerous preservatives (31%), poor hygiene (30%) and chemicals from the packaging (11%) were identified as some sources of contamination of ‘frozen’ cassava. Purchasers of frozen cassava indicated that the information on packaging label was unclear (P<0.01) when compared to ‘fresh’ cassava consumers.

Keywords: consumer satisfaction, convenience, cyanide toxin, product safety, price, label

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15 Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Thermal Studies of Copper(I) Chlorido Complexes of Thioureas

Authors: Muhammad Mufakkar, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Maryem Rana

Abstract:

The study of the coordination behavior of thiones is of considerable interest due to the similarity of their binding sites to those in living systems. The complexation of thiones towards Copper(I) has also received considerable attraction in view of their variable bonding modes, structural diversity and promising biological implications. Copper (I) complexes of thioureas of the general formula: CuLCl, CuL2Cl and CuL3Cl [where L= Thiourea and its N- and N, N/- mono and di alkyl and phenyl derivatives] have been prepared using Cu(I)CN in the presence of HCl. The complexes have been characterized by thermal, IR and NMR(1H and 13C) spectroscopy. An upfield shift in 13C NMR and downfield shifts in 1H NMR are consistent with the sulfur coordination to Copper(I). The disappearance of a band around 2200 cm⁻¹ in IR and a resonance around 146 ppm in 13C NMR indicates that during the course of reaction the cyanide group of the Copper(I) salt has been replaced by chloride leading to the formation of chlorido complexes.

Keywords: Thiones, complexation, spectra, TGA, thermogram, chemical shifts, deshielding, resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
14 The Effect of Temperature, Contact Time and Agitation Speed During Pre-Treatment on Elution of Gold

Authors: T. P. Oladele, C. A. Snyders, S. M. Bradshaw, G. Akdogan

Abstract:

The effect of temperature, contact time and agitation during pre-treatment was investigated on the elution of gold from granular activated carbon at fixed caustic-cyanide concentration and elution conditions. It was shown that there are interactions between parameters during pre-treatment. At 80oC, recovery is independent of the contact time while the maximum recovery is obtained in the absence of agitation (0rpm). Increase in agitation speed from 0 rev/min to 1200 rev/min showed a decrease in recovery of approximately 20 percent at 80°C. Recovery with increased time from 15 minutes to 45 minutes is only pronounced at 25°C with approximately 4 percent increase at all agitation speeds. The results from elution recovery are aimed to give insight into the mechanisms of pre-treatment under the combinations of the chosen parameters.

Keywords: gold, temperature, contact time, agitation speed, recovery

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13 Changing from Crude (Rudimentary) to Modern Method of Cassava Processing in the Ngwo Village of Njikwa Sub Division of North West Region of Cameroon

Authors: Loveline Ambo Angwah

Abstract:

The processing of cassava from tubers or roots into food using crude and rudimentary method (hand peeling, grating, frying and to sun drying) is a very cumbersome and difficult process. The crude methods are time consuming and labour intensive. While on the other hand, modern processing method, that is using machines to perform the various processes as washing, peeling, grinding, oven drying, fermentation and frying is easier, less time consuming, and less labour intensive. Rudimentarily, cassava roots are processed into numerous products and utilized in various ways according to local customs and preferences. For the people of Ngwo village, cassava is transformed locally into flour or powder form called ‘cumcum’. It is also sucked into water to give a kind of food call ‘water fufu’ and fried to give ‘garri’. The leaves are consumed as vegetables. Added to these, its relative high yields; ability to stay underground after maturity for long periods give cassava considerable advantage as a commodity that is being used by poor rural folks in the community, to fight poverty. It plays a major role in efforts to alleviate the food crisis because of its efficient production of food energy, year-round availability, tolerance to extreme stress conditions, and suitability to present farming and food systems in Africa. Improvement of cassava processing and utilization techniques would greatly increase labor efficiency, incomes, and living standards of cassava farmers and the rural poor, as well as enhance the-shelf life of products, facilitate their transportation, increase marketing opportunities, and help improve human and livestock nutrition. This paper presents a general overview of crude ways in cassava processing and utilization methods now used by subsistence and small-scale farmers in Ngwo village of the North West region in Cameroon, and examine the opportunities of improving processing technologies. Cassava needs processing because the roots cannot be stored for long because they rot within 3-4 days of harvest. They are bulky with about 70% moisture content, and therefore transportation of the tubers to markets is difficult and expensive. The roots and leaves contain varying amounts of cyanide which is toxic to humans and animals, while the raw cassava roots and uncooked leaves are not palatable. Therefore, cassava must be processed into various forms in order to increase the shelf life of the products, facilitate transportation and marketing, reduce cyanide content and improve palatability.

Keywords: cassava roots, crude ways, food system, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
12 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column: Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors, especially when the water being treated had a low DO (such as leachate and high organic content waters), or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Thus, the present project aims to fill a part of this gap in the literature by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the design of an EC reactor (ECR1). In order to investigate the performance of ECR1, water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L, which is equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: flow column, electrocoagulation, dissolved oxygen, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
11 Production of Linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B-763

Authors: Ogbonnaya Nwokoro, Florence O. Anya

Abstract:

Nutritional factors relating to the production of linamarase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B–763 were investigated. The microorganism was cultivated in a medium containing 1% linamarin. Enzyme was produced using a variety of carbon substrates but the highest enzyme activity was detected in the presence of salicin (522 U/ml) after 48 h while the lowest yield was observed with CM cellulose (38 U/ml) after 72 h. Enzyme was not produced in the presence of cellobiose. Among a variety of nitrogen substrates tested, peptone supported maximum enzyme production (412 U/ml) after 48 h. Lowest enzyme production was observed with urea (40 U/ml). Organic nitrogen substrates generally supported higher enzyme productivity than inorganic nitrogen substrates. Enzyme activity was observed in the presence of Mn2+ (% relative activity = 216) while Hg2+ was inhibitory (% relative activity = 28). Locally-formulated media were comparable to MRS broth in supporting linamarase production by the bacterium. Higher enzyme activity was produced in media with surfactant than in media without surfactant. The enzyme may be useful in enhanced degradation of cassava cyanide.

Keywords: linamarase, locally formulated media, carbon substrates, nitrogen substrates, metal ions

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10 Associated Mycoflora AF Mucuna Sloanei Seeds and Their Effects on Nutritional and Phytochemical Contents of the Seeds

Authors: U.N. Emiri, E. Moroyei

Abstract:

Mycoflora associated with the seed rot disease of Mucuna sloanei and their effects on nutrient and phytochemical composition of the seeds were investigated. The fungal pathogens implicated in the seed rot disease were Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum. The fungal isolates were aseptically inoculated into healthy M. Sloanei seeds and incubated for 7 days at room temperature of 25 ± 30c. The results of the proximate and mineral analysis in mg/100g of fungal infected and non-infected (control) seeds that were carried out revealed that there was an increase in Moisture and Carbohydrate content of the fungal infected seeds relative to the non-infected seeds (control). However, there was a decrease in Ash, Fibre, Lipid, and Protein content of the fungal infected seeds relative to the non-infected (control). It was observed that moisture had increased from 10.50 ± 0.16 in the non-infected seeds to 17.60 ± 0.20 in the infected samples and Carbohydrate content had also increased from 49.6 ± 0.25 in the non-infected to 52.50 ± 0.29 in the infected seeds. The following parameters decreased in the infected than in the non-infected seeds. They include Ash 2.60 ± 0.12, Crude fibre 1.9 ± 0.08, Lipid 6.50 ± 0.16, and Protein content 18.50 ± 0.06. Similarly, Calcium 2.50 ± 0.12, Phosphorus 1.80 + 0.12 and Potassium 1.80 + 0.09 increased in the infected than in the non-infected seed, while iron 0.20 ± 0.05, Sodium 0.02 ± 0.01 and Magnesium 0.06 ± 0.02 decreased in the infected seeds. All phytochemical contents analyzed increased in the infected seeds viz Tannim 0.50 ± 0.12, Oxalate 1.60 ± 0.05, Hydrogen cyanide 1.82 ± 0.06, and Saponin 2.50+0.28. However, the nutrient compositions and Phytochemical between the infected and non-infected seeds are not significantly different (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Mycoflora, mucuna sloanei, seeds, phytochemical, nutrient composition

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9 Rejuvenation of Peanut Seedling from Collar Rot Disease by Azotobacter sp. RA2

Authors: Ravi R. Patel, Vasudev R. Thakkar

Abstract:

Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to increase the production and decrees disease occurrence is a recent method in agriculture. An RA2 rhizospheric culture was isolated from peanut rhizosphere from Junagadh region of Gujarat, India and showed different direct and indirect plant growth promoting activity like indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, Ammonia and (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate) deaminase production, N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization in vitro. RA2 was able to protect peanut germinating seedling from A. niger infection and reduce collar rot disease incidence 60-35% to 72-41% and increase germination percentage from 70-82% to 75-97% in two varieties GG20 and GG2 of peanut. RA2 was found to induce resistance in A. hypogaea L. seedlings via induction of different defense-related enzymes like phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase and pathogenesis related protein like chitinase, ß – 1,3- glucanase. Jasmonic acid one of the major signaling molecules of inducing systemic resistance was also found to induced due to RA2 treatments. RA2 bacterium was also promoting peanut growth and reduce A. niger infection in pot studies. 16S rDNA sequence of RA2 showed 99 % homology to Azotobacter species.

Keywords: plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, peanut, aspergillus niger, induce systemic resistance

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8 Thiosulfate Leaching of the Auriferous Ore from Castromil Deposit: A Case Study

Authors: Rui Sousa, Aurora Futuro, António Fiúza

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The exploitation of gold ore deposits is highly dependent on efficient mineral processing methods, although actual perspectives based on life-cycle assessment introduce difficulties that were unforeseen in a very recent past. Cyanidation is the most applied gold processing method, but the potential environmental problems derived from the usage of cyanide as leaching reagent led to a demand for alternative methods. Ammoniacal thiosulfate leaching is one of the most important alternatives to cyanidation. In this article, some experimental studies carried out in order to assess the feasibility of thiosulfate as a leaching agent for the ore from the unexploited Portuguese gold mine of Castromil. It became clear that the process depends on the concentrations of ammonia, thiosulfate and copper. Based on this fact, a few leaching tests were performed in order to assess the best reagent prescription, and also the effects of different combination of these concentrations. Higher thiosulfate concentrations cause the decrease of gold dissolution. Lower concentrations of ammonia require higher thiosulfate concentrations, and higher ammonia concentrations require lower thiosulfate concentrations. The addition of copper increases the gold dissolution ratio. Subsequently, some alternative operatory conditions were tested such as variations in temperature and in the solid/liquid ratio as well as the application of a pre-treatment before the leaching stage. Finally, thiosulfate leaching was compared to cyanidation. Thiosulfate leaching showed to be an important alternative, although a pre-treatment is required to increase the yield of the gold dissolution.

Keywords: gold, leaching, pre-treatment, thiosulfate

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7 Synthesis of Visible-Light-Driven Magnetically Recoverable [email protected]@Fe3O4 Nanophotocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Ibuprofen

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar, Irene M. C. Lo

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Ever since the discovery of TiO2 for decomposition of cyanide in water, it has been investigated extensively for the photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants, and became the most practical and prevalent photocatalyst. The superiority of TiO2 is due to its chemical and biological inertness, nontoxicity, strong oxidizing power and cost-effectiveness. However, during degradation of pollutants in wastewater, it suffers from problems, such as (a) separation after use, and (b) its poor photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation (~45% of the solar spectrum). In order to bridge the research gaps, [email protected]@Fe3O4 nanophotocatalysts of average size 19 nm and effective surface area 47 m2 gm-1 were synthesized using sol-gel method. The characterization was performed using BET, TEM-EDX, VSM and XRD. The performance was improved by considering different factors involved during the synthesis, such as calcination temperature, amount of Fe3O4 nanoparticles used and amount of urea used for N-doping. The final nanophotocatalyst was calcined at 500 °C which was able to degrade 94% of the ibuprofen within 5 h of irradiation time. Under the influence of ~200 mT electromagnetic field, 95% nanophotocatalysts separation efficiency was achieved within 20-25 min. Moreover, the effect of different visible light source of similar irradiance, such as compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light emitting diode (LED), is also investigated in this research. The performance of nanophotocatalysts was found to be comparatively higher under ~310 µW cm-2 irradiance with peak emissive wavelengths of 543 nm emitted by CFL. Therefore, a promising visible-light-driven magnetically separable TiO2-based nanophotocatalysts was synthesized for the efficient degradation of ibuprofen.

Keywords: ibuprofen, magnetic N-TiO2, photocatalysis, visible light sources

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6 An Investigation of the Use of Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis of Lead in an Herbal Tea Supplement

Authors: Salve Alessandria Alcantara, John Armand E. Aquino, Ma. Veronica Aranda, Nikki Francine Balde, Angeli Therese F. Cruz, Elise Danielle Garcia, Antonie Kyna Lim, Divina Gracia Lucero, Nikolai Thadeus Mappatao, Maylan N. Ocat, Jamille Dyanne L. Pajarillo, Jane Mierial A. Pesigan, Grace Kristin Viva, Jasmine Arielle C. Yap, Kathleen Michelle T. Yu, Joanna J. Orejola, Joanna V. Toralba

Abstract:

Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that is slowly accumulated in bones and tissues especially if present in products taken in a regular basis such as herbal tea supplements. Although sensitive analytical instruments are already available, the USP limit test for lead is still widely used. However, because of its serious shortcomings, Lang Lang and his colleagues developed a spectrophotometric method for determination of lead in all types of samples. This method was the one adapted in this study. The actual procedure performed was divided into three parts: digestion, extraction and analysis. For digestion, HNO3 and CH3COOH were used. Afterwards, masking agents, 0.003% and 0.001% dithizone in CHCl3 were added and used for the extraction. For the analysis, standard addition method and colorimetry were performed. This was done in triplicates under two conditions. The 1st condition, using 25µg/mL of standard, resulted to very low absorbances with an r2 of 0.551. This led to the use of a higher concentration, 1mg/mL, for condition 2. Precipitation of lead cyanide was observed and the absorbance readings were relatively higher but between 0.15-0.25, resulting to a very low r2 of 0.429. LOQ and LOD were not computed due to the limitations of the Milton-Roy Spectrophotometer. The method performed has a shorter digestion time, and used less but more accessible reagents. However, the optimum ratio of dithizone-lead complex must be observed in order to obtain reliable results while exploring other concentration of standards.

Keywords: herbal tea supplement, lead-dithizone complex, standard addition, visible spectroscopy

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5 Selective Recovery and Molecular Identification of Laccase-Producing Bacteria from Selected Terrestrial and Aquatic Milieu in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Toward the Production of Environmentally Relevant Biocatalysts

Authors: John Onolame Unuofin, Uchechukuw U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh

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Laccase is constantly gaining status as important biocatalyst in biotechnology. The illimitable potential of its industrial applications and the corresponding aggressive need for phenomenal volumes of extracellularly secreted laccases have called for its interminable production from sources which are able to meet this demand within a relatively short period of time, preferably bacteria. In response to this call, this study was designed to source for laccase-producing bacteria from different environmental matrices. Three sampling environments were chosen such as wastewater treatment plants, University of Fort Hare vicinity and the Hogback woodland, all within the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Samples such as effluents, sediments, leaf litters, degrading wood and rock scrapings were selectively enriched with some model aromatic compounds and were further screened qualitatively and quantitatively on five phenolic substrates ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), Guaiacol, 1-Naphthol, Potassium Ferric Cyanide and Syringaldazine). Basis for selection was their ability to elicit a colour change on at least three of the above mentioned agar based assay substrates. The choice isolates were further identified based on 16S rRNA molecular identification techniques. 33 isolates were screened out of the 40 representative distinct colonies during the qualitative plate screens, while quantitative screens selected out 11 bacterial isolates. They were, based on molecular identification, desginated as members of the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Citrobacter of the gammaproteobacteria and Bordetalla and Achromobacter of the betaproteobacteria respectively. We therefore conclude based on our outcomes that we may have isolated efficient laccase-producing bacteria, which might be of beneficial significance in catalysis and biotechnology.

Keywords: beta proteobacteria, catalysis, gammaproteobacteria, laccase

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4 Identification and Characterization of in Vivo, in Vitro and Reactive Metabolites of Zorifertinib Using Liquid Chromatography Lon Trap Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Adnan A. Kadi, Nasser S. Al-Shakliah, Haitham Al-Rabiah

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Zorifertinib is a novel, potent, oral, a small molecule used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). zorifertinib is an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitor and has good blood–brain barrier permeability for (NSCLC) patients with EGFR mutations. zorifertinibis currently at phase II/III clinical trials. The current research reports the characterization and identification of in vitro, in vivo and reactive intermediates of zorifertinib. Prediction of susceptible sites of metabolism and reactivity pathways (cyanide and GSH) of zorifertinib were performed by the Xenosite web predictor tool. In-vitro metabolites of zorifertinib were performed by incubation with rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and isolated perfused rat liver hepatocytes. Extraction of zorifertinib and it's in vitro metabolites from the incubation mixtures were done by protein precipitation. In vivo metabolism was done by giving a single oral dose of zorifertinib(10 mg/Kg) to Sprague Dawely rats in metabolic cages by using oral gavage. Urine was gathered and filtered at specific time intervals (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72,96and 120 hr) from zorifertinib dosing. A similar volume of ACN was added to each collected urine sample. Both layers (organic and aqueous) were injected into liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry(LC-IT-MS) to detect vivozorifertinib metabolites. N-methyl piperizine ring and quinazoline group of zorifertinib undergoe metabolism forming iminium and electro deficient conjugated system respectively, which are very reactive toward nucleophilic macromolecules. Incubation of zorifertinib with RLMs in the presence of 1.0 mM KCN and 1.0 Mm glutathione were made to check reactive metabolites as it is often responsible for toxicities associated with this drug. For in vitro metabolites there were nine in vitro phase I metabolites, four in vitro phase II metabolites, eleven reactive metabolites(three cyano adducts, five GSH conjugates metabolites, and three methoxy metabolites of zorifertinib were detected by LC-IT-MS. For in vivo metabolites, there were eight in vivo phase I, tenin vivo phase II metabolitesofzorifertinib were detected by LC-IT-MS. In vitro and in vivo phase I metabolic pathways wereN- demthylation, O-demethylation, hydroxylation, reduction, defluorination, and dechlorination. In vivo phase II metabolic reaction was direct conjugation of zorifertinib with glucuronic acid and sulphate.

Keywords: in vivo metabolites, in vitro metabolites, cyano adducts, GSH conjugate

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3 Effect of Hypoxia on AOX2 Expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Authors: Maria Ostroukhova, Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Elena Ermilova

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The alternative oxidase (AOX) mediates cyanide-resistant respiration, which bypasses proton-pumping complexes III and IV of the cytochrome pathway to directly transfer electrons from reduced ubiquinone to molecular oxygen. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, AOX is a monomeric protein that is encoded by two genes of discrete subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2. Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in stress tolerance of organisms, the role of subfamily AOX2 is largely unknown. In C. reinhardtii, AOX2 was initially identified as one of constitutively low expressed genes. Like other photosynthetic organisms C. reinhardtii cells frequently experience periods of hypoxia. To examine AOX2 transcriptional regulation and role of AOX2 in hypoxia adaptation, real-time PCR analysis and artificial microRNA method were employed. Two experimental approaches have been used to induce the anoxic conditions: dark-anaerobic and light-anaerobic conditions. C. reinhardtii cells exposed to the oxygen deprivation have shown increased AOX2 mRNA levels. By contrast, AOX1 was not an anoxia-responsive gene. In C. reinhardtii, a subset of genes is regulated by transcription factor CRR1 in anaerobic conditions. Notable, the AOX2 promoter region contains the potential motif for CRR1 binding. Therefore, the role of CRR1 in the control of AOX2 transcription was tested. The CRR1-underexpressing strains, that were generated and characterized in this work, exhibited low levels of AOX2 transcripts under anoxic conditions. However, the transformants still slightly induced AOX2 gene expression in the darkness. These confirmed our suggestions that darkness is a regulatory stimulus for AOX genes in C. reinhardtii. Thus, other factors must contribute to AOX2 promoter activity under dark-anoxic conditions. Moreover, knock-down of CRR1 caused a complete reduction of AOX2 expression under light-anoxic conditions. These results indicate that (1) CRR1 is required for AOX2 expression during hypoxia, and (2) AOX2 gene is regulated by CRR1 together with yet-unknown regulatory factor(s). In addition, the AOX2-underexpressing strains were generated. The analysis of amiRNA-AOX2 strains suggested a role of this alternative oxidase in hypoxia adaptation of the alga. In conclusion, the results reported here show that C. reinhardtii AOX2 gene is stress inducible. CRR1 transcriptional factor is involved in the regulation of the AOX2 gene expression in the absence of oxygen. Moreover, AOX2 but not AOX1 functions under oxygen deprivation. This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation (research grant № 16-14-10004).

Keywords: alternative oxidase 2, artificial microRNA approach, chlamydomonas reinhardtii, hypoxia

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2 Comparing the Effectiveness of the Crushing and Grinding Route of Comminution to That of the Mine to Mill Route in Terms of the Percentage of Middlings Present in Processed Lead-Zinc Ore Samples

Authors: Chinedu F. Anochie

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The presence of gangue particles in recovered metal concentrates has been a serious challenge to ore dressing engineers. Middlings lower the quality of concentrates, and in most cases, drastically affect the smelter terms, owing to exorbitant amounts paid by Mineral Processing industries as treatment charge. Models which encourage optimization of liberation operations have been utilized in most ore beneficiation industries to reduce the presence of locked particles in valuable concentrates. Moreover, methods such as incorporation of regrind mills, scavenger, rougher and cleaner cells, to the milling and flotation plants has been widely employed to tackle these concerns, and to optimize the grade–recovery relationship of metal concentrates. This work compared the crushing and grinding method of liberation, to the mine to mill route, by evaluating the proportion of middlings present in selectively processed complex Pb-Zn ore samples. To establish the effect of size reduction operations on the percentage of locked particles present in recovered concentrates, two similar samples of complex Pb- Zn ores were processed. Following blasting operation, the first ore sample was ground directly in a ball mill (Mine to Mill Route of Comminution), while the other sample was manually crushed, and subsequently ground in the ball mill (Crushing and Grinding Route of Comminution). The two samples were separately sieved in a mesh to obtain the desired representative particle sizes. An equal amount of each sample that would be processed in the flotation circuit was then obtained with the aid of a weighing balance. These weighed fine particles were simultaneously processed in the flotation circuit using the selective flotation technique. Sodium cyanide, Methyl isobutyl carbinol, Sodium ethyl xanthate, Copper sulphate, Sodium hydroxide, Lime and Isopropyl xanthate, were the reagents used to effect differential flotation of the two ore samples. Analysis and calculations showed that the degree of liberation obtained for the ore sample which went through the conventional crushing and grinding route of comminution, was higher than that of the directly milled run off mine (ROM) ore. Similarly, the proportion of middlings obtained from the separated galena (PbS) and sphalerite (ZnS) concentrates, were lower for the crushed and ground ore sample. A concise data which proved that the mine to mill method of size reduction is not the most ideal technique for the recovery of quality metal concentrates has been established.

Keywords: comminution, degree of liberation, middlings, mine to mill

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1 Variation of Biologically Active Compounds and Antioxidancy in the Process of Blueberry Storage

Authors: Meri Khakhutaishvili, Indira Djaparidze, Maia Vanidze, Aleko Kalandia

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Cultivation of blueberry in Georgia started in 21st century. There are more than 20 species of blueberry cultivated in this region from all other the world. The species are mostly planted on acidic soil, previously occupied by tea plantations. Many of the plantations have pretty good yield. It is known that changing the location of a plant to a new soil or climate effects chemical compositions of the plant. However, even though these plants are brought from other countries, no research has been conducted to fully examine the blueberry fruit cultivated in Georgia. Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant FR/335/10-160/14, gave us an opportunity to continue our previous works and conduct research on several berries, among them of course the chemical composition of stored Blueberry. We were able to conduct the first study that included examining qualitative and quantitative features of bioactive compounds in Georgian Blueberry. This experiments were held in the ‘West Georgia Regional Chromatography center’ (Grant AP/96/13) of our university, that is equipped with modern equipment like HPLC UV-Vis, RI-detector, HPLC-conductivity detector, UPLC-MS-detector. Biochemical analysis was conducted using different physico-chemical and instrumental methods. Separation-identification and quantitative analysis were conducted using UPLC-MS (Waters Acquity QDa detector), HPLC (Waters Brceze 1525, UV-Vis 2489 detectors), pH-meters (Mettler Toledo). Refractrometer -Misco , Spectrometer –Cuvette Changer (Mettler Toledo UV5A), C18 Cartridge Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Waters Sep-Pak C18 (500 mg), Chemicals – stability radical- 2,2-Diphenil-1-picrilhydrazyl (Aldrich-germany), Acetonitrile, Methanol, Acetic Acid (Merck-Germany), AlCl3, Folin Ciocalteu reagent (preparation), Standarts –Callic acid, Quercetin. Carbohydrate HPLC-RI analysis used systems acetonitrile-water (80-20). UPLC-MS analysis used systems- solvent A- Water +1 % acetic acid და solvent -B Methanol +1% acetic acid). It was concluded that the amount of sugars was in range of 5-9 %, mostly glucose and fructose. Also, the amount of organic acids was 0.2-1.2% most of which was malic and citric acid. Anthocians were also present in the sample 200-550mg/100g. We were able to identify up to 15 different compounds, most of which were products of delphinidine and cyanide. All species have high antioxidant level(DPPH). By rapidly freezing the sample and then keeping it in specific conditions allowed us to keep the sample for 12 months.

Keywords: antioxidants, bioactive, blueberry, storage

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