Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1493

Search results for: dissolved oxygen

1493 Studies on the Solubility of Oxygen in Water Using a Hose to fill the Air with Different Shapes

Authors: Wichan Lertlop


This research is to study the solubility of oxygen in water taking the form of aeration pipes that have different shaped objectives of the research to compare the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water, whice take the form of aeration pipes. Shaped differently When aeration 5 minutes on air for 10 minutes, and when air fills 30 minutes, as well as compare the durability of the oxygen is dissolved in the water of the inlet air refueling shaped differently when you fill the air 30 minutes and when. aeration and 60 minutes populations used in this study, the population of pond water from Rajabhat University in February 2014 used in this study consists of 1. Aerator 2. Hose using a hose to fill the air with 3 different shape, different shapes pyramid whose base is on the water tank. Shaped rectangular water tank onto the ground. And shapes in a vertical pipe. 3 meter, dissolved oxygen, dissolved in water to get the calibration standard. 4. The clock for timer 5. Three water tanks which are 39 cm wide, 51 cm long and 32 cm high.

Keywords: aeration, dissolve oxygen, different shapes

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1492 Dissolved Oxygen Prediction Using Support Vector Machine

Authors: Sorayya Malek, Mogeeb Mosleh, Sharifah M. Syed


In this study, Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was applied to predict the dichotomized value of Dissolved oxygen (DO) from two freshwater lakes namely Chini and Bera Lake (Malaysia). Data sample contained 11 parameters for water quality features from year 2005 until 2009. All data parameters were used to predicate the dissolved oxygen concentration which was dichotomized into 3 different levels (High, Medium, and Low). The input parameters were ranked, and forward selection method was applied to determine the optimum parameters that yield the lowest errors, and highest accuracy. Initial results showed that pH, water temperature, and conductivity are the most important parameters that significantly affect the predication of DO. Then, SVM model was applied using the Anova kernel with those parameters yielded 74% accuracy rate. We concluded that using SVM models to predicate the DO is feasible, and using dichotomized value of DO yields higher prediction accuracy than using precise DO value.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, water quality, predication DO, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
1491 Physico-Chemical and Phytoplankton Analyses of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Musa Muhammad, Muhammad Kabiru Abubakar


Monthly changes in Phytoplankton periodicity, nutrient levels, temperature, pH, suspended solids, dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria were studied for a period of six months (July-Dec.-2011). Physico-chemical result showed that temperature and pH ranged between17-25˚C and 5.5-7.5, while dissolved solids and suspended solids ranged between 95-155 mg/L and 0.13-112 mg/L respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ion concentrations were within the ranges of 3.5-3.6 mg/L, 4.8-7.2 mg/L, 8.10-12.30 mg/L, 21-58µΩ/cm, 0.2-8.1 mg/L, 2.4-18.1 mg/L, and 1.22-15.60 mg/L respectively. A total of 4514 Org/L phytoplankton were recorded, of which four classes of algae were identified. These comprised of Chlorophyta (44.1%), Cyanophyta(30.62%), Bacillariophyta(3.2%), Euglenophyta (32.1%). Descriptive statistics of the result showed that phytoplankton count varied with variation of physico-chemical parameters at 5% level during the study period. The abundance and distribution of the algae varied with the variation in the physico-chemical parameters. Pearson correlation showed that temperature and nutrients were significantly correlated with phytoplankton, while DO, sulphate and pH were insignificantly correlated, while there was no significant correlation with COD and phytoplankton.

Keywords: correlation, phytoplankton, physico chemical, kazaure dam

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1490 Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Iron Dissolution by Liquid Sodium

Authors: Sami Meddeb, M. L Giorgi, J. L. Courouau


This work presents the progress of studies aiming to guarantee the lifetime of 316L(N) steel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor by determining the elementary corrosion mechanism, which is akin to an accelerated dissolution by dissolved oxygen. The mechanism involving iron, the main element of steel, is particularly studied in detail, from the viewpoint of the data available in the literature, the modeling of the various mechanisms hypothesized. Experiments performed in the CORRONa facility at controlled temperature and dissolved oxygen content are used to test both literature data and hypotheses. Current tests, performed at various temperatures and oxygen content, focus on specifying the chemical reaction at play, determining its free enthalpy, as well as kinetics rate constants. Specific test configuration allows measuring the reaction kinetics and the chemical equilibrium state in the same test. In the current state of progress of these tests, the dissolution of iron accelerated by dissolved oxygen appears as directly related to a chemical complexation reaction of mixed iron-sodium oxide (Na-Fe-O), a compound that is soluble in the liquid sodium solution. Results obtained demonstrate the presence in the solution of this corrosion product, whose kinetics is the limiting step under the conditions of the test. This compound, the object of hypotheses dating back more than 50 years, is predominant in solution compared to atomic iron, presumably even for the low oxygen concentration, and cannot be neglected for the long-term corrosion modeling of any heat transfer system.

Keywords: corrosion, sodium fast reactors, iron, oxygen

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1489 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column: Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar


Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors, especially when the water being treated had a low DO (such as leachate and high organic content waters), or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Thus, the present project aims to fill a part of this gap in the literature by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the design of an EC reactor (ECR1). In order to investigate the performance of ECR1, water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L, which is equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: flow column, electrocoagulation, dissolved oxygen, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1488 Water Quality Assessment of Owu Falls for Water Use Classification

Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh


Waterfalls create an ambient environment for tourism and relaxation. They are also potential sources for water supply. Owu waterfall located at Isin Local Government, Kwara state, Nigeria is the highest waterfall in the West African region, yet none of its potential usefulness has been fully exploited. Water samples were taken from two sections of the fall and were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The results obtained include pH (6.71 ± 0.1), Biochemical oxygen demand (4.2 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chemical oxygen demand (3.07 ± 0.01 mg/l), Dissolved oxygen (6.59 ± 0.6 mg/l), Turbidity (4.43 ± 0.11 NTU), Total dissolved solids (8.2 ± 0.09 mg/l), Total suspended solids (18.25 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chloride ion (0.48 ± 0.08 mg/l), Calcium ion (0.82 ± 0.02 mg/l)), Magnesium ion (0.63 ± 0.03 mg/l) and Nitrate ion (1.25 ± 0.01 mg/l). The results were compared to the World Health Organisations standard for drinking water and the Nigerian standard for drinking water. From the comparison, it can be deduced that due to the Biochemical oxygen demand value, the water is not suitable for drinking unless it undergoes treatment. However, it is suitable for other classes of water usage.

Keywords: Owu falls, waterfall, water quality, water quality parameters, water use

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1487 Modified Silicates as Dissolved Oxygen Sensors in Water: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Andile Mkhohlakali, Tien-Chien Jen, James Tshilongo, Happy Mabowa


Among different parameters, oxygen is one of the most important analytes of interest, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is very crucial and significant for various areas of physical, chemical, and environmental monitoring. Herein we report oxygen-sensitive luminophores -based lanthanum(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate), [La]³⁺ was encapsulated into SiO₂-based xerogel matrix. The nanosensor is composed of organically modified silica nanoparticles, doped with the luminescent oxygen–sensitive lanthanum(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate complex. The precursor materials used for sensing film were triethyl ethoxy silane (TEOS) and (3-Mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane) (MPTMS- TEOS) used for SiO2-baed matrices. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and BJH indicate that the SiO₂ transformed from microporous to mesoporous upon the addition of La³⁺ luminophore with increased surface area (SBET). The typical amorphous SiO₂ based xerogels were revealed with X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) analysis. Scanning electron microscope- (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed the porous morphology and reduced particle for SiO₂ and La-SiO₂ xerogels respectively. The existence of elements, siloxane networks, and thermal stability of xerogel was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Thermographic analysis (TGA). UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) have been used to characterize the optical properties of xerogels. La-SiO₂ demonstrates promising characteristic features of an active sensing film for dissolved oxygen in the water. Keywords: Sol-gel, ORMOSILs, encapsulation, Luminophores quenching, O₂-sensing

Keywords: sol-gel, ORMOSILs, luminophores quenching, O₂-sensing

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1486 Modeling of Oxygen Supply Profiles in Stirred-Tank Aggregated Stem Cells Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Rimvydas Simutis


This paper investigates a possible practical solution for reasonable oxygen supply during the pluripotent stem cells expansion processes, where the stem cells propagate as aggregates in stirred-suspension bioreactors. Low glucose and low oxygen concentrations are preferred for efficient proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. However, strong oxygen limitation, especially inside of cell aggregates, can lead to cell starvation and death. In this research, the oxygen concentration profile inside of stem cell aggregates in a stem cell expansion process was predicted using a modified oxygen diffusion model. This profile can be realized during the stem cells cultivation process by manipulating the oxygen concentration in inlet gas or inlet gas flow. The proposed approach is relatively simple and may be attractive for installation in a real pluripotent stem cell expansion processes.

Keywords: aggregated stem cells, dissolved oxygen profiles, modeling, stirred-tank, 3D expansion

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1485 Development and Investigation of Efficient Substrate Feeding and Dissolved Oxygen Control Algorithms for Scale-Up of Recombinant E. coli Cultivation Process

Authors: Vytautas Galvanauskas, Rimvydas Simutis, Donatas Levisauskas, Vykantas Grincas, Renaldas Urniezius


The paper deals with model-based development and implementation of efficient control strategies for recombinant protein synthesis in fed-batch E.coli cultivation processes. Based on experimental data, a kinetic dynamic model for cultivation process was developed. This model was used to determine substrate feeding strategies during the cultivation. The proposed feeding strategy consists of two phases – biomass growth phase and recombinant protein production phase. In the first process phase, substrate-limited process is recommended when the specific growth rate of biomass is about 90-95% of its maximum value. This ensures reduction of glucose concentration in the medium, improves process repeatability, reduces the development of secondary metabolites and other unwanted by-products. The substrate limitation can be enhanced to satisfy restriction on maximum oxygen transfer rate in the bioreactor and to guarantee necessary dissolved carbon dioxide concentration in culture media. In the recombinant protein production phase, the level of substrate limitation and specific growth rate are selected within the range to enable optimal target protein synthesis rate. To account for complex process dynamics, to efficiently exploit the oxygen transfer capability of the bioreactor, and to maintain the required dissolved oxygen concentration, adaptive control algorithms for dissolved oxygen control have been proposed. The developed model-based control strategies are useful in scale-up of cultivation processes and accelerate implementation of innovative biotechnological processes for industrial applications.

Keywords: adaptive algorithms, model-based control, recombinant E. coli, scale-up of bioprocesses

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1484 Impact of Biological Treatment Effluent on the Physico-Chemical Quality of a Receiving Stream in Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Asibor Godwin, Adeniyi Funsho


This study was carried out to investigate the impact of biological treated effluent on the physico-chemical properties of receiving waterbodies and also to establish its suitability for other purposes. It focused on the changes of some physic-chemical variables as one move away from the point of discharge downstream of the waterbodies. Water samples were collected from 14 sampling stations made up of the untreated effluent, treated effluent and receiving streams (before and after treated effluent discharge) over a period of 6 months spanning the dry and rainy seasons. Analyses were carried out on the following: temperature, turbidity, pH, conductivity, major anions and cation, dissolved oxygen, percentage oxygen Saturation, biological oxygen demand (BOD), solids (total solids, suspended solids and dissolved solids), nitrates, phosphates, organic matter and flow discharge using standard analytical methods. The relationships between investigated sites with regards to their physico-chemical properties were analyzed using student-t statistics. Also changes in the treated effluent receiving streams after treated effluent outfall was discussed fully. The physico-chemical water quality of the receiving water bodies meets most of the general water requirements for both domestic and industrial uses. The untreated effluent quality was shown to be of biological origin based on the biological oxygen demand, chloride, dissolved oxygen, total solids, pH and organic matter. The treated effluent showed significant improvement over the raw untreated effluent based on most parameters assessed. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between the physico-chemical quality of untreated effluent and the treated effluent for the most of the investigated physico-chemical quality. The difference between the discharged treated effluent and the unimpacted section of the receiving waterbodies was also significant (p<0.05) for the most of the physico-chemical parameters.

Keywords: eflluent, Opa River, physico-chemical, waterbody

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1483 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar


Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. For instance, the DO oxidises Fe (II) to Fe (III), As (III) to As (V), and cyanide to cyanate and then to ammonia. As well as, removal of nitrogenous compounds accomplishes by the presence of DO. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors especially when the water being treated has low DO (such as leachate and highly polluted waters with organic matter); or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Where, the presence of air bubbles increases the electrical resistance of the EC cell that increase the energy consumption in consequence. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container having a controllable working volume of 0.5 to 1 L. It supplied with a flow column that consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L which equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, flow column, electrocoagulation, aluminium electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1482 Assessment of the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Ugbogui River, Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Iyagbaye O. Rich, Omoigberale O. Michael, Iyagbaye A. Louis


The physical, chemical parameters and some trace contents of Ugbogui in Edo State, Nigeria were investigated from August 2015 to April 2016. Four stations were studied from upstream to downstream using standard methods. A total of thirty-three (33) physical and chemical characteristics and trace metal contents were examined; Air and water temperatures, depth, transparency, colour, turbidity, flow velocity, pH, total alkalinity, conductivity and dissolved solids etc. Other includes dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, biochemical oxygen demand, chloride, phosphate, sodium, nitrate, sulphate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, vanadium and chromium. Eleven (11) parameters exhibited clear seasonal variations. However, there were high significant differences (p < 0.01) in the values of depth, colour, total suspended solid, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulphate, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium and cadmium among the stations. The anthropogenic activities had negatively impacted at station 3 of the river, although most of the recorded values were still within permissible limits.

Keywords: anthropogenic activities, Nigeria, permissible limits, physical and chemical parameters, trace metal, water quality

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1481 Aeration of Fish Pond Aquaculture Using Wind Power

Authors: Fatima Hassan Mohamed Ahmed


This study discusses the possibility techniques of using wind energy to operate the aeration devices which are used in the intensive fish farm for Nile Tilapia. The main objective is to show at what expense this renewable energy source can increase the production. The study was done for the oxygen consumption by 1 kg fishes of tilapia put in 1 m3. The theoretical study shows that the fishes consume around 0.5 gO2/hour when using paddle wheels with average oxygen transfer rate 2.6 kgO2/kW.h comparing this with dissolved oxygen consumed by fishes it was found that 1 kW will aerate 5200 m3 and the same power will aerate 1800 m3 when using air diffuser system with average oxygen transfer rate 0.9 kgO2/kW.h, this power can be supplied by the wind turbine with dimension with a tower 6 m high and diameter 2.7 m.

Keywords: aeration, fish pond, wind, power

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1480 Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Source and Stored Domestic Water from Three Local Governments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Mary A. Bisi-Johnson, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola, Hamzat A. Oyelade


Some of the main problems man contends with are the quantity (source and amount) and quality of water in Nigeria. Scarcity leads to water being obtained from various sources and microbiological contaminations of the water may thus occur between the collection point and the point of usage. Thus, this study aims to assess the general and microbiological quality of domestic water sources and household stored water used within selected areas in Ile-Ife, South-Western part of Nigeria for microbial contaminants. Physicochemical and microbiological examination were carried out on 45 source and stored water samples collected from well and spring in three different local government areas i.e. Ife east, Ife-south, and Ife-north. Physicochemical analysis included pH value, temperature, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, and biochemical oxygen demand. Microbiology involved most probable number analysis, total coliform, heterotrophic plate, faecal coliform, and streptococcus count. The result of the physicochemical analysis of samples showed anomalies compared to acceptable standards with the pH value of 7.20-8.60 for stored and 6.50-7.80 for source samples as the total dissolved solids (TDS of stored 20-70mg/L, source 352-691mg/L), dissolved oxygen (DO of stored 1.60-9.60mg/L, source 1.60-4.80mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD stored 0.80-3.60mg/L, source 0.60-5.40mg/L). General microbiological quality indicated that both stored and source samples with the exception of a sample were not within acceptable range as indicated by analysis of the MPN/100ml which ranges (stored 290-1100mg/L, source 9-1100mg/L). Apart from high counts, most samples did not meet the World Health Organization standard for drinking water with the presence of some pathogenic bacteria and fungi such as Salmonella and Aspergillus spp. To annul these constraints, standard treatment methods should be adopted to make water free from contaminants. This will help identify common and likely water related infection origin within the communities and thus help guide in terms of interventions required to prevent the general populace from such infections.

Keywords: domestic, microbiology, physicochemical, quality, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1479 A Comparative Study on Primary Productivity in Fish Cage Culture Unit and Fish Pond in Relation to Different Level of Water Depth

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, D. Manikandavelu, V. Senthil Kumar


The total amount of productivity in the system is the gross primary productivity. The present study was carried out to understand the relationship between productivity in the cages and water depth. The experiment was conducted in the fish cages installed in the pond at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu (10° 47' 13.1964'' N; 79° 8' 16.1700''E). Primary productivity was estimated by light and dark bottle method. The measurement of primary productivity was done at different depths viz., 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm. Six Biological Oxygen Demand bottles of 300 ml capacity were collected and tagged. The productivity was obtained in mg O2/l/hr. The maximum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth was observed 5.62 ± 0.22 mg/l/hr in the light bottle in pond water while the minimum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth in a cage was observed 3.62 ± 0.18 mg/l/hr in dark bottle. In the same way, the maximum and minimum value of dissolved oxygen was observed at 40, and 60 cm depth and results were compared. A slight change in pH was observed in the cage and pond. The maximum gross primary productivity observed was 1.97 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth while minimum gross primary productivity observed was 0.82±0.16 mg/l/hr in a cage at 60 cm depth. The community respiration was also variable with the depth in both cage and pond. Maximum community respiration was found 1.50±0.19 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth. A strong positive linear relationship was observed between primary productivity and fish yields in ponds. The pond primary productivity can contribute substantially to the nutrition of farm-raised aquaculture species, including shrimp. The growth of phytoplankton’s is dependent on the sun light, availability of primary nutrients (N, P, and K) in the water body and transparency, so to increase the primary productivity fertilization through organic manure may be done that will clean to the pond environment also.

Keywords: cage aquaculture, water depth, net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, community respiration

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1478 Influence of Physicochemical Water Quality Parameters on Abundance of Aquatic Insects in Rivers of Perak, Malaysia

Authors: Nur Atirah Hasmi, Nadia Nisha Musa, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz


The effect of water quality parameters on the abundance of aquatic insects has been studied in Batu Berangkai, Dipang, Kuala Woh and Lata Kinjang Rivers, Perak, northern peninsular Malaysia. The focuses are to compare the abundance of aquatic insects in each sampling areas and to investigate the physical and chemical factors (water temperature, depth of water, canopy, water velocity, pH value, and dissolved oxygen) on the abundance of aquatic insects. The samples and data were collected by using aquatic net and multi-probe parameter. Physical parameters; water velocity, water temperature, depth, canopy cover, and two chemical parameters; pH value and dissolved oxygen have been measured in situ and recorded. A total of 631 individuals classified into 6 orders and 18 families of aquatic insects were identified from four sampling sites. The largest percentage of samples collected is from order Plecoptera 35.8%, followed by Ephemeroptera 32.6%, Trichoptera 17.0%, Hemiptera 8.1%, Coleoptera 4.8%, and the least is Odonata 1.7%. The aquatic insects collected from Dipang River have the highest abundance of 273 individuals from 6 orders and 13 families and the least insects trapped at Lata Kinjang which only have 64 individuals from 5 orders and 6 families. There is significant association between different sampling areas and abundance of aquatic insects (p<0.05). High abundance of aquatic insects was found in higher water temperature, low water velocity, deeper water, low pH, high amount of dissolved oxygen, and the area that is not covered by canopy.

Keywords: aquatic insect, physicochemical parameter, river, water quality

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1477 Assessment of the Physicochemical Qualities and Prevalence of Vibrio Pathogens in the Final Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: C. A Osunla, A. I. Okoh


Treated wastewater effluent has been found to encompass high levels of pollutants, including disease-causing bacteria such as Vibrio pathogens. The current study was designed to evaluate the physicochemical qualities and prevalence of Vibrio pathogens in treated effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa over the period of six months. Parameters measured include pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, salinity, turbidity, total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), and free chlorine; and these parameters were simultaneously monitored in the treated final effluents of the two wastewater treatment plants using standard methods. The ranges of values for the physicochemical are: pH (7.0–8.6), total dissolved solids (286.3–916.5 mg/L), electrical conductivity (572.57–1704.5 mS/m), temperature (10.3–28.6 °C), turbidity (4.02–43.20 NTU), free chlorine (0.00–0.19 mg/L), dissolve oxygen (2.06–6.32 mg/L) and biochemical oxygen demand (0.1–9.0 mg/L). The microbiological assessment for both WWTPs revealed the presence of Vibrio counts ranging between 0 and 8.76×104 CFU/100 mL. The obtained values of the measured parameters and Vibrio loads of the treated wastewater effluents were found outside the compliance levels of the South African guidelines and World Health Organization tolerance limits for effluents intended to be discharged into receiving waterbodies. Hence, we conclude that these WWTPs are important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks.

Keywords: effluents, public health, South Africa, Vibrio, wastewater

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1476 GUI Design of Mathematical Model of Cardiovascular-Respiratory System

Authors: Ntaganda J.M., Maniraguha J.D., Mukeshimana S., Harelimana D, Bizimungu T., Ruataganda E.


This paper presents the design of Graphic User Interface (GUI) in Matlab as interaction tool between human and machine. The designed GUI can be used by medical doctors and other experts particularly the physiologists. Matlab packages and estimated parameters of the mathematical model of cardiovascular-respiratory system developed in Rwandan context are used in GUI. The ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) govern a mathematical model in designing GUI in Matlab and a window that sets model estimated parameters and the measured parameters by any user. For healthy subject, these measured parameters include heart rate, systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, concentration of bound and dissolved oxygen in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs, and concentration of bound and dissolved carbon dioxide in the mixed venous blood entering the lungs. The results of numerical test give a consistent appearance as empirically known results.

Keywords: Graphic User Interface, mathematical model, cardiovascur-respiratory system, walking physical activity, blood pressure, oxygen

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1475 Surface Water Quality in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In


This study aimed to evaluated the surface water quality for agriculture and consumption in the district. Surface water quality parameters in this study in cluding water temperature, turbidity, conductivity. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, nitrate, Suspended solids, phosphorus. Total dissolve solids, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium. Water samples were collected from small excavation, Lychee, Pomelo, and Coconut orchard for 3 season during January to December 2011. The surface water quality from small excavation, Lychee, pomelo, and coconut orchard are meet the type III of surface water quality standard issued by the National Environmental Quality Act B. E. 1992. except the concentration of heavy metal. And did not differ significantly at 0.05 level, except dissolved oxygen. The water is suitable for consumption by the usual sterile and generally improving water quality through the process before. And is suitable for agriculture.

Keywords: water quality, surface water quality, Thailand, water

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1474 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle: An Analytical Method Based Approach for the Quantitative Assessment of Drug

Authors: Zeid A. Alothman


Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) has been synthesized using adrenaline. Adrenaline readily undergoes an autoxidation reaction in an alkaline medium with the dissolved oxygen to form adrenochrome, thus behaving as a mild reducing agent for the dissolved oxygen. This reducing behavior of adrenaline when employed to reduce Ag(+) ions yielded a large enhancement in the intensity of absorbance in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to confirm the surface morphology of AgNPs. Further, the metallic nanoparticles with size greater than 2 nm caused a strong and broad absorption band in the UV-visible spectrum called surface plasmon band or Mie resonance. The formation of AgNPs caused the large enhancement in the absorbance values with λmax at 436 nm through the excitation of the surface plasmon band. The formation of AgNPs was adapted to for the quantitative assessment of adrenaline using spectrophotometry with lower detection limit and higher precision values.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, adrenaline, XRD, TEM, analysis

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1473 Physicochemical Parameters of Tap-Water in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Ahmed Abdi Hassana, Bassam Tawabini


In this study, the physicochemical parameters of Dhahran tap water were assessed to determine its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 45 water samples were collected from different locations. The results indicate temperature ranges of (19.76 to 22.86 °C), pH (6.5 to 8.23), dissolved oxygen (4.21 to 8.32 mg/L, conductivity (232 to 2586 uS/cm), turbidity (0.17 to 0.37 NTU), total dissolved solids (93 to 1671 mg/L), total alkalinity (4.11 to 24.04 mg/L), calcium (0.02 to 164 mg/L), magnesium (0.6 to 77.9 mg/L), chloride (32.7 to 568.7 mg/L), nitrate (0.02 to 3 mg/L), fluoride (0.001 to 0.591 mg/L), sodium (18.4 to 232 mg/L), potassium (0.5 to 26.4 mg/L), and sulphate (2.39 to 258 mg/L). The results were compared with the drinking water standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The study determined that though the levels of most of the physicochemical parameters comply with the standards, however, slight deviations exist. This is evident in the physical parameters (conductivity and total dissolved solids) and the chemical parameters (sulphate, chloride, and sodium) values recorded at a few sample sites.

Keywords: physicochemical parameters, tap-water, water quality, Dhahran

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1472 Studies on the Physico-Chemical Parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Mshelia, J. K. Balogun, J. Auta, N. O. Bankole


Studies on some aspects of the physico-chemical parameters of Jebba Lake, Niger State, Nigeria was carried out from January to December, 2011. The aim was to investigate some of the physico-chemical parameters relevant to life and health of fish in the water body. Six (6) sampling sites were selected at random which covered Northern (Faku and Awuru), middle (Old Gbajibo and Shankade) and southern zones (New Gbajibo and Jebba dam} of Jebba Lake. Sampling was carried out for the period of 12 Months. The Physico-chemical parameters that were considered were water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, water transparency, phosphate and nitrate. They were all measured using standard methods. The results showed that water temperature values ranged between 26.06 ± 0.15a in Jebba lake site to 27.34 ± 0.12b in Shankade sampling site, depth varied from 8.08m to 31.64m, water current was between 20.10.62 cm/sec and 26.46 cm/sec, Secchi disc transparency ranged from0.46±0.01 m in New Gbajibo, while the highest mean value was 0.53 ± 0.04 m in Jebba dam., pH varied from 6.49 ± 0.01 and 7.59,5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.The dissolved oxygen varied between 5.35±0.03a mg/l in New Gbajibo and 6.75 ± 0.03 mg/l in Faku.,The mean conductivity value was highest in Faku and Jebba with 128.8 ± 0.32 and 128.8 ± 0.42homs/cm) respectively, Alkalinity ranged 43.00±0.02 to33.30±0.32 mg/l., The nitrate-nitrogen range (2.37 ± 0.08 – 6.40 ± 0.50mg/l)., The mean values of phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) recorded varied between 0.18 ± 0.00 mg/l in Faku to 0.47 + 0.10 mg/l in Old Gbajibo.The highest mean value for total dissolved solids was 57.88 ± 0.28 mg/l in Shankade, while the lowest mean value of 39.17 ± 0.42 mg/l was recorded in Faku. Free CO2 ranged from 1.75 mg/l to 2.94 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was between 4.25 mg/l and 5.41 mg/l and nitrate-nitrogen concentration was between 2.37 mg/l and 6.40 mg/l. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between these parameters in relation to stations. Generally, the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Jebba were within the productive values for aquatic systems, and strongly indicate that the lake is unpolluted.

Keywords: Jebba Lake, water quality, secchi disc, DO meter, sampling sites, physico-chemical parameters

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1471 Improving a Stagnant River Reach Water Quality by Combining Jet Water Flow and Ultrasonic Irradiation

Authors: A. K. Tekile, I. L. Kim, J. Y. Lee


Human activities put freshwater quality under risk, mainly due to expansion of agriculture and industries, damming, diversion and discharge of inadequately treated wastewaters. The rapid human population growth and climate change escalated the problem. External controlling actions on point and non-point pollution sources are long-term solution to manage water quality. To have a holistic approach, these mechanisms should be coupled with the in-water control strategies. The available in-lake or river methods are either costly or they have some adverse effect on the ecological system that the search for an alternative and effective solution with a reasonable balance is still going on. This study aimed at the physical and chemical water quality improvement in a stagnant Yeo-cheon River reach (Korea), which has recently shown sign of water quality problems such as scum formation and fish death. The river water quality was monitored, for the duration of three months by operating only water flow generator in the first two weeks and then ultrasonic irradiation device was coupled to the flow unit for the remaining duration of the experiment. In addition to assessing the water quality improvement, the correlation among the parameters was analyzed to explain the contribution of the ultra-sonication. Generally, the combined strategy showed localized improvement of water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen, Chlorophyll-a and dissolved reactive phosphate. At locations under limited influence of the system operation, chlorophyll-a was highly increased, but within 25 m of operation the low initial value was maintained. The inverse correlation coefficient between dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a decreased from 0.51 to 0.37 when ultrasonic irradiation unit was used with the flow, showing that ultrasonic treatment reduced chlorophyll-a concentration and it inhibited photosynthesis. The relationship between dissolved oxygen and reactive phosphate also indicated that influence of ultra-sonication was higher than flow on the reactive phosphate concentration. Even though flow increased turbidity by suspending sediments, ultrasonic waves canceled out the effect due to the agglomeration of suspended particles and the follow-up settling out. There has also been variation of interaction in the water column as the decrease of pH and dissolved oxygen from surface to the bottom played a role in phosphorus release into the water column. The variation of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations showed mixed trend probably due to the complex chemical reactions subsequent to the operation. Besides, the intensive rainfall and strong wind around the end of the field trial had apparent impact on the result. The combined effect of water flow and ultrasonic irradiation was a cumulative water quality improvement and it maintained the dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a requirement of the river for healthy ecological interaction. However, the overall improvement of water quality is not guaranteed as effectiveness of ultrasonic technology requires long-term monitoring of water quality before, during and after treatment. Even though, the short duration of the study conducted here has limited nutrient pattern realization, the use of ultrasound at field scale to improve water quality is promising.

Keywords: stagnant, ultrasonic irradiation, water flow, water quality

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1470 Surface and Drinking Water Quality Monitoring of Thomas Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: G. A. Adamu, M. S. Sallau, S. O. Idris, E. B. Agbaji


Drinking water is supplied to Danbatta, Makoda and some parts of Minjibir local government areas of Kano State from the surface water of Thomas Reservoir. The present land use in the catchment area of the reservoir indicates high agricultural activities, fishing, as well as domestic and small scale industrial activities. To study and monitor the quality of surface and drinking water of the area, water samples were collected from the reservoir, treated water at the treatment plant and potable water at the consumer end in three seasons November - February (cold season), March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, colour, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride ion (Cl-) nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphate (PO43-). The higher values obtained in some parameters with respect to the acceptable standard set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards (NIS) indicate the pollution of both the surface and drinking water. These pollutants were observed to have a negative impact on water quality in terms of eutrophication, largely due to anthropogenic activities in the watershed.

Keywords: surface water, drinking water, water quality, pollution, Thomas reservoir, Kano

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1469 Assessment of Green Fluorescent Protein Signal for Effective Monitoring of Recombinant Fermentation Processes

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai


This research has focused on the application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a new technique for direct monitoring of fermentation processes involving cultured bacteria. To use GFP as a sensor for pH and oxygen, percentage ratio of red fluorescence to green (% R/G) was evaluated. Assessing the magnitude of the % R/G ratio in relation to low or high pH and oxygen concentration, the bacterial strains were cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. SCC1 strains of E. coli were grown in a 5 L laboratory fermenter, and during the fermentation, the pH and temperature were controlled at 7.0 and 370C respectively. Dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) was controlled between 15-100% by changing the agitation speed between 20-500 rpm respectively. Effect of reducing the DOT level from 100% to 15% was observed after 4.5 h fermentation. There was a growth arrest as indicated by the decrease in the OD650 at this time (4.5-5 h). The relative fluorescence (green) intensity was decreased from about 460 to 420 RFU. However, %R/G ratio was significantly increased from about 0.1% to about 0.25% when the DOT level was decreased to 15%. But when the DOT was changed to 100%, a little increase in the RF and decrease in the %R/G ratio were observed. Therefore, GFP can effectively detect and indicate any change in pH and oxygen level during fermentation processes.

Keywords: Escherichia coli SCC1, fermentation process, green fluorescent protein, red fluorescence

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1468 An Investigation into the Impact of the Relocation of Tannery Industry on Water Quality Parameters of Urban River Buriganga

Authors: Md Asif Imrul, Maria Rafique, M. Habibur Rahman


The study deals with an investigation into the impact of the relocation of tannery industry on water quality parameters of Buriganga. For this purpose, previous records have been collected from authentic data resources and for the attainment of present values, several samples were collected from three major locations of the Buriganga River during summer and winter seasons in 2018 to determine the distribution and variation of water quality parameters. Samples were collected six ft below the river water surface. Analysis indicates slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (6.8-7.49) in nature. Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Solids (TS) & Total Suspended Solids (TSS) have been found greater in summer. On the other hand, Dissolved Oxygen is found greater in rainy seasons. Relocation shows improvement in water quality parameters. Though the improvement related to relocation of tannery industry is not adequate to turn the water body to be an inhabitable place for aquatic lives.

Keywords: Buriganga river, river pollution, tannery industry, water quality parameters

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1467 Passive Aeration of Wastewater: Analytical Model

Authors: Ayman M. El-Zahaby, Ahmed S. El-Gendy


Aeration for wastewater is essential for the proper operation of aerobic treatment units where the wastewater normally has zero dissolved oxygen. This is due to the need of oxygen by the aerobic microorganisms to grow and survive. Typical aeration units for wastewater treatment require electric energy for their operation such as mechanical aerators or diffused aerators. The passive units are units that operate without the need of electric energy such as cascade aerators, spray aerators and tray aerators. In contrary to the cascade aerators and spray aerators, tray aerators require much smaller area foot print for their installation as the treatment stages are arranged vertically. To the extent of the authors knowledge, the design of tray aerators for the aeration purpose has not been presented in the literature. The current research concerns with an analytical study for the design of tray aerators for the purpose of increasing the dissolved oxygen in wastewater treatment systems, including an investigation on different design parameters and their impact on the aeration efficiency. The studied aerator shall act as an intermediate stage between an anaerobic primary treatment unit and an aerobic treatment unit for small scale treatment systems. Different free falling flow regimes were investigated, and the thresholds for transition between regimes were obtained from the literature. The study focused on the jetting flow regime between trays. Starting from the two film theory, an equation that relates the dissolved oxygen concentration effluent from the system was derived as a function of the flow rate, number of trays, tray area, spacing between trays, number and diameter of holes and the water temperature. A MATLab ® model was developed for the derived equation. The expected aeration efficiency under different tray configurations and operating conditions were illustrated through running the model with varying the design parameters. The impact of each parameter was illustrated. The overall system efficiency was found to increase by decreasing the hole diameter. On the other side, increasing the number of trays, tray area, flow rate per hole or tray spacing had positive effect on the system efficiency.

Keywords: aeration, analytical, passive, wastewater

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1466 Physicochemical and Bacteriological Assessment of Water Resources in Ughelli and Its Environs, Delta State Nigeria

Authors: M. O. Eyankware, D. O. Ufomata


Groundwater samples were collected from Otovwodo-Ughelli and Environ with the aim of assessing groundwater quality of the area. Twenty (20) water samples from Boreholes (BH) (six) and Hand Dug Wells (HDW) (fourteen) were randomly sampled and were analysed for different physiochemical and bacteriological parameters. The following 16 parameters have been considered viz: pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, total hardness, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, phosphate, sulphate, chloride, nitrate, calcium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and total suspended solids. On comparing the results against drinking quality standards laid by World Health Organization and Nigeria industrial standard, it was found that the water quality parameters were not above the (WHO, 2011 and NIS, 2007) permissible limit. Microbial analysis reveals the presence of coliform and E.coli in two hand-dug well (HDW7 and 13) and one borehole well (BH20). These contaminations are perhaps traceable to have originated from human activities (septic tanks, latrines, dumpsites) and have affected the quality of groundwater in Otovwodo-Ughelli. From the piper trilinear diagram, the dominant ionic species is alkali bicarbonate water type, with bicarbonate as the predominant ion (Na+ + K+)-HCO3.

Keywords: groundwater, surface water, Ughelli, Nigeria industrial standard, who standard

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1465 Eco-Biological Study of Artemia salina (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) in Sahline Salt Lake, Tunisia

Authors: Khalil Trigui, Rafik Ben Said, Fourat Akrout, Neji Aloui


In this study, we examined in the first part the eco-biology of Artemia (A.salina) collected from Sahline Salt Lake (governorate of Monastir: Tunisia) during an annual cycle. The correlations between environmental factors and some biological parameters of Artemia were determined. The results obtained showed that the environmental factors affected the biology of Artemia. The highest abundance was recorded in May (550 ± 2,16 ind/l) and all life history stages existed with different seasonal proportions. The Artemia population is bisexual with ovoviviparous reproduction at the beginning and oviparous at the end of the life cycle. We also recorded the dominance of males at the start and the females at the end of the cycle. During all the study period, the size of mature females is bigger than that of males. The fertility obtained resulted in a significant production of cysts compared to the nauplii. A negative correlation with highly significant effect was deduced between environmental factors (temperature and salinity) and the production of nauplii (ovoviviparity) in contrast with dissolved oxygen. In the second part of our work is consecrated to the mastery of breeding Artemia. For this, we tested the effect of five external factors (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, light intensity and food) on the survival of this crustacean. Thereby, the survival rates of Artemia were affected by the different values of studied factors. The recorded results showed that Artemia salina has an optimum temperature ranged from 25 to 27°C with a survival rate ranging from 84 to 88%. The optimal salinity to breed Artemia salina was 37 psu (62 ± 0,23%). Nevertheless, this crustacean was able to survive and withstand the salinity of 0 psu (freshwater). The optimum concentration of dissolved oxygen was 7mg/l with a survival rate of 87,11 ± 0,04%. An optimum light intensity of 10 lux revealed a survival rate equal to 85,33 ± 0,01%. The results also showed that the preferred micro-algae by Artemia is Dunaliella salina with a maximum survival rate of the order of 80 ± 0,15%. There is a significant effect for all experienced parameters on the survival of Artemia reared except the nature of food.

Keywords: Artemia salina, biology, breeding, ecology, Sahline salt lake

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1464 Contributions of Natural and Human Activities to Urban Surface Runoff with Different Hydrological Scenarios (Orléans, France)

Authors: Al-Juhaishi Mohammed, Mikael Motelica-Heino, Fabrice Muller, Audrey Guirimand-Dufour, Christian Défarge


This study aims at improving the urban hydrological cycle of the Orléans agglomeration (France) and understanding the relationship between physical and chemical parameters of urban surface runoff and the hydrological conditions. In particular water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, major dissolved cations and anions, and chemical and biological oxygen demands were monitored for three types of urban water discharges (wastewater treatment plant output (WWTP), storm overflow and stormwater outfall) under two hydrologic scenarii (dry and wet weather). The first results were obtained over a period of five months.Each investigated (Ormes and l’Egoutier) outfall represents an urban runoff source that receives water from runoff roads, gutters, the irrigation of gardens and other sources of flow over the Earth’s surface that drains in its catchments and carries it to the Loire River. In wet weather conditions there is rain water runoff and an additional input from the roof gutters that have entered the stormwater system during rainfall. For the comparison the results La Chilesse is a storm overflow that was selected in our study as a potential source of waste water which is located before the (WWTP).The comparison of the physical-chemical parameters (total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), concentration of major cations and anions) together with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) helped to characterize sources of runoff waters in the different watersheds. It also helped to highlight the infiltration of wastewater in some stormwater systems that reject directly in the Loire River. The values of the conductivity measured in the outflow of Ormes were always higher than those measured in the other two outlets. The results showed a temporal variation for the Ormes outfall of conductivity from 1465 µS cm-1 in the dry weather flow to 650 µS cm-1 in the wet weather flow and also a spatial variation in the wet weather flow from 650 µS cm-1 in the Ormes outfall to 281 μS cm-1 in L’Egouttier outfall. The ultimate BOD (BOD28) showed a significant decrease in La Corne outfall from 210 mg L-1 in the wet weather flow to 75 mg L-1 in the dry weather flow because of the nutrient load that was transported by the runoff.

Keywords: BOD, COD, the Loire River, urban hydrology, urban dry and wet weather discharges, macronutrients

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